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Pakistan Affairs A 100 marks paper divided into mainly two zones: Pre-Partition and Post-Partition


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  #61  
Old Sunday, July 17, 2011
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Originally Posted by rishzzz View Post
Roshan, you have good approach and you have made notes exactly targeting the exam days.....Isn't it???
Its very nice that you have started jotting points like this, you need to, now, revise them on n on n on so that you retain them sitting in exam hall. For the usage of wording or expression, i must tell you that you should read experts and authorities from different books because basic facts stay same in Pak Aff. The difference is your approach and Expression...

Beware, you need to have the cushion of handsome details and history behind each point you jotted down in ur notes....


Ur on Good track keep it up
Regards
Thnx alot dear for ur encouraging words ya dear after the completion of notes i'l revise them again and again so as i cud retain the main idea of each and every topic and handle every question during xams...Regards
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  #62  
Old Sunday, July 17, 2011
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Originally Posted by andleeb Akhter View Post
@Roshan
You are really doing a nice job by sharing your work....a big clap.
To make notes and then to taka pain for converting the whole notes in soft form is not as easy as to look and enjoy the notes.No doubt You are doing a wonderful job.I really appreciate it and thankful as well for your prestigious effort.To me, Pakistan affairs was very difficult to handle but by reading your 2,3 posts i am feeling relaxed now...
Keep it up dear
May Allah bless you

Regards
Thnx alot Dear Andleeb Akhter for ur generous appreciation and liking my notes ya dear it has been very hard and time consuming to convert them in soft copy, i did this in order to get my notes checked by seniors here in this forum and get their critical views so as i cud better my notes and also for other new members who are finding it difficult to make notes in their initial phase..thnkng once again dear nd its pleasing to hear that my notes helped u somewhat.
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  #63  
Old Monday, July 18, 2011
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@ RoShan
Brother !
I feel excited to applaud your seriousness marked by your thread and consequent posts.
You amassed that much interest , time and energy to type your keynotes at a considerable length.
This is, no disputing the fact, aiming at upswing of not just your aptitude in the subject matter but aids other needy candidates also, specially those hanging around with the same intention.
Great job indeed….
However, I have an idea to give your work a new turn and more meaning………….
Dear!
All candidates study the books, handouts and relevant text from a number of sources at their disposal.
If only studying could pay them with success in the exam, all the candidates were qualifiers.
The specific skill to answer the question tactfully is what makes the difference at the end of the day.
I would therefore suggest you to orient your notes to the questions. You may relate them with past papers or may form your own questions of the same caliber.
This way members in general and qualifiers in particular will analyze your answers in the context of questions and will give their comments based on their individual experience.
A variety of comments initiate new vistas to perceive the same object.
This would be and extra advantage which you may have from this forum.
By doing this you and everybody else surfing here can get a good chance to develop that particular technique and may score upto the exam standards.
regards !!
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  #64  
Old Monday, July 18, 2011
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Originally Posted by pureapak View Post
@ RoShan
Brother !
I feel excited to applaud your seriousness marked by your thread and consequent posts.
You amassed that much interest , time and energy to type your keynotes at a considerable length.
This is, no disputing the fact, aiming at upswing of not just your aptitude in the subject matter but aids other needy candidates also, specially those hanging around with the same intention.
Great job indeed….
However, I have an idea to give your work a new turn and more meaning………….
Dear!
All candidates study the books, handouts and relevant text from a number of sources at their disposal.
If only studying could pay them with success in the exam, all the candidates were qualifiers.
The specific skill to answer the question tactfully is what makes the difference at the end of the day.
I would therefore suggest you to orient your notes to the questions. You may relate them with past papers or may form your own questions of the same caliber.
This way members in general and qualifiers in particular will analyze your answers in the context of questions and will give their comments based on their individual experience.
A variety of comments initiate new vistas to perceive the same object.
This would be and extra advantage which you may have from this forum.
By doing this you and everybody else surfing here can get a good chance to develop that particular technique and may score upto the exam standards.
regards !!
Thnx Alot dear brother for ur precious comments, suggestions and encouraging words bro i'll surely work on ur suggestion and mould each and every answer according to the requirement of the questions in the examz in order to get good grip on every topic and will place my answers here for critical evaluation by senior and kind members like u...hope u'll keep guiding me...thnkng once again
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  #65  
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Ideology Of Pakistan: Two-Nation Theory


Outline:

Definition Of Ideology
• Ideology Of Pakistan And Two-Nation Theory
• Ideology Of Pakistan And Allama Iqbal
• Ideology Of Pakistan And Quaid-e-Azam
• Conclusion


Definition Of Ideology:

Ideology can be defined as the set of beliefs, especially the political beliefs on which people, parties or countries base their actions.

Ideology Of Pakistan And Two-Nation Theory:

Ideology of Pakistan was actually the Islamic Ideology on the basis of which Muslims of the Sub-continent claimed a separate independent Muslim state. The Islamic Ideology gave rise to Two-Nation Theory according to which the Hindus and Muslims were two distinct nations with their own separate religions, cultures, traditions, manners and languages. By establishing a separate independent Muslim-State, the Muslims wanted to spend their lives according to the teachings of Quran. Two-Nation Theory provided the foundation for the Lahore Resolution which demanded a sovereign independent nation for the Muslims.

Sir Syed was the first Muslim leader who put forward the idea of separate religious, cultural, social and political backgrounds of the Hindus and Muslims. Subsequently, other Muslim leaders particularly Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam developed the Two-Nation theory on sound footings which led to the creation of Pakistan.

Ideology Of Pakistan And Allama Iqbal:

Allama Iqbal was not only a great poet but also he was a prominent philosopher. After the First World War, he took active part in politics and along with other Muslim leaders endeavoured to guide the destiny of the Muslims. In respect of the future of the Muslims he believed that the Hindus and the Muslims were different communities which could not live together in peace. As early as 1909, he had rejected the idea of common nationhood for the Hindus and Muslims by saying:

“The vision of a common nationhood for India is a
beautiful ideal and has a poetic appeal. But looking
to the conditions and the unconscious trends of
two communities, appears incapable of fulfilment.”


From 1920 to 1929, Allama Iqbal watched the political development in India very closely and anti-Muslim attitude of Hindus convinced him to believe that the two major communities of the Sub-continent cannot pull on together in an amicable manner. Thus he openly declared that:

“We suspect each other and inwardly aim at dominating
each other ……….Perhaps we are unwilling to recognize
that each group has a right to free development according
to its own cultural traditions.”


