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Pakistan Affairs A 100 marks paper divided into mainly two zones: Pre-Partition and Post-Partition

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  #21  
Old Saturday, July 09, 2011
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@roshan: nice effort, keep itup..
regarding lucknow pact analysis, also ad up
-Congress accepted muslims as a second nation, prev it was not of this view, and League as musim representative pol-party
-its affects on indian politics
-impact of this cooperation on brit. govt.
-changing phase in hindu-muslim relation

and dont forget to mention references from other authors..that is very effective to support ur ans. good luck

@ khilafat movement:

in analysis also mention:
-role of gandhi
-economic,social and political effcts on muslims
-impacts on muslims education
-jinnah's stance on khilafat movement
-political training of muslims
iwill mention other points if any ofthem are missing

best of luck
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Quote:
Originally Posted by kjay View Post
@roshan: nice effort, keep itup..
regarding lucknow pact analysis, also ad up
-Congress accepted muslims as a second nation, prev it was not of this view, and League as musim representative pol-party
-its affects on indian politics
-impact of this cooperation on brit. govt.
-changing phase in hindu-muslim relation

and dont forget to mention references from other authors..that is very effective to support ur ans. good luck
thnx dear kjay....thnx for ur appreciation, suggestions and guidance, i'll add some more reference to enrich these notes furhter..thnx
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Nehru Report:


Outline:
• Background
• Nehru Report
• Recommendations Of The Nehru Report
• Reaction To The Nehru Report
• Quaid’s Amendments
• Conclusion


Background:

Simon Commission came to India in Feb-March, 1928 from the Britain. All political parties rejected the Simon Commission and its report. Lord Birkenhead, who was British Secretary of State Of India, was very much offended on the treatment extended to the Simon Commission when the Indian political parties rejected the recommendations of the Simon Commission, he declared in the parliament,” The Indian are so divided, opposed and fed up of each other that they are unable to provide an unanimously accepted constitution.”
Nehru considered this statement as an insult offer the political leaders of India and decided to prepare a report comprising of a plan for India.

Nehru Report:

All-Parties Conference was held on 19th May, 1928. During this conference a seven-member committee under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru was formed to formulate an agreed constitution. The report presented by the committee is known as “Nehru Report.” Nehru Report was presented on 10th August, 1928 and admonished government that if the report was not implemented immediately, Non-cooperation movement would be launched in the whole Sub-continent. The report contained the following recommendations:

i) Full-responsible government on the model of the constitution of self-governing dominions to be introduced in the Sub-continent.
ii) Separate electorate should be replaced by the joint electorate with the reservation of seats for minorities in proportion to their population.
iii) The foreign affairs defence and army should be placed under the control of the parliament and viceroy.
iv) Sindh should be separated from Bombay.
v) Full provincial status should be given to NWFP and Baluchistan.
vi) Unitary form of government to be introduced in the centre.
vii) Hindi should be made official language.

Reaction To The Nehru Report:

The Nehru Report shocked the Muslims because it envisaged the establishment of Hindu Raj in the guise of a responsible government. It made the Hindu-Muslim rift final and irrevocable. The anti-Muslim Hindu designs brought the unity among the Jinnah League and the Shafi League. When the report was discussed in the Indian Legislature Assembly, Jinnah and other Muslim leaders rejected it in strong words. According to K.K Aziz:
“There is a little doubt that the Nehru Report conferred
The real power upon the Hindu majority and envisaged a
Hindu Raj. At least that was the impression it conveyed
to the Muslim mind. The Lucknow Pact had been forgotten.
The good old days of the Khilafat Movement were fled
never to return. The unity of the Congress-League scheme
was buried deep under the debris of communal riots.”


Quaid’s Amendments:

An All-Party National Conference was held in Calcutta in December, 1928 to consider the Nehru Report. Quaid-e-Azam proposed amendments to the Nehru Report.
i) One-Third representation for the Muslims in the central legislature.
ii) Muslim presentation in the Bengal and Punjab provinces on the basis of population.
iii) Residuary powers be given to the provinces instead of the central government.
All the amendments, proposed by Quaid-e-Azam when put to vote were rejected by the Hindu majority.

Conclusion:

Quaid-e-Azam rejected the Nehru Report altogether and said, “The Committee has adopted a narrow minded policy to ruin the political future of the Muslims. I regret to declare that the report is extremely ambiguous and does not deserve to be implemented.”
Owing to the partiality of the Nehru Report, Quaid-e-Azam presented his celebrated fourteen points.
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Excellent Effort dear.

