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  #121  
Old Thursday, May 16, 2013
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Originally Posted by Roshan wadhwani View Post
Dear Tehman Khan, Gotam has answered and explained your query well, do follow it and and work hard, you'll surely be able to get excellent marks...Regards
sir please unload your notes in pdf,,it will be highly appreciated.
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  #122  
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Sir Syed Ahmed khan (1817-18918) & Aligarh Movement


Outline:
• Introduction
• Conditions Of The Muslims After War
• Syed’s services For The Renaissance Of The Muslims
i) Syed’s Educational Services
ii) Political Services
iii) Literary Services
iv) Social Services
v) Religious Services
• Pioneer Of The Two-Nation Theory
• Aligarh Movement
• Conclusion


Introduction:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan flourished from 1817 to 1898. As the founder of Aligarh movement, he is ranked among the greatest Muslim reformers of the 19th century. He came to the rescue of his co-religionists after the War of Independence (1857) when the British unleashed a wave of vengeance against the Muslims. As a result of the atrocities of the British, the Muslims were cut of the mainstream of political, social, economic and educational development. At this critical juncture Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim to realize that if the Muslims continued to keep themselves aloof then they would be completely absorbed by the Hindu community.

Conditions Of Muslims After The War Of Independence (1857):

The British considered Muslims to be responsible for the War of Independence. Thus, they subjected them to all sorts of cruelties. Leading Muslim leaders were hanged or sentenced to jail and their properties were confiscated. Moreover, they were denied important government jobs. Resultantly, the ratio of Muslim representation went on dwindling till 1871 when the number of Muslim government servants almost came to a naught. According to William Hunter’s disclosure in his book “The Indian Mussalmans” published in 1871.
“In the three grades of Assistant Government engineers, there were fourteen Hindus and not one Mussalman; among the apprentices, there were four Hindus and two Englishmen and not one Mussalman. Among the Sub-Engineers there were 24 Hindus to one Mussalman. In the office of Accounts there were 50 names of Hindus and not one Mussalman and in the upper subordinate department there were 22 Hindus and again not one Mussalman.”
Ashok Mehta, an Indian Socialist Leader, thrown light on the misery of the Muslims after the war in his book entitled “The communal Triangle” in these words, “Not only were the Muslims economically crushed, educationally and socially also their position was deliberately depressed by the government. In 1870, the Muhammadan pleaders presented two memorials to the High Court pointing out that while closed holidays allowed to the Christians were sixty and those to Hindus were fifty-two, only eleven were granted to the Muhammadans.”

Sir Syed's Services For The Renaissance Of Muslims:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the founder of Aligarh Movement which checked the decline of the Muslims in political, social, educational and economic spheres. He devoted his whole life for the renaissance of his co-religionists and succeeded in pulling them out of the depths of ignorance and backwardness. His services can be summed up as under:

i) Sir Syed’s Educational Services
ii) Sir Syed’s Political Services
iii) Sir Syed’s Literary works
iv) Sir Syed’s Social Services


i) Sir Syed’s Educational Services:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who realized the importance of education for his people. In order to equip Muslim with the ornament of knowledge, he opened many educational institutions and societies which revolutionised the life of the Muslims.

• Two Madrassahs in Muradabad (1858) and Ghaziabad (1862) which imparted education in Persian.
• In 1864, Sir Syed laid the foundation of a Scientific Society which translated English works into Urdu.
• M.A.O High School was founded in 1875.
• In 1877, M.A.O High School was given the status of a college and inaugurated by Viceroy Lord Lytton. Later on, this college became a University in 1920A.D.

Muhammadan Educational Conference:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan established Muhammadan Educational Conference in 1886 in order to bring political awareness among the Muslims. The Conference held its annual conferences regularly till 1906 when in its Dhaka session All-India Muslim League was founded.

ii) Political Service:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan rendered meritorious political services in order to defend the rights of the Muslims. His services were as under:

• After the War of Independence 1857, sir Syed compiled a pamphlet entitled Rasala-i-Asbab-e-Baghawat-i-Hind, in which he explained to the British that the Muslims were not the only force behind the catastrophe of 1857. He enlisted the following factors which led to the uprising.
a) Misunderstanding of the people about the rulers.
b) Maladministration by the army.
c) Government’s unawareness of the conditions and grievance of the people.
d) Promulgation of regulations which were contrary to the wishes of the people.
• Sir Syed Ahmed khan wrote a commentary on William hunter’s book.
• He is regarded as one of the greatest exponents of Two-Nation theory because after the Hindu-Urdu controversy he was convinced that Hindus were not sincere towards the Muslims. Answering a query of Mr. Shakespeare, Commissioner of Banaras, he remarked.” Now I am convinced that both these communities will not join whole-heartedly in anything though, at present, there was no open hostility between the two communities, but on account of the so-called educated people it will increase immensely in future.”
• Sir Syed founded a Patriotic Association in order to counter the anti-Muslim propaganda by the Hindus.
• Soon after the establishment of Indian National Congress, he came to realise that it was a purely Hindu organisation. Consequently, he asked the Muslims to desist taking part in its activities.
• He proposed the system of separate electorate for the Muslims in order to protect the political rights of the Muslim Community. He highlighted his views in this regard in a speech in 1883 by saying, “The system of representation by election means the representation of the views and interests of the majority of the population”.