In December 1930, Allama Iqbal presided over the annual session of the Muslim League held at Allahabad. The presidential address delivered by him has become a milestone in the history of Pakistan Movement, because in it he not only traced the individualities of the caste-units and religious units inhabiting the Sub-continent but also for the first time put forward the demand for a separate sovereign Muslim State. He declared:

“India is a continent of human groups belonging to
different races, speaking different languages and
professing different religions. Their behaviour is
not at all determined by a common race-consciousness.
Even the Hindus do not form a homogeneous group.
The principles of European democracy cannot be
applicable to India without recognizing the facts of
communal groups. The Muslims demand for the
creation of Muslim India within India is, therefore,
perfectly justified……I would like to see the Punjab,
North-West Frontier Province, Sindh and Baluchistan
amalgamated into a single state. Self-government within
the British empire, or without the British Empire, the
formation of a consolidated North-West Indian State appears
to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of the
North-West India.”


Thus Allama Iqbal was a great advocate of Two-Nation Theory or Ideology of Pakistan. He Strongly opposed the concept Of Indian nationalism because he believed that the sub-continent was actually not a country but Asia in miniature. It was inhabited by human groups belonging to different races and professing different religions. Thus on this ground he demanded a separate nation for the Muslims.

Ideology Of Pakistan And Quaid-e-Azam:

Quaid-e-Azam, the founder of Pakistan was a great exponent and advocate of Two-Nation Theory. He successfully pleads a case for Pakistan on this theory and finally forced the British to accept the partition of the sub-continent. In this regard, his presidential address delivered on 22nd March, 1940 was the high watermark of Pakistan Movement. During his address he said;

“The Hindus and Muslims belong to different religious
Philosophies, social customs and literatures. They
neither intermarry nor interdine together and indeed
they belong to two different civilizations which are based
on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their concepts on
life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus
Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources
of history. They have different epics, different heroes
and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is
the foe of other and likewise, their victories and defeats
overlap. To yoke together two such distinct nations
under a single state, one as a numerical majority and
other a minority, must lead to a growing discontent and
final destruction…….”


On the basis of Two-Nation Theory All-India Muslim League passed its Lahore Resolution on 23rd March, 1940 which made the achievement of Pakistan as great for the political struggle by the Muslims. After the passage of Lahore Resolution, there was only one main chant by the Muslims i.e.

Ban Ke Rahega Pakistan
Le Ke Rahenge Pakistan.


Later on, in 1944, during his talks with Gandhi, Quaid-e-Azam clearly said;

“We hold and maintain that the Hindus and Muslims
are two major nations by any definite or a taste of a
nation. We are a nation of a hundred million and what
is more we are a nation with our own distinctive culture
and civilization, language and literature, art and archi-
-tecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and
proportions, legal laws and moral codes, customs and
calendar, history and traditions, aptitude and ambitions.
In short we have our own distinctive outlook on life and
of life. By all canons of international law we are nation.”

Conclusion

The fundamental concept of the ideology of Pakistan is that Muslims are separate nation having their own culture, literature, religion and way of life. They cannot be merged in any other nation. They should be able to develop their culture and religious traditions in an Islamic State and they should be able to create a true Islamic society for themselves.

Thus the ideology of Pakistan which developed through the period of Mohammad Bin Qasim and others and followed by political leaders like Quaid-e-Azam was materialized in 1947.

Failure of the Two-Nation Theory

The 1971 Bangladesh atrocities against East Pakistan by the West Pakistan minority (military) government proved to be a definite end to the theory that the Muslims of India were a single nation. The Operation Searchlight, Bengali Language Movement, the lack of response by the federal government to 1970 Bhola cyclone which were the leading catalysts of the Bangladesh Liberation War turned the two divisions of Pakistan into arch-enemies of each other.
Further the fact that independent India's Muslim population is more than the entire population of Pakistan further fuelled the belief that the reasons for creation of a homeland for Muslims of British India were not genuine.
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  #66  
Old Monday, July 18, 2011
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Sir Syed Ahmed khan (1817-18918) & Aligarh Movement


Outline:
• Introduction
• Conditions Of The Muslims After War
• Syed’s services For The Renaissance Of The Muslims
i) Syed’s Educational Services
ii) Political Services
iii) Literary Services
iv) Social Services
v) Religious Services
• Pioneer Of The Two-Nation Theory
• Aligarh Movement
• Conclusion


Introduction:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan flourished from 1817 to 1898. As the founder of Aligarh movement, he is ranked among the greatest Muslim reformers of the 19th century. He came to the rescue of his co-religionists after the War of Independence (1857) when the British unleashed a wave of vengeance against the Muslims. As a result of the atrocities of the British, the Muslims were cut of the mainstream of political, social, economic and educational development. At this critical juncture Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim to realize that if the Muslims continued to keep themselves aloof then they would be completely absorbed by the Hindu community.

Conditions Of Muslims After The War Of Independence (1857):

The British considered Muslims to be responsible for the War of Independence. Thus, they subjected them to all sorts of cruelties. Leading Muslim leaders were hanged or sentenced to jail and their properties were confiscated. Moreover, they were denied important government jobs. Resultantly, the ratio of Muslim representation went on dwindling till 1871 when the number of Muslim government servants almost came to a naught. According to William Hunter’s disclosure in his book “The Indian Mussalmans” published in 1871.
“In the three grades of Assistant Government engineers, there were fourteen Hindus and not one Mussalman; among the apprentices, there were four Hindus and two Englishmen and not one Mussalman. Among the Sub-Engineers there were 24 Hindus to one Mussalman. In the office of Accounts there were 50 names of Hindus and not one Mussalman and in the upper subordinate department there were 22 Hindus and again not one Mussalman.”
Ashok Mehta, an Indian Socialist Leader, thrown light on the misery of the Muslims after the war in his book entitled “The communal Triangle” in these words, “Not only were the Muslims economically crushed, educationally and socially also their position was deliberately depressed by the government. In 1870, the Muhammadan pleaders presented two memorials to the High Court pointing out that while closed holidays allowed to the Christians were sixty and those to Hindus were fifty-two, only eleven were granted to the Muhammadans.”

Sir Syed's Services For The Renaissance Of Muslims:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the founder of Aligarh Movement which checked the decline of the Muslims in political, social, educational and economic spheres. He devoted his whole life for the renaissance of his co-religionists and succeeded in pulling them out of the depths of ignorance and backwardness. His services can be summed up as under:

i) Sir Syed’s Educational Services
ii) Sir Syed’s Political Services
iii) Sir Syed’s Literary works
iv) Sir Syed’s Social Services


i) Sir Syed’s Educational Services:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who realized the importance of education for his people. In order to equip Muslim with the ornament of knowledge, he opened many educational institutions and societies which revolutionised the life of the Muslims.

• Two Madrassahs in Muradabad (1858) and Ghaziabad (1862) which imparted education in Persian.
• In 1864, Sir Syed laid the foundation of a Scientific Society which translated English works into Urdu.
• M.A.O High School was founded in 1875.
• In 1877, M.A.O High School was given the status of a college and inaugurated by Viceroy Lord Lytton. Later on, this college became a University in 1920A.D.