Under Khilafat movement do discuss Non-Cooperation and Hijrat movement and their impact.
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Fourteen Points Of Quaid-e-Azam:


Outline:
Background
• Quaid’s Fourteen Points
• Hindus’ Reaction
• Muslims’ Reaction
• Importance Of The Fourteen Points
• Comparison Between The Nehru Report And Fourteen Points Of Quaid


Background:

Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah did his best to bring rapprochement between the Muslim League and the Congress. His efforts bore fruit and the Congress and the Muslim League reached an agreement in the annual session at Lucknow in 1916. In Lucknow Pact, Congress first time conceded the right of separate electorate for Muslims and provided for the provincial autonomy. but the way in which Gandhi withdrew from the Khilafat Movement, opened the eyes of the Muslims. Furthermore, the publication of Nehru Report in which Congress adopted a stubborn attitude and withdrew its acceptance of separate electorate of the Muslims, shocked the Muslim leadership out of its dream of Hindu-Muslim unity. Quaid-e-Azam decided to give his own formula for the constitutional reforms in reply to the Nehru Report. He gave his famous 14 points in the Muslim League session of Delhi in 1929. These points were:

Quaid’s Fourteen Points:

i) The form of the future constitution shall be federal, with the residuary powers vested in provinces.
ii) A uniform measures for autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.
iii) All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principles of adequate and effective representation to minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.
iv) Representation of communal groups shall continue by separate electorates provided that it shall be open to any time to abandon its separate electorate in favour of joint electorate.
v) In the central legislature, Muslim representation shall not be less than 1/3rd.
vi) Any territorial redistribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority in Punjab, Bengal and NWFP.
vii) Sind should be separated from Bombay.
viii) Reforms should be introduced in the province of NWFP and Baluchistan.
ix) Full religious liberty, that is, the liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education shall be granted to all the communities.
x) No bill or resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if 3/4th of the members of any community oppose it as being injurious to the interests of that community.
xi) Provision should be made in the constitution giving Muslims an adequate share along with other Indians in the services of the State and other local self-governing bodied having due regard to the requirements of efficiencies.
xii) No cabinet either central or provincial should be formed without having 1/3rd Muslim ministries.
xiii) The constitution embody adequate safeguard for the protection of Muslim culture, and for the promotion of Muslim religion, education, personal laws and Muslim charitable institutions.
xiv) No change shall be made in the constitution by the central legislature except with the consent of the states constituting the Indian Federation.

Hindus’ Reaction:

Hindus rejected the Fourteen Points and considered these against the concept of united Indian although Quaid had not demanded any separate homeland for Muslims.

Muslims’ Reaction:

The celebrated Fourteen Points of Quaid-e-Azam injected a new life in the frail souls of the Muslims and cleared upon them how they could protect their political, economic, social and cultural rights.

Importance Of The Points:

There was nothing new in these 14 points. These were the demand that Muslims had been put forward time and time again but these points comprehensibly covered all the problems of the Muslims confronting them in 1929.
These points contained the germs of Pakistan. On the basis these points it was agrees that the political power and opportunities for development were to be equally divided among the Hindus and the Muslims. Muslims adopted a stiff attitude towards their demands and successfully achieved a separate homeland under the able guidance of the great Quaid.
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@roshan
nice effort....can i ask you about the source you preparing these notes from?
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Quote:
Originally Posted by lizaaudacious View Post
@roshan
nice effort....can i ask you about the source you preparing these notes from?
thnx a lot liza....ya dear y not, i prepared my notes from the following books:

i) Ikram Rabbani
ii) Gul Shehzad Sarwar
iii) JWT's Pak Affairs Exam Cram Book

Whats ur view about these books? are these enough or should i refer any other book also??

What about urs dear, wat books do u read, or wats ur source of study for pak affairs??
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Round Table Conference:


Outline:
Background
• First Round Table Conference
• Second Round Table Conference
• Communal Award
• Third Round Table Conference
• Conclusion


Background

Nehru Report was based on narrow minded policy. Its objective was to ruin the political career of Muslims as well as other communities in India. On the other hand Quaid-e-Azam’s Fourteen Points led the Muslims’ struggle for independence towards the right path. Furthermore, Allama Iqbal’s of Allahabad (1930) was full of Muslims’ aspiration. It mentioned the goal for a separate homeland. In lieu of such circumstances, British Government decided to resolve the communal issue in India.
In fact Quaid-e-Azam rejected Simon Commission’s Report and considered it as biased and parochial. He advised the British government to call a Round Table Conference. In response British government convened Round Table Conference in London.

First Round Table Conference:

The First Round Table Conference was held in London from 12th November 1930 to 19th January, 1931. Nehru Report was not given constitutional status in India that was why Congress boycotted the Conference and did not participate in the first session.
In the conclusion of the First Round Table Conference British Prime Minister declared that the government had approved to establish a responsible government both in the central as well as provincial level.
Viceroy Lord Irwin tried his best to bring round Gandhi about the importance of Round Table Conference. Irwin made a pact with Gandhi called Gandhi-Irwin Pact and decided to release all Congress members who were detained during the Civil disobedience Movement. He also promised to make an end of all the cases against Congress members which were made during the movement.
Gandhi called off the movement and participated in the Second Round Table Conference.