iii) Sir Syed’s Literary Works:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan was not only a prominent educationalist but also a capable author. His writings include the following:
• Asarul Sanadid
• Rasala-i-Asbab-e-Baghawat-i-Hind
• Tarikh Sarkashi-e-Bijnaur
• Risalah Ahkam-i-Ta’am-i-Ahle-Kitab
• Tabeen-Ul-Kalam
• Kutbat-e-Ahmadiyah
• Risalah Tehzib-Ul-Akhlaq
• Jame-Jama

iv) Sir Syed’s Social Services:

Sir Syed wanted that Muslims of the Sub-continent should get an honourable position in the Hindu dominated society. For this purpose he not only opened many schools but also established an orphanage at Muradabad to provide refuge to the orphan Muslim children. In fact his whole life revolved round his desire for the betterment of his community.
He took several steps for the revival and betterment of the Muslims. He wrote the most influential magazine Tehzib-ul-Akhlaq in which he outlined the ethical aspects of the Muslims’ life. In this magazine he criticized the conservative way of the Muslims and advised them to adopt new trends of life.
He set himself to the task of protecting the Urdu from being faded away and replaced by English. He worked laboriously for the promotion of Urdu and gave a new tone and colour to the Urdu literature. He founded Anjuman-i-Tarki-i-Urdu which worked for the protection of Urdu. He wrote another magazine as Ahkam-i-Ta’am-i-Ahle-Kitab in which the principles and etiquettes of eating and dinning in Islam were discussed. In this magazine Sir Syed wrote that it was not against Islam to eat with the Christians on the same table. He gave references from the Quran and proved that it was not un-Islamic to eat with a nation who was the bearer of Holy book.

v) Sir Syed’s Religious Services:

Sir Syed rendered many religious services through his movement.

• Essay On Life Of Muhammad (PBUH)
William Muir, a Christian writer, wrote a book, “Life of Muhammad of (PBUH)” and used derogatory remarks against the last prophet of Islam. Sir Syed took frequent notices of his book and wrote essays on the life of (PBUH) named Kutbat-i-Ahmadiyah in which he gave befitting reply to William Muir.

Tabeen-e-Alkalam:
Sir Syed also wrote a commentary on Bible in a philosophical style and explained the similarities between the Islam and Christianity with solid arguments.

vi) Sir Syed As A Pioneer Of Two-Nation Theory:

Sir Syed was the first Muslim leader of the Sub-continent who used the word nation (quam) for the Muslims. In clear language, he pronounced that the Hindus and the Muslims were two different communities with different interests. After learning bitter lesson from the Hindi-Urdu controversy, he reached the conclusion that both the communities could not work together. His views were evident in his speech delivered in 1886, in which he said, “the system of representation by election means the representation of the views and thoughts of the majority of the population. In a country like India where caste distinctions still exist, where there is no fusion of interests of various races, where religious differences are still violent, where education in the modern sense has not made an equal or proportionate progress among all sections of the population. I am convinced that the introduction of the principles of the election pure or simple by the representation of various interests in the local boards and district councils would be attended with the evils of greater significance than pure economic consideration. The larger community would totally override the interests of the smaller community”. According to V.A Smith:
“Sir Syed was not concerned with material things only. His Movement was one of general reforms. It was inspired by the thought that the Muslims of India were separate people and nation who must not be absorbed with Hinduism.”

Aligarh Movement:

Aligarh movement means that movement which was inspired by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, his colleagues and Muslim students of M.A.O College (later Aligarh University). The students of Aligarh College fired by the spirit of Muslim nationalism spread throughout the country and became the torch bearer of Two-Nation Theory. Thus, the quest of the Muslims for their national identity took the shape of a movement which resulted in the renaissance of the Muslims in the 19th century. This movement revolutionized the economic, social, and political status of the Muslims. However, Sir Syed was the chief architect of this movement. He worked day and night for the revival of Muslim glory. After the failure of the War of Independence in 1957, the Muslims became the victims of the wrath of the British rulers and they were subjected to an unprecedented systematic process of suppression and elimination. On the other hand the British rulers favoured the Hindus by granting them important government jobs in plenty. Thus the tide was turned on the Muslim community within a short span of time witnessed a steep fall from the high pedestal of the ruling class to a politically neglected and economically depressed minority.