Muhammadan Educational Conference:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan established Muhammadan Educational Conference in 1886 in order to bring political awareness among the Muslims. The Conference held its annual conferences regularly till 1906 when in its Dhaka session All-India Muslim League was founded.

ii) Political Service:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan rendered meritorious political services in order to defend the rights of the Muslims. His services were as under:

• After the War of Independence 1857, sir Syed compiled a pamphlet entitled Rasala-i-Asbab-e-Baghawat-i-Hind, in which he explained to the British that the Muslims were not the only force behind the catastrophe of 1857. He enlisted the following factors which led to the uprising.
a) Misunderstanding of the people about the rulers.
b) Maladministration by the army.
c) Government’s unawareness of the conditions and grievance of the people.
d) Promulgation of regulations which were contrary to the wishes of the people.
• Sir Syed Ahmed khan wrote a commentary on William hunter’s book.
• He is regarded as one of the greatest exponents of Two-Nation theory because after the Hindu-Urdu controversy he was convinced that Hindus were not sincere towards the Muslims. Answering a query of Mr. Shakespeare, Commissioner of Banaras, he remarked.” Now I am convinced that both these communities will not join whole-heartedly in anything though, at present, there was no open hostility between the two communities, but on account of the so-called educated people it will increase immensely in future.”
• Sir Syed founded a Patriotic Association in order to counter the anti-Muslim propaganda by the Hindus.
• Soon after the establishment of Indian National Congress, he came to realise that it was a purely Hindu organisation. Consequently, he asked the Muslims to desist taking part in its activities.
• He proposed the system of separate electorate for the Muslims in order to protect the political rights of the Muslim Community. He highlighted his views in this regard in a speech in 1883 by saying, “The system of representation by election means the representation of the views and interests of the majority of the population”.

iii) Sir Syed’s Literary Works:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan was not only a prominent educationalist but also a capable author. His writings include the following:
• Asarul Sanadid
• Rasala-i-Asbab-e-Baghawat-i-Hind
• Tarikh Sarkashi-e-Bijnaur
• Risalah Ahkam-i-Ta’am-i-Ahle-Kitab
• Tabeen-Ul-Kalam
• Kutbat-e-Ahmadiyah
• Risalah Tehzib-Ul-Akhlaq
• Jame-Jama

iv) Sir Syed’s Social Services:

Sir Syed wanted that Muslims of the Sub-continent should get an honourable position in the Hindu dominated society. For this purpose he not only opened many schools but also established an orphanage at Muradabad to provide refuge to the orphan Muslim children. In fact his whole life revolved round his desire for the betterment of his community.
He took several steps for the revival and betterment of the Muslims. He wrote the most influential magazine Tehzib-ul-Akhlaq in which he outlined the ethical aspects of the Muslims’ life. In this magazine he criticized the conservative way of the Muslims and advised them to adopt new trends of life.
He set himself to the task of protecting the Urdu from being faded away and replaced by English. He worked laboriously for the promotion of Urdu and gave a new tone and colour to the Urdu literature. He founded Anjuman-i-Tarki-i-Urdu which worked for the protection of Urdu. He wrote another magazine as Ahkam-i-Ta’am-i-Ahle-Kitab in which the principles and etiquettes of eating and dinning in Islam were discussed. In this magazine Sir Syed wrote that it was not against Islam to eat with the Christians on the same table. He gave references from the Quran and proved that it was not un-Islamic to eat with a nation who was the bearer of Holy book.

v) Sir Syed’s Religious Services:

Sir Syed rendered many religious services through his movement.

• Essay On Life Of Muhammad (PBUH)
William Muir, a Christian writer, wrote a book, “Life of Muhammad of (PBUH)” and used derogatory remarks against the last prophet of Islam. Sir Syed took frequent notices of his book and wrote essays on the life of (PBUH) named Kutbat-i-Ahmadiyah in which he gave befitting reply to William Muir.

Tabeen-e-Alkalam:
Sir Syed also wrote a commentary on Bible in a philosophical style and explained the similarities between the Islam and Christianity with solid arguments.

vi) Sir Syed As A Pioneer Of Two-Nation Theory:

Sir Syed was the first Muslim leader of the Sub-continent who used the word nation (quam) for the Muslims. In clear language, he pronounced that the Hindus and the Muslims were two different communities with different interests. After learning bitter lesson from the Hindi-Urdu controversy, he reached the conclusion that both the communities could not work together. His views were evident in his speech delivered in 1886, in which he said, “the system of representation by election means the representation of the views and thoughts of the majority of the population. In a country like India where caste distinctions still exist, where there is no fusion of interests of various races, where religious differences are still violent, where education in the modern sense has not made an equal or proportionate progress among all sections of the population. I am convinced that the introduction of the principles of the election pure or simple by the representation of various interests in the local boards and district councils would be attended with the evils of greater significance than pure economic consideration. The larger community would totally override the interests of the smaller community”. According to V.A Smith:
“Sir Syed was not concerned with material things only. His Movement was one of general reforms. It was inspired by the thought that the Muslims of India were separate people and nation who must not be absorbed with Hinduism.”

Aligarh Movement:

Aligarh movement means that movement which was inspired by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, his colleagues and Muslim students of M.A.O College (later Aligarh University). The students of Aligarh College fired by the spirit of Muslim nationalism spread throughout the country and became the torch bearer of Two-Nation Theory. Thus, the quest of the Muslims for their national identity took the shape of a movement which resulted in the renaissance of the Muslims in the 19th century. This movement revolutionized the economic, social, and political status of the Muslims. However, Sir Syed was the chief architect of this movement. He worked day and night for the revival of Muslim glory. After the failure of the War of Independence in 1957, the Muslims became the victims of the wrath of the British rulers and they were subjected to an unprecedented systematic process of suppression and elimination. On the other hand the British rulers favoured the Hindus by granting them important government jobs in plenty. Thus the tide was turned on the Muslim community within a short span of time witnessed a steep fall from the high pedestal of the ruling class to a politically neglected and economically depressed minority.

Conclusion:

In the pretext of above mentioned efforts of Sir Syed we come to know that he took the responsibility of the renaissance of Muslim glory and to achieve its destination he guided the Muslim ship to a right direction and took it to a definite position where Muslims could mould their lives according to the pristine principles of Islam. Undoubtedly, Sir Syed’s Aligarh Movement was the pioneer of two-nation theory which injected life in the dormant body of Muslim nation. He restored confidence among Muslims and fought for their political, religious, cultural, social and economic rights. He died on 27th March 1898.