Second Round Table Conference:

The Second Round Table Conference was convened in London from 17th September, 1931 to 1st December, 1931. Allama Iqbal also participated in this conference. Congress sent only one representative, he was Gandhi. Two committees were established to prepare a report on the federal structure of India and another on the communal issue.
Owing to Gandhi’s obduracy this conference could not do anything worthy since Gandhi was not considering the issue of minorities as much important. He proposed to stop the committee to work upon such minor issue. In fact, he was considering himself the sole representative of whole India and was reluctant to accept any other community except Hindu in India. Quaid-e-Azam answered that the Muslims of India were a complete nation and they had their own interests different from Hindus. But Gandhi was not ready to accept any other community. Sir Shafi also emphasized on the importance of communal issue.
On the concluding day, British Prime Minister Mr.Ramsay McDonald appealed the leaders to come on an agreement regarding the communal issue otherwise the government would give its own Communal Award.

Communal Award 1932:

According to this accord the minorities were given the right of separate electorate in India and Muslim majority in Punjab and Bengal was transformed into minority. Both the major parties did not accept the award and condemned the real nature of the Round Table Conference.

Third Round Table Conference:

After announcing the Communal Award on 16th August, 1932, the British government convened the Third Round Table Conference in London from 17th November, 1932 to 24th December, 1932. Gandhi did not participate in the conference. Quaid also did not participate in this session owing to non-serious attitude of the British Government. This conference was not more than a formality.

Conclusion:

From Muslim point of view, the Round Table Conferences were totally fruitless. In his address to the students of the Aligarh University in 1938, Quaid said:
“I received the shock of my life at the meetings of the round Table Conference. In the face of danger, the Hindu sentiment, the Hindu mind, the Hindu attitude led me to the conclusion that there was no hope of unity. I was very pessimist about my country. The position was most unfortunate. The Mussalmans were like the dwellers in No Man’s Land; they were led by either the flunkeys of the British Government or the camp followers of the Congress.”
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also as up in nehru report the quaid's statement ' it is thus parting of the ways'..and mention how 'the ambassador of hindu muslim unity' was forced by congress to part the ways from hindus...and thusnehru report in a way was blessing in disguise as frouteen points were then magna carta of the muslims which was taken along and league was strictly adhered to these points, which later paved the way for the creation of pakistan.

@RTCs: in RTCs u can mention in analysis about the non serious behaviour of thecongress.plus congress-british alliance or close ties..

@ Refernces books:
iwould love to suggest the struggle for pakistan by I.H Qureshi, and making of pakistan by K.K Aziz.these books hav best analysis
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Government Of India Act 1935


Outline:
• Background
• Main Features Of The Act 1935
i) Provincial Part
ii) Federal Part
• Drawbacks/Critical Analysis
• Conclusion



Background:

After the failure of Round Table Conference, the British government became much clear about the Indian problems. In this regard, in 1935, a bill was furnished in British parliament which was passed immediately. It was known as Government Of India Act 1935. This Act contained 14 parts (32 section) and 10 schedules and consisted of Two parts. Part I pertained the provincial subjects and Part II contained federal list of subjects. This Act came into operation on 1st April, 1937 except part II.

Main Features Of The Indian Act 1935:

a) Provincial Part Of The Act:
i) Provinces were given more power and authority and for the first time provinces were made separate entities.
ii) The system of Dynasty was abolished from the Provinces and introduced in the centre.
iii) Three lists of Subjects were drawn up:
a) The Federal List
b) The Provincial List
c) The Concurrent List

iv) Provincial legislatures were given the power of legislation in the provincial and concurrent subjects.
v) Provincial executive was handed over to the representatives of the people who were accountable before the provincial legislatures.
vi) The country was divided into 11 provinces.
vii) Responsible Parliamentary system was introduced in the provinces. Provinces were given full autonomy. ministers were to be chosen by the representatives of the people.
viii) Every province was given a council of ministers whose advice was binding on the Governor. However, in the discharge of his duties the governors were responsible before Governor-General.
ix) Governors were given special powers for the protection of the rights of minorities.

b) Federal Part:

i) Diarchy was introduced at the centre.
ii) At the centre a bicameral federal legislature was proposed and its members were to be elected indirectly by the Provincial Legislatures.
iii) For the Council of State direct election was proposed.
iv) Communal electorate were to be continued and allocation of seats was to be proposed.
v) Governor-General was given the special powers of issuing ordinance and suspension of constitution if time demanded.
vi) Defence, Finance and Foreign Affairs departments were kept reserved to be administered by Governor-General with the advice of three advisors to be appointed by the Governor-General and responsible to him and not to the legislature.
vii) The Cabinet of Ministers must also be represented by the important minority communities.

Drawbacks Of The Act/Critical Analysis

The federal system which was introduced by the Act of 1935 was defective in many ways:
i) There was no guarantee to the individual liberties neither it could give a workable dominion status.
ii) The people were not given their rights.
iii) The system of diarchy which had failed in the provinces was introduced in the centre without any perspective results.
iv) All authority was vested in the Parliament which was under the British influence.
v) Vast authority was given to the Governors in the provinces and to the Viceroy in the centre which was against the principles of democracy and provincial autonomy.
vi) The Ministers of State could interfere in the Government services without any reason.

Conclusion:

The Act of 1935 failed to satisfy various sections of the country. The political leaders of India rejected it as it could not meet the demands of different political factions. Quaid-e-Azam called it as a defective document. Rajagopalachari, too, considered it as worse than the system of diarchy.
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