Conclusion:

In the pretext of above mentioned efforts of Sir Syed we come to know that he took the responsibility of the renaissance of Muslim glory and to achieve its destination he guided the Muslim ship to a right direction and took it to a definite position where Muslims could mould their lives according to the pristine principles of Islam. Undoubtedly, Sir Syed’s Aligarh Movement was the pioneer of two-nation theory which injected life in the dormant body of Muslim nation. He restored confidence among Muslims and fought for their political, religious, cultural, social and economic rights. He died on 27th March 1898.
hello sir, kindly tell me that you have written the question which i thought had to be very lengthy but is that complete note, u have written above or u would recommend to elaborate it further? further more, can we write the same answer if we are asked of impacts of his services? kindly reply soon. i will be very grateful to you.
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  #123  
Old Friday, May 17, 2013
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hello sir, kindly tell me that you have written the question which i thought had to be very lengthy but is that complete note, u have written above or u would recommend to elaborate it further? further more, can we write the same answer if we are asked of impacts of his services? kindly reply soon. i will be very grateful to you.
These notes are just for your understanding, you need not to cram and write these notes as such in the exam. You can clear your concept regarding services of sir syed and then wxplain in your own words.
Kindly avoid netspeak, as forum rules doesn't allow anybody to use netspeak. e.g you instead of u.
Regards
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  #124  
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These notes are just for your understanding, you need not to cram and write these notes as such in the exam. You can clear your concept regarding services of sir syed and then wxplain in your own words.
Kindly avoid netspeak, as forum rules doesn't allow anybody to use netspeak. e.g you instead of u.
Regards
Thank you for your guidence sir, n i appologise for violating forum rules, insha Allah will be more careful now.
Sir i have one more question kindly reply, i want to know that keeping 2013 0pak affairs papers in view, has fpsc chnaged the pattern, n how should i prepare for pak affairs now?
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  #125  
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Thank you for your guidence sir, n i appologise for violating forum rules, insha Allah will be more careful now.
Sir i have one more question kindly reply, i want to know that keeping 2013 0pak affairs papers in view, has fpsc chnaged the pattern, n how should i prepare for pak affairs now?
Yes, paper pattern has been changed to some extent. 2013 Pak affairs paper seems a history paper rather than pak affairs paper, so you have to prepare this subject thoroughly. you should also read different books and newspapers articles, so that you can write on any topic related to sub-continent in general and Pakistan in particular.

Dear you have again used a couple of words as netspeak. kindly avoid it in this forum as the moderators seriously mind this.
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  #126  
Old Saturday, May 18, 2013
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sir please unload your notes in pdf,,it will be highly appreciated.
Thanx Alot, Ya dear will try to upload my notes in pdf format....Regards
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Roshan Bhai Let me reframe my question
Do i have to look for other sources.. Once I have gone through your notes repeatedly.
Ya dear do go through my notes they'll surely help you, but in order to develop critical approach and in depth analysis, you must go through other sources also and compare them, it'll help u to analyse things in a better way and you'll be able to handle questions well in paper and grab excellent marks.

Other sources should include vu notes and some quality book on pak affairs plus net if needed...Regards
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  #128  
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hello sir, kindly tell me that you have written the question which i thought had to be very lengthy but is that complete note, u have written above or u would recommend to elaborate it further? further more, can we write the same answer if we are asked of impacts of his services? kindly reply soon. i will be very grateful to you.
Ya dear its a lengthy answer because i have tried to include all aspects of the topic and make it all inclusive..So this answer will give you almost whole outlook but you need not to mention everything while answering the question in the paper. It depends upon the nature of the question being asked in the paper and you have to emphasize on those points in your answer....Regards
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  #129  
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Yes, paper pattern has been changed to some extent. 2013 Pak affairs paper seems a history paper rather than pak affairs paper, so you have to prepare this subject thoroughly. you should also read different books and newspapers articles, so that you can write on any topic related to sub-continent in general and Pakistan in particular.

Dear you have again used a couple of words as netspeak. kindly avoid it in this forum as the moderators seriously mind this.
Thank you so much sir for your kind guidelines, and i am again really sorry for violating rules.
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Ya dear its a lengthy answer because i have tried to include all aspects of the topic and make it all inclusive..So this answer will give you almost whole outlook but you need not to mention everything while answering the question in the paper. It depends upon the nature of the question being asked in the paper and you have to emphasize on those points in your answer....Regards
Yeah,thank you sir, one more thing i want to ask, minimum how many pages should be written in exam?
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