Related Quotations:


Sir Syed’s Social Work:

In the views of V.A Smith,

” Sir Syed was not concerned with material things only. His Movement was one of general reforms. It was inspired by the thought that the Muslims of India were a separate people or nation who must not be absorbed within Hinduism and that the essence of Islam was consistent with the best that the West had to offer. He was, in fact, a Muslim modernist appealing to general principles outside the scope of the four recognized schools of theology. He accepted the mission of the Holy Prophet and God’s revelation in Quran. But he claimed that reason was also an attribute of God and Nature His handiwork. The Quran and Islam might therefore be interpreted on the basis of reason to meet modern needs and problems. The achievements of the West so far as they rested on reason might thus be welcomed and assimilated.”

K.K Aziz in his book “The Making Of Pakistan” pays tribute to the great leader in these words,

“Syed’s services to his community may be summarized in three terse phrases: loyalty to the British, devotion to education, aloofness from politics. He preached and practised loyalty to the British rule. From his speeches, writings and letters it is not difficult to read his mind. He based his pro-British attitude on three strong foundations. First, the only way of wiping off the stigma of Muslim instigation of the mutiny was to make friends with the British and thus to make them disabuse their minds of the idea that Muslim were their traditional enemies. He was sagacious enough to realise that British control would not cease in nay foreseeable future. It was ordinary common sense to be on good terms with the rulers.”


Aligarh Movement: Economic Distress Of The Muslim Community:

According to W.W Hunter:-

“All sorts of employments great and small are being gradually snatched away from the Muhammadans and bestowed on men of other races, particularly the Hindus.”



Aligarh Movement As An Instrument Of Muslim Renaissance.
Change In British Attitude:

According To Dr. Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi:-

“From 1858 up to about 1870 nearly all British politicians, authors and administrators unhesitatingly blamed the Muslims for the Mutiny. But in the 1870s a change in British opinion was visible. Men like Sir Richard Temple, Sir John Stratchy and W.H. Gregory came forward to argue that Muslim India was not disloyal and that the unpleasant past should be forgotten.”


Two-Nation Theory And Sir Syed:

According to V.A. Smith:-

“Sir Syed was not concerned with material things only. His Movement was one of general reforms. It was inspired by the thought that the Muslims of India were a separate people and nation who must not be absorbed within Hinduism.”


In the views of K.K Aziz:-

“Muslim India was not a nation by herself. Nor did she claim such a title. But the Muslims had begun to look upon themselves as a separate entity, a different community, and a group apart. This feeling of separateness from others and of oneness among themselves was the first foundation and first symptom of Muslim nationalism in India.”


Sir Syed’s Attitude Towards The Congress:-

According to Dr. I.H. Qureshi:-

“Syed Ahmed Khan asked the Muslims not to join the Congress. This advice was followed by the vast majority of the people. He never wavered in his opposition to the Congress and declared that even if he was told that the Viceroy, the Secretary of State and the whole House of Commons had openly supported the Congress, he would still remain firmly opposed to it, and earnestly begged all Muslims to remain away from it.”


Religious Aspect Of Aligarh Movement:

According to Dr. I.H. Qureshi:-

“In religion Syed stood for a rational approach. He argued that revealed truth could be understood best through reason. The revelations of physical sciences could not be ignored in the understanding of religion. He put it pithily when he said that there could be no contradiction between the word of God (revealed truth) and the work of God (the laws of physical science and the phenomena of Nature). It may be argued that this attitude was too naïve in so far as it placed too much confidence in human observation of phenomena at a particular time, nevertheless the basic idea that truth can be understood and interpreted in the light of human knowledge is sound.”


Effects Of The Aligarh Movement:

According to K.K. Aziz:-

“They came to respect themselves. The pessimism of the post-mutiny days gave way to what was almost a feeling of buoyancy. No longer their loyalty was questioned in British quarters. No longer did the Hindus dismiss them with a shake of the head. They were catching u in education. The Aligarh College was producing graduates who could fill the vacancies in government offices reserved for Muslims.” And further, “By the turn of the century the Muslim community was pulsating with new ideas. Much had been achieved, though much remained undone. The old generation which had tasted the bitter fruit of defeat and disgrace was succeeded by a new generation, young in heart fresh to the opportunities of life, aware of its solidarity and hopeful of the future. Thus by the beginning of the twentieth century Aligarh Movement had become a living dynamic force which after the establishment of All-India Muslim League in 1906 took the shape of the Pakistan Movement.”



Aligarh Movement: Education Of The Muslim Community:

According To Chaudhary Muhammad Ali:-

“The monumental work of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the founding of M.A.O College at Aligarh in 1877. He had wanted to build a university, but his wish could only be fulfilled some twenty years after his death, when the college grew into the Aligarh Muslim University. The college at Aligarh was more than an educational institution; it was the symbol of a broad Movement affecting every phase of Muslim life----social, economic, political, literary and religious. To carry the message of reform to the masses, Sir Syed organised the Muslim Educational conference which held public meetings in various parts of the country. The greatest services these meetings did were to arouse a spirit of action and self-help. Schools and colleges modelled on Aligarh were opened in different places. Even the Orthodox Ulema or learned divines, who had denounced Sir Syed as an apostate, came to recognize his great ness. His precepts and example revived hope and self-confidence, showed new ways of organization and co-operative work and opened the door to modern knowledge and economic progress.”


In the views of V.A. Smith:-

“In 1920, the college (M.A.O College) became the Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh both enabled the talented young Muslim to compete on terms with the Hindu for government service and in public life, and gave him a dynamic which his community seemed to have lost.”


Promotion Of Two-Nation Theory:

In January 1883, Sir Syed Ahmed addressed Lord Ripon’s council and said:-

“For socio-political purposes-----the whole of the population of England forms but one community----the same cannot be said of India. The system of representation by election means the representation of the views and interests of the majority of the population, and the countries where the population is composed of one race and one creed it is no doubt the best system that can be adopted. But in a country like India where caste distinctions still flourish where there is no fusion of various races where religious distinctions are still violent, where education in its modern sense has not made equal or proportionate progress among all the sections of the population---the system of election pure and simple cannot safely be adopted. The larger community would totally override the interests of the smaller community.”


Acquisition Of Western Knowledge:

According To Dr. I.H. Qureshi:-

“The Muslims were inimical to Western education for three reasons: they considered it inferior to traditional Islamic learning it was being forced upon them by foreign people and they saw no of it for themselves. To learn English and acquire Western knowledge went against their pride, their memory of bygone superiority and their attachment to the learning of Islam. They thought that an education saturated with Christianity might corrupt their beliefs. Syed fought these attitudes with heroic courage. Through speeches, articles, pamphlets, scientific and translation societies and schools he slowly converted his people to his line of thought.”
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Muslim League:


Outline:
• Introduction
• Factors Leading To The Formation Of M.League
• Formation Of The Muslim League
• Objectives Of The Muslim League
• Services From 1906 To 1913
• Conclusion


Introduction:

As a result of the Aligarh Movement the Muslims of the Sub-Continent acquired political awakening and started thinking in terms of a nation. As a separate nation they developed their own distinct aspirations. However, Indian National Congress failed to come up to the expectations of the Muslims because it protected Hindu interest at the cost of all considerations. Thus, the Muslims felt the need of the political party which could safeguard their interests.

