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Pakistan Affairs A 100 marks paper divided into mainly two zones: Pre-Partition and Post-Partition

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Old Sunday, July 03, 2011
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Dear members here iam starting a thread where i'll place my notes of pak affairs......as i took my first attempt this year and made my notes but after going through different views of seniors here in this section i feel that my notes still lack that touch for securing good marks...so i have decided to place answers of the questions one by one daily and to seek guidance from seniors and qualifiers.......i request all the members to plz guide me wat should i add or subtract to enrich and improve my answers from the point of view of css papers and checkers' requirement .....bz some say that answer should consists of 7-8 pages while others say that quantity doesnt matter but the answer should be to the point meeting the requirement of the question whether it takes 4, 5 or 6 pages, plz rectify and guide.......regard



Darl-Ul-Uloom-I-Deoband OR Deoband Movement


OUTLINE
Introduction
• Establishment of Dar-Ul-uloom-I-Deoband
• Reasons Of The Establishment Of Deoband Movement
• Syllabus Of The Deoband
• Characteristics And Effects Of Deoband Movement
• Critical Analysis
• Deoband And Aligarh Movement
• Conclusion


Introduction:

The Aligarh Movement did a lot of work for social, political and economic uplift of the Muslims. It, however, lacked in religious sphere and could not work commendably for religious training of the Muslims. The lack of stress on religious aspect of the Muslims in the Aligarh Movement brought adverse effects on the spread of Islam. For this purpose Ulema started their movement with the establishment of institution to impart religious training.

Establishment Of Darl-Ul-Uloom-i-Deoband:

Maulana Mohammad Qasim Nanautvi started this movement by establishing Darl-UL-Uloom Deoband in the Chattah Mosque, in Deoband (Sharanpur) on 30th May 1866. A managing committee consisting Maulan Mohammad Qasim, Maulana Zulifqar Ali, Maulana Fazul-ur-Rehman and Maulana Muhammad Mahmood was formed to look after the affairs of the madrasah. Maulvi Muhammad was appointed as its first teacher with a monthly salary of fifteen rupees. Haji Muhammad Abid was also the founder member and took great pains in collecting funds for madrasah. Though Deoband Madrassah took its origin in a very humble manner yet through dedicated approach, very soon it developed into one of the leading religious institutions of India.

Reasons Of Establishment Of Deoband Movement:

Main causes of the Deoband Movement were as under:
i) After the 1857 war of Independence the Christian missionaries had started preaching their religion unhindered under the disguised patronage of the government. Under these circumstances, preaching of Islam was the need of the hour.
ii) The Deoband Movement was the corollary of the Muslim desire for renaissance.
iii) The Indian Ulema wanted to give a proper position to the teachings of the Quran and Hadith which enjoyed secondary importance of Darse Nizami. Thus the Syllabus of Deoband comprised of Tafseer, Hadith, and Arabic literature, Fiqah, Ilmul Kalam, Serf-o-Nehv and Tajveed.

Syllabus Of Deoband Madrassah:

i) In the first four years the Holy Quran was memorized.
ii) Then the disciplines of Urdu, Diniyat, Social Studies, geography, Islamic Civilization and Fiqah were Taught to the students for four years.
iii) In the Arabic course the students were taught Arabic literature, Hadith, Logic, Philosophy, fiqah, Tafseer, Ilmul Kalam, Mathematics and Manazara. In addition, the students of Urdu language, Arabic language and Translations were taught in three year Arabic course.
iv) In the five year Persian and Mathematics course, the students of Persian language, History of Islam, Geography, Mathematics and Translation were taught to the students.

Characteristics And Effects Of Deoband Movement:

i) Deoband was the only seat of learning where all the three branches of knowledge i.e. Maqulat, Manqulat and Ilmul Kalam were taught in a balanced proportion.
ii) In addition to the religious subjects the students were also given training in trades like calligraphy, bookbinding and medicine.
iii) Deoband Movement produced many eminent religious scholars, authors and orators like Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Maulana Hussain Ahmed Madni, Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi, Maulana Ahmed Ali Lahori, Maulana Tajwri Najibabadi and Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan and Maulana Rashid Ahmed Gangohi. These scholars successfully checked the growth of Christianity and other secular faiths.
iv) The Ulemas of Deoband rendered great services in protecting/defending Islam against all anti-Islamic forces. This movement also protected religious and national rights of the Muslims.