Factors Leading The Formation Of Muslim League:

Following were the main factors which led to the formations of Muslim League:
i) The anti-Muslim attitude shown by the Hindus during the Hindi-Urdu controversy convinced the Muslims that they could not develop just working relationship with the Hindus.
ii) The Indian National Congress failed to protect the rights of the Muslim community. The pro-Hindu attitude of the Congress totally disillusioned the Muslims.
iii) Frequent Hindu-Muslim riots developed a sense of Muslim nationalism among the Muslims.
iv) The Hindus reacted violently towards the Partition of Bengal. The anti-Muslim attitude convinced the Muslims that the Hindus were not interested in their welfare.
v) The success of the Simla Deputation in October, 1906, encouraged the Muslim leaders that they could forge unity among their ranks and protect their political and constitutional rights.
vi) Mr. Morley the new Liberal Prime Minister of England promised to introduce constitutional reforms in India. As a result, Muslim leaders decided to establish a party which might protect their rights.

Formation Of Muslim League:

After the successful meeting of Simla deputation, the annual meeting of the Muhammadan Educational conference was held at Decca on 30th December, 1906. After the session, the Muslim leaders approved a resolution of Salim Ullah which proposed the formation of a political organization for the Muslims named as All-India Muslim League. Mohammad Ali Johar, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Maulana Zafar Ali supported the resolution. The resolution declared that:

“Resolved that the meeting composed of the Muslim leaders
from all parts of the country form an organization styled as
All-India Organization/Muslim League for the furtherance
of the following objectives”.


Objectives Of The Muslim League:

The objectives of the Muslim League were as under:
i) To promote among the Muslims of India the feelings of loyalty to the British government and to remove misconception.
ii) To promote and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India and to respectfully represent the needs and requirements to the government.
iii) To prevent the rise among the Muslims of India any feeling of hostility towards other communities without prejudice to the other aforementioned objectives of the Muslim League.

Services Of The Muslim League From 1906-1913:

After its inception in 1906, the Muslim League became more and more representative and influential with each passing year. Nawab Viqar-ul-Malik and Mian Mohammad Shafi gave this political party purpose and direction in its early years of its inception. Then Jinnah in 10913 injected a new vigour to this Muslim political organization.
During the period from 1906 to 1913 Muslim League got itself established as a Muslim political organization. Muslims joined the League and forged unity among their ranks. The annulment of the partition of Bengal provided another opportunity to the Muslims to join the Muslim League.
The annulment of the partition of Bengal surprised the Muslims and they lost their faith in the British government. Consequently Muslim League in its annual session held in Lucknow in 913 adopted a new strategy to achieve the system of self-government through constitutional means and cooperation with other communities.

Conclusion:

Many Hindu historians and several British writers have alleged that the Muslim League was founded at official instigation. They argue that it was Lord Minto who inspired the establishment of a Muslim organization so as to divide the Congress and to minimize the strength of the Indian Freedom Movement. But these statements are not supported by evidence. Contrary to this, the widely accepted view is that the Muslim League was basically established to protect and advance the Muslim interests and to combat the growing influence of the Indian National Congress.

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Establishment Of Muslim League:

According To K.K. Aziz:-

“Between 1902 and 1905 Muslim leaders had made some attempts to negotiate with Hindu politicians. Agha Khan had remonstrated with Sir Pherozeshah Mehta about the necessity of persuading the Congress to gain Muslim confidence. When these efforts failed, it was felt that the only hope lay in the establishment of a Muslim political body to secure independent political recognition from the British Government as a nation within nation. The All-India Muslim League was accordingly established in December 1906 at a meeting of Muslim leaders in Decca. The Muslim league was thus a child of four factors: First, the old belief uttered by Syed Ahmed Khan that the Muslims were somehow a separate entity. Secondly, the Hindu character of the Indian National Congress which did not allow the Muslims to associate themselves with other Indians. Thirdly, the agitation against the partition of Bengal which conveyed to the Muslims the Hindu designs of domination. And, finally, the Muslim desire to have their own exclusive electorates for all representative institutions.”



Muslim League’s Journey For The Achievement Of Pakistan:

According To I.H. Qureshi:-

“At its annual session----historic in retrospect----at Lahore, the League for the first time, adopted the idea of partition as its final goal. Jinnah’s presidential address to the session is a landmark in the history of Muslim nationalism in India, for it made an irrefutable case for a separate Muslim nationhood and for dividing India into Muslim and Hindu States.”
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Dear members here iam starting a thread where i'll place my notes of pak affairs......as i took my first attempt this year and made my notes but after going through different views of seniors here in this section i feel that my notes still lack that touch for securing good marks...so i have decided to place answers of the questions one by one daily and to seek guidance from seniors and qualifiers.......i request all the members to plz guide me wat should i add or subtract to enrich and improve my answers from the point of view of css papers and checkers' requirement .....bz some say that answer should consists of 7-8 pages while others say that quantity doesnt matter but the answer should be to the point meeting the requirement of the question whether it takes 4, 5 or 6 pages, plz rectify and guide.......regard



Darl-Ul-Uloom-I-Deoband OR Deoband Movement


OUTLINE
Introduction
• Establishment of Dar-Ul-uloom-I-Deoband
• Reasons Of The Establishment Of Deoband Movement
• Syllabus Of The Deoband
• Characteristics And Effects Of Deoband Movement
• Critical Analysis
• Deoband And Aligarh Movement
• Conclusion


Introduction:

The Aligarh Movement did a lot of work for social, political and economic uplift of the Muslims. It, however, lacked in religious sphere and could not work commendably for religious training of the Muslims. The lack of stress on religious aspect of the Muslims in the Aligarh Movement brought adverse effects on the spread of Islam. For this purpose Ulema started their movement with the establishment of institution to impart religious training.

Establishment Of Darl-Ul-Uloom-i-Deoband:

Maulana Mohammad Qasim Nanautvi started this movement by establishing Darl-UL-Uloom Deoband in the Chattah Mosque, in Deoband (Sharanpur) on 30th May 1866. A managing committee consisting Maulan Mohammad Qasim, Maulana Zulifqar Ali, Maulana Fazul-ur-Rehman and Maulana Muhammad Mahmood was formed to look after the affairs of the madrasah. Maulvi Muhammad was appointed as its first teacher with a monthly salary of fifteen rupees. Haji Muhammad Abid was also the founder member and took great pains in collecting funds for madrasah. Though Deoband Madrassah took its origin in a very humble manner yet through dedicated approach, very soon it developed into one of the leading religious institutions of India.

Reasons Of Establishment Of Deoband Movement:

Main causes of the Deoband Movement were as under:
i) After the 1857 war of Independence the Christian missionaries had started preaching their religion unhindered under the disguised patronage of the government. Under these circumstances, preaching of Islam was the need of the hour.
ii) The Deoband Movement was the corollary of the Muslim desire for renaissance.
iii) The Indian Ulema wanted to give a proper position to the teachings of the Quran and Hadith which enjoyed secondary importance of Darse Nizami. Thus the Syllabus of Deoband comprised of Tafseer, Hadith, and Arabic literature, Fiqah, Ilmul Kalam, Serf-o-Nehv and Tajveed.

Syllabus Of Deoband Madrassah:

i) In the first four years the Holy Quran was memorized.
ii) Then the disciplines of Urdu, Diniyat, Social Studies, geography, Islamic Civilization and Fiqah were Taught to the students for four years.
iii) In the Arabic course the students were taught Arabic literature, Hadith, Logic, Philosophy, fiqah, Tafseer, Ilmul Kalam, Mathematics and Manazara. In addition, the students of Urdu language, Arabic language and Translations were taught in three year Arabic course.
iv) In the five year Persian and Mathematics course, the students of Persian language, History of Islam, Geography, Mathematics and Translation were taught to the students.

Characteristics And Effects Of Deoband Movement:

i) Deoband was the only seat of learning where all the three branches of knowledge i.e. Maqulat, Manqulat and Ilmul Kalam were taught in a balanced proportion.
ii) In addition to the religious subjects the students were also given training in trades like calligraphy, bookbinding and medicine.
iii) Deoband Movement produced many eminent religious scholars, authors and orators like Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Maulana Hussain Ahmed Madni, Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi, Maulana Ahmed Ali Lahori, Maulana Tajwri Najibabadi and Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan and Maulana Rashid Ahmed Gangohi. These scholars successfully checked the growth of Christianity and other secular faiths.
iv) The Ulemas of Deoband rendered great services in protecting/defending Islam against all anti-Islamic forces. This movement also protected religious and national rights of the Muslims.

Critical Analysis:

i) Deoband Movement no doubt contributed greatly to preserve Islamic rituals, customs and Islamic civilization but neglected the contemporary modern subjects. Thus the syllabus of Deoband could not meet the requirements of the modern age.
ii) In the syllabus of Deoband, the disciplines of Philosophy, Logic and rhetoric were over-stressed. As a result renowned orators were produced but the demands of the scientific age were neglected.
iii) The Deoband Movement due to its severance of link with the English language could not conform itself to the requirements of the modern age.
iv) Persian and Arabic languages and literature continued to enjoy a prominent position in the syllabus of Deoband whereas the practical utility of both these languages had ceased due to the official status of English Language.

Deoband And Aligarh Movement:

The Tahrik-i-deoband, immediately after its inception did not see eye to eye with the Aligarh due to the working strategy of the Aligarh. Aligarh Movement adopted the policy of reconciliation with the British whereas the Deoband stressed on the religious aspects of the Muslims and was opposed to the policy of reconciliation with the British. The complete different approach to the politics had widened the gulf between the two authorities. Maulana Muhammad Qasim, a Leading and prominent personality of Deoband had remained engaged in a controversy with Sir Syed. They had sharp differences on the political matters of the country. Maulana Qasim and his companions actively fought against the British and for sometimes set-up their own government in their own areas. On the other hand Sir Syed, who was active during the war of 1857, remained loyal to the British. He adopted the reconciliatory posture simply because he felt it essential for the protection and revival of the Muslims after war.

When sir Syed advised the Muslims to keep themselves away from the congress politics, Maulana Rashid Ahmed Gangohi opposed him. The anti-British attitude was a marked feature in Deoband whereas the Aligarh followed a policy of cooperation to the British. The leaders and Ulemas of Deoband emphasized on the religious aspects of the Muslims and believed that the Muslims must strictly adhere to their religious customs so that they could easily combat the impact of secularism.

Another glaring contrast between the Deoband and Aligarh movement was their different approach towards educational system. Aligarh laid stress on the western and English education. M.A.O college was the centre of English and its main objective was to prepare a bunch of students well equipped in the western style of education. On the other side Deoband was a seat of Islamic and religious learning. It laid stress on religious disciplines.

The political tension between the two institutions could not be lessened till 1947. This led to many controversies but, the establishment of a central institution, combining the features of two movements and imparting of education in religious and western field did have a healthier and unifying effect.

Conclusion:

Deoband, in fact, was a movement which focused on Islamic teachings rather than materialism. The pioneers of Deoband Movement were against the Aligarh movements of Sir Syed and considered him a materialistic who was imparting only modern knowledge to the Muslims and drifting them away from Islam. That was why; the Deoband Movement was started parallel to Aligarh Movement to adorn the Muslim lives with the Islamic teachings. This movement also raised Muslim consciousness in a superb way who later on demanded for a separate homeland for Muslims in India.

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Deoband Movement:

According To K.K. Aziz:-

“Darul-Uloom produced mullahs who were skilful in theological hair splitting competent in expounding the orthodoxies of their particular sects, but completely ignorant of modern Movements and developments even in Islam.”
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Partition Of Bengal:

Outline:
• Introduction/Partition Of Bengal
• Details of the Partition
• Reaction To the Partition
• Reasons Behind The Reaction Of The Hindus
• Annulment Of The Partition
• Result Of The Annulment Of The Partition/ Conclusion


Introduction:

Partition of Bengal which took place in the year of 1905 was another landmark in the political history of the Sub-continent. This partition went in favour of the Muslims of Bengal but the Hindus protested vehemently against it. From the British point of view the reasons for this partition were only administrative because the charge of the province was too heavy task for a Lt. Governor. According to the British historian:

“the Lt.Governor of Bengal had to administer, in 1903,
An area of 1, 89,000 square miles with a population of
7, 80, 00,000 and gross revenue of 75, 00,000 pounds.
No other provincial administrator of India had so huge
Charge………………”

Details Of The Partition:

Lord Curzon felt the need of the partition of Bengal and submitted the scheme to the British government in February, 1905. The Secretary of state for India, St. John Brodick approved the plan in June and consequently the province of Bengal was partitioned on 16th October, 1905. According to this scheme, the province was divided into two provinces Eastern Bengal with Decca s its capital and Western Bengal with Calcutta as its capital. The province of Eastern Bengal had an area of 10,640 square miles and a population of 31 million out of which 18 million were Muslims. On the other hand Western Bengal had a population of 54 million out of which 45 million were Hindus. The Eastern Bengal became a Muslim majority province because out of its 31 million population 18 million were Muslims.