Critical Analysis:

i) Deoband Movement no doubt contributed greatly to preserve Islamic rituals, customs and Islamic civilization but neglected the contemporary modern subjects. Thus the syllabus of Deoband could not meet the requirements of the modern age.
ii) In the syllabus of Deoband, the disciplines of Philosophy, Logic and rhetoric were over-stressed. As a result renowned orators were produced but the demands of the scientific age were neglected.
iii) The Deoband Movement due to its severance of link with the English language could not conform itself to the requirements of the modern age.
iv) Persian and Arabic languages and literature continued to enjoy a prominent position in the syllabus of Deoband whereas the practical utility of both these languages had ceased due to the official status of English Language.

Deoband And Aligarh Movement:

The Tahrik-i-deoband, immediately after its inception did not see eye to eye with the Aligarh due to the working strategy of the Aligarh. Aligarh Movement adopted the policy of reconciliation with the British whereas the Deoband stressed on the religious aspects of the Muslims and was opposed to the policy of reconciliation with the British. The complete different approach to the politics had widened the gulf between the two authorities. Maulana Muhammad Qasim, a Leading and prominent personality of Deoband had remained engaged in a controversy with Sir Syed. They had sharp differences on the political matters of the country. Maulana Qasim and his companions actively fought against the British and for sometimes set-up their own government in their own areas. On the other hand Sir Syed, who was active during the war of 1857, remained loyal to the British. He adopted the reconciliatory posture simply because he felt it essential for the protection and revival of the Muslims after war.

When sir Syed advised the Muslims to keep themselves away from the congress politics, Maulana Rashid Ahmed Gangohi opposed him. The anti-British attitude was a marked feature in Deoband whereas the Aligarh followed a policy of cooperation to the British. The leaders and Ulemas of Deoband emphasized on the religious aspects of the Muslims and believed that the Muslims must strictly adhere to their religious customs so that they could easily combat the impact of secularism.

Another glaring contrast between the Deoband and Aligarh movement was their different approach towards educational system. Aligarh laid stress on the western and English education. M.A.O college was the centre of English and its main objective was to prepare a bunch of students well equipped in the western style of education. On the other side Deoband was a seat of Islamic and religious learning. It laid stress on religious disciplines.

The political tension between the two institutions could not be lessened till 1947. This led to many controversies but, the establishment of a central institution, combining the features of two movements and imparting of education in religious and western field did have a healthier and unifying effect.

Conclusion:

Deoband, in fact, was a movement which focused on Islamic teachings rather than materialism. The pioneers of Deoband Movement were against the Aligarh movements of Sir Syed and considered him a materialistic who was imparting only modern knowledge to the Muslims and drifting them away from Islam. That was why; the Deoband Movement was started parallel to Aligarh Movement to adorn the Muslim lives with the Islamic teachings. This movement also raised Muslim consciousness in a superb way who later on demanded for a separate homeland for Muslims in India.
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Fine.......
Dear you can insert some relevent quotations also....
On the whole,good work

Last edited by Shooting Star; Friday, June 15, 2012 at 04:58 PM.
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thnx dear for ur kind consideration and reply......brother wat quotations shd i add in this answer, cud u plz quote some relevant quotations here for this answer...furthermore wat abt the legth and the quality of the answer???it wud be nice of u if u explain everythng in detail to improve this answer...Regards
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Nadva-Tul-Ulema Lucknow:


Outline:
Establishment Of Nadva-tul-Ulema
• Objectives Of The Nadva
• Syllabus Of The Nadva
• Services Rendered By Nadva



Introduction:

Nadva-tul-Ulema Lucknow was established by Maulana Abdul Ghafoor, Maulana Shibli Naumani and Maulana Abdul Haq in 1894. Its establishment was necessitated by the fact that M.A.O Aligarh and Dar-Ul-Uloom Deoband had failed to produce Muslims equipped with Western knowledge and the religious education. M.A.O College Aligarh stressed more upon English language and the modern science subjects whereas Darl-Ul-Uloom Deoband neglected the modern western knowledge altogether. Consequently the graduates of M.A.O College seriously lacked in religious education whereas Darl-Ul-Uloom Deoband produced many Sufis, Ulemas and spiritual leaders. Under these circumstances, Nadva aimed at producing the graduate well versed in both Western knowledge and religious education. Nadva started functioning in 1898 and in the beginning faced financial difficulties which were removed with the progress of time. The nobles of Shah Jehan Pur provided land and then State of Hyderabad in 1900 and Bhopal in 1905 fixed annual grants for this Muslim seat of learning. Later on, the government also sanctioned a monthly grant of 500 rupees for the Nadva.

Objectives of The Nadva:

Nadva had the following objectives.
i) Nadva aimed at the reformation of the Muslims by producing the graduates well equipped with both Western and secular knowledge.
ii) One of its main objectives was the promotion of Islamic knowledge and thought.
iii) Nadva aimed at the reformation of the curriculum of Islamic education.
iv) To end the mutual differences of the Muslim religious scholars.
v) To work for the welfare of the Muslims.
vi) To evaluate Nadva to the status of Muslim seat of learning where students may be imparted the knowledge of the modern science subjects along with educational knowledge.

Syllabus Of the Nadva-tul-Ulema:

In 1904, Maulana Shibli Naumani introduced revolutionary changes in the syllabus of the Nadva-tul-Ulema. Eight years long period was fixed for the education from primary to higher level. Tafseer and Hadith were given importance over Philosophy and Logic and more stress was laid upon the teaching English language and the modern Arabic knowledge. A committee comprising of Maulana Shibli Naumani, Maulana Abdul Hayee and Maulana Abdul Qayum proposed the following syllabus for the Nadva.
i) Modern science subjects were introduced in place of Philosophy and Logic.
ii) Tafseer was granted importance.
iii) Hindi and Sanskrit were included.
iv) Shah Waliullah’s book “Hajjatul Baligah”, Imam Ghazali’s book “Iqtisa”, Al-Razi’s “Kitab Mualim Fi Asool-ud-Din” and Al-Rushd’s book “Kashful Walatah” were included in the syllabus.

Services Of The Nadva-Tul-Ulema:

Nadva-Tul-Ulema Lucknow rendered invaluable services in the field of education and religion during the first quarter of the 20th century. Some of its services are as under:
i) Nadva modernized the Islamic educational syllabus and brought it in conformity with the contemporary requirements. Thus the Muslim students of Nadva acquired knowledge of modern subjects along with religious education.
ii) The teachers and students of Nadva wrote many important books.
iii) “Darul Musanafeen” Azamgarh was the product of Nadva movement. This institution rendered invaluable services for the promotion of the research work in the Islamic knowledge and literature.
iv) Maulana Shibli Naumani who was the main force behind the Nadva Movement wrote many books and influences the contemporary writers.
v) “Al-Nadva” was the magazine of Nadva. It rendered the writings of the prominent scholars adorned its pages.
vi) Nadva-tul-Ulema Lucknow adopted a moderate syllabus which was the beautiful blend of Aligarh and Deoband syllabus. Thus the syllabus of Nadva possessed the ability to meet the challenges of the modern world.
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nice effort....keep on working like this.but dont forget to add comments at the end of each question analyzing the subject discussed in your question.
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thnx lizaaudacious for ur appreciation..ya surely i'll continue this effort with the guidance of kind members like u...under wat heading shd these comment come?shd these coments be given under the heading of 'critical analysis', 'conclusion', or some other heading....and can plz u give any example....plz guide..thnknd in advance
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yes ..exactly in the same manner you need to end your question up.Like in the question you attempted above ;you can put a heading of critical analysis,conclusion or comments whatever you wish and then you can write how well the institute served the objectives ,PLUS the objectives it could not serve to that extent as it was supposed to.Dont go for excessive details ,rather five to seven sentences will