Reaction To The Partition:

The Muslims gladly welcomed the partition because it gave them majority in the Eastern province. On the other hand, the Hindus showed violent reaction to the partition. According to Dr. I.H Qureshi:
“This modification of the boundaries of Bengal was made an occasion of unprecedented agitation by the Hindus….first of Bengal and later on other parts of India. Ulterior motives were imputed to Curzon; he had deliberately tried to divide the Hindus and the Muslims by drawing the line between Hindu and Muslim halves of Bengal; he had favoured the Muslims by giving them a new province in which they were in a clear majority; he Had vivisected Bengali homeland; he had struck a deadly blow to Bengali nationality; he had sought to weaken the nationalist and patriotic Movement of the people of India which had its strongest centres in Bengal.”
The Hindus started agitation against the partition. Indian National Congress also organized protest meetings and demonstrations throughout the country.

Reasons Behind The Hindus’ Reaction:

i) The Hindus believed that they would come under the domination of the Muslims in the new province and their superior position would be downgraded to the inferior status.
ii) As the provincial high Court and other judicial bodies were to be shifted to Decca, the Hindu lawyers feared that their legal practices would be affected.
iii) Since Decca was to become the centre of journalists and academic activities, So the Hindu press and media feared that from now onward the Muslim point of view would be projected in the newspapers and magazines. The Hindus also feared that their income would seriously be lessened.
iv) The Hindu lords, capitalists and traders did not like the partition because it was to put an end of their exploitation of the poor Muslims.
v) Before partition the Hindus enjoyed a dominant position in the political sphere in the province over the Muslims. The partition put an end to their superior political status and political dominance over the Muslims.

Annulment Of The Partition:

Constant Hindu violent reaction to the partition of Bengal forced the British government to revise its decision. As a result, at the recommendation of the Viceroy Lord Harding, King George V announced the annulment of the partition in the Delhi Darbar held on 12th December, 1911. This decision pleased the Hindus but the Muslims felt betrayed.

Results Of The Annulment Of The Partition/ Conclusion:

The annulment of the partition greatly disappointed the Muslims and their faith in the justice of the British government was shaken badly. In addition, the Hindu agitation against the partition convinced the Muslim community that the Hindus were bent upon damaging its interests at all costs. According to I.H Qureshi

“Muslim reaction to these decisions was naturally bitter. For years the government of India and Home government had been telling the Muslims that the decision regarding the partition of Bengal was final and would not be reopened. Such flagrant disregard for solemn promises created a feeling of distrust among the Muslims. They lost all faith in British pledges. They were convinced that the Government listened only to sedition and clamour, that constitutional approaches did not pay, that loyalty was rewarded with treachery………….”

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Reaction To The Partition Of Bengal:

According Dr. I.H. Qureshi:-

“This modification of the boundaries of Bengal was made an occasion for unprecedented agitation by the Hindus---first of Bengal, and later on other parts of India. Ulterior motives were imputed to Curzon: he had deliberately tried to divide the Hindus and the Muslims by drawing the line between Hindu and Muslim halves of Bengal; he had favoured the Muslims by giving them a new province in which they were in a clear majority, he had vivisected the Bengali homeland; he had struck a deadly blow at Bengali nationality; he had sought to weaken the nationalist and patriotic Movement of the people of India which had its strongest centre in Bengal.”


Reaction Of The Annulment Of Partition:

According To I.H. Qureshi:-

“Muslim reaction to these decisions was naturally bitter. For years the government of India and Home government had been telling the Muslims that the decision regarding the partition of Bengal was final and would not be reopened. Such flagrant disregard for solemn promises created a feeling of distrust among the Muslims. They lost all faith in British pledges. They were convinced that the Government listened only to sedition and clamour, that constitutional approaches did not pay, that loyalty was rewarded with treachery………….”
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Sir Syed Ahmed khan (1817-18918) & Aligarh Movement


Outline:
• Introduction
• Conditions Of The Muslims After War
• Syed’s services For The Renaissance Of The Muslims
i) Syed’s Educational Services
ii) Political Services
iii) Literary Services
iv) Social Services
v) Religious Services
• Pioneer Of The Two-Nation Theory
• Aligarh Movement
• Conclusion


Introduction:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan flourished from 1817 to 1898. As the founder of Aligarh movement, he is ranked among the greatest Muslim reformers of the 19th century. He came to the rescue of his co-religionists after the War of Independence (1857) when the British unleashed a wave of vengeance against the Muslims. As a result of the atrocities of the British, the Muslims were cut of the mainstream of political, social, economic and educational development. At this critical juncture Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim to realize that if the Muslims continued to keep themselves aloof then they would be completely absorbed by the Hindu community.

Conditions Of Muslims After The War Of Independence (1857):

The British considered Muslims to be responsible for the War of Independence. Thus, they subjected them to all sorts of cruelties. Leading Muslim leaders were hanged or sentenced to jail and their properties were confiscated. Moreover, they were denied important government jobs. Resultantly, the ratio of Muslim representation went on dwindling till 1871 when the number of Muslim government servants almost came to a naught. According to William Hunter’s disclosure in his book “The Indian Mussalmans” published in 1871.
“In the three grades of Assistant Government engineers, there were fourteen Hindus and not one Mussalman; among the apprentices, there were four Hindus and two Englishmen and not one Mussalman. Among the Sub-Engineers there were 24 Hindus to one Mussalman. In the office of Accounts there were 50 names of Hindus and not one Mussalman and in the upper subordinate department there were 22 Hindus and again not one Mussalman.”
Ashok Mehta, an Indian Socialist Leader, thrown light on the misery of the Muslims after the war in his book entitled “The communal Triangle” in these words, “Not only were the Muslims economically crushed, educationally and socially also their position was deliberately depressed by the government. In 1870, the Muhammadan pleaders presented two memorials to the High Court pointing out that while closed holidays allowed to the Christians were sixty and those to Hindus were fifty-two, only eleven were granted to the Muhammadans.”

Sir Syed's Services For The Renaissance Of Muslims:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the founder of Aligarh Movement which checked the decline of the Muslims in political, social, educational and economic spheres. He devoted his whole life for the renaissance of his co-religionists and succeeded in pulling them out of the depths of ignorance and backwardness. His services can be summed up as under:

i) Sir Syed’s Educational Services
ii) Sir Syed’s Political Services
iii) Sir Syed’s Literary works
iv) Sir Syed’s Social Services


i) Sir Syed’s Educational Services:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who realized the importance of education for his people. In order to equip Muslim with the ornament of knowledge, he opened many educational institutions and societies which revolutionised the life of the Muslims.

• Two Madrassahs in Muradabad (1858) and Ghaziabad (1862) which imparted education in Persian.
• In 1864, Sir Syed laid the foundation of a Scientific Society which translated English works into Urdu.
• M.A.O High School was founded in 1875.
• In 1877, M.A.O High School was given the status of a college and inaugurated by Viceroy Lord Lytton. Later on, this college became a University in 1920A.D.

Muhammadan Educational Conference:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan established Muhammadan Educational Conference in 1886 in order to bring political awareness among the Muslims. The Conference held its annual conferences regularly till 1906 when in its Dhaka session All-India Muslim League was founded.

ii) Political Service:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan rendered meritorious political services in order to defend the rights of the Muslims. His services were as under:

• After the War of Independence 1857, sir Syed compiled a pamphlet entitled Rasala-i-Asbab-e-Baghawat-i-Hind, in which he explained to the British that the Muslims were not the only force behind the catastrophe of 1857. He enlisted the following factors which led to the uprising.
a) Misunderstanding of the people about the rulers.
b) Maladministration by the army.
c) Government’s unawareness of the conditions and grievance of the people.
d) Promulgation of regulations which were contrary to the wishes of the people.
• Sir Syed Ahmed khan wrote a commentary on William hunter’s book.
• He is regarded as one of the greatest exponents of Two-Nation theory because after the Hindu-Urdu controversy he was convinced that Hindus were not sincere towards the Muslims. Answering a query of Mr. Shakespeare, Commissioner of Banaras, he remarked.” Now I am convinced that both these communities will not join whole-heartedly in anything though, at present, there was no open hostility between the two communities, but on account of the so-called educated people it will increase immensely in future.”
• Sir Syed founded a Patriotic Association in order to counter the anti-Muslim propaganda by the Hindus.
• Soon after the establishment of Indian National Congress, he came to realise that it was a purely Hindu organisation. Consequently, he asked the Muslims to desist taking part in its activities.
• He proposed the system of separate electorate for the Muslims in order to protect the political rights of the Muslim Community. He highlighted his views in this regard in a speech in 1883 by saying, “The system of representation by election means the representation of the views and interests of the majority of the population”.

iii) Sir Syed’s Literary Works:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan was not only a prominent educationalist but also a capable author. His writings include the following:
• Asarul Sanadid
• Rasala-i-Asbab-e-Baghawat-i-Hind
• Tarikh Sarkashi-e-Bijnaur
• Risalah Ahkam-i-Ta’am-i-Ahle-Kitab
• Tabeen-Ul-Kalam
• Kutbat-e-Ahmadiyah
• Risalah Tehzib-Ul-Akhlaq
• Jame-Jama

iv) Sir Syed’s Social Services:

Sir Syed wanted that Muslims of the Sub-continent should get an honourable position in the Hindu dominated society. For this purpose he not only opened many schools but also established an orphanage at Muradabad to provide refuge to the orphan Muslim children. In fact his whole life revolved round his desire for the betterment of his community.
He took several steps for the revival and betterment of the Muslims. He wrote the most influential magazine Tehzib-ul-Akhlaq in which he outlined the ethical aspects of the Muslims’ life. In this magazine he criticized the conservative way of the Muslims and advised them to adopt new trends of life.
He set himself to the task of protecting the Urdu from being faded away and replaced by English. He worked laboriously for the promotion of Urdu and gave a new tone and colour to the Urdu literature. He founded Anjuman-i-Tarki-i-Urdu which worked for the protection of Urdu. He wrote another magazine as Ahkam-i-Ta’am-i-Ahle-Kitab in which the principles and etiquettes of eating and dinning in Islam were discussed. In this magazine Sir Syed wrote that it was not against Islam to eat with the Christians on the same table. He gave references from the Quran and proved that it was not un-Islamic to eat with a nation who was the bearer of Holy book.

v) Sir Syed’s Religious Services:

Sir Syed rendered many religious services through his movement.

• Essay On Life Of Muhammad (PBUH)
William Muir, a Christian writer, wrote a book, “Life of Muhammad of (PBUH)” and used derogatory remarks against the last prophet of Islam. Sir Syed took frequent notices of his book and wrote essays on the life of (PBUH) named Kutbat-i-Ahmadiyah in which he gave befitting reply to William Muir.

Tabeen-e-Alkalam:
Sir Syed also wrote a commentary on Bible in a philosophical style and explained the similarities between the Islam and Christianity with solid arguments.

vi) Sir Syed As A Pioneer Of Two-Nation Theory:

Sir Syed was the first Muslim leader of the Sub-continent who used the word nation (quam) for the Muslims. In clear language, he pronounced that the Hindus and the Muslims were two different communities with different interests. After learning bitter lesson from the Hindi-Urdu controversy, he reached the conclusion that both the communities could not work together. His views were evident in his speech delivered in 1886, in which he said, “the system of representation by election means the representation of the views and thoughts of the majority of the population. In a country like India where caste distinctions still exist, where there is no fusion of interests of various races, where religious differences are still violent, where education in the modern sense has not made an equal or proportionate progress among all sections of the population. I am convinced that the introduction of the principles of the election pure or simple by the representation of various interests in the local boards and district councils would be attended with the evils of greater significance than pure economic consideration. The larger community would totally override the interests of the smaller community”. According to V.A Smith:
“Sir Syed was not concerned with material things only. His Movement was one of general reforms. It was inspired by the thought that the Muslims of India were separate people and nation who must not be absorbed with Hinduism.”

Aligarh Movement:

Aligarh movement means that movement which was inspired by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, his colleagues and Muslim students of M.A.O College (later Aligarh University). The students of Aligarh College fired by the spirit of Muslim nationalism spread throughout the country and became the torch bearer of Two-Nation Theory. Thus, the quest of the Muslims for their national identity took the shape of a movement which resulted in the renaissance of the Muslims in the 19th century. This movement revolutionized the economic, social, and political status of the Muslims. However, Sir Syed was the chief architect of this movement. He worked day and night for the revival of Muslim glory. After the failure of the War of Independence in 1957, the Muslims became the victims of the wrath of the British rulers and they were subjected to an unprecedented systematic process of suppression and elimination. On the other hand the British rulers favoured the Hindus by granting them important government jobs in plenty. Thus the tide was turned on the Muslim community within a short span of time witnessed a steep fall from the high pedestal of the ruling class to a politically neglected and economically depressed minority.

Conclusion:

In the pretext of above mentioned efforts of Sir Syed we come to know that he took the responsibility of the renaissance of Muslim glory and to achieve its destination he guided the Muslim ship to a right direction and took it to a definite position where Muslims could mould their lives according to the pristine principles of Islam. Undoubtedly, Sir Syed’s Aligarh Movement was the pioneer of two-nation theory which injected life in the dormant body of Muslim nation. He restored confidence among Muslims and fought for their political, religious, cultural, social and economic rights. He died on 27th March 1898.
Roshan sahab good work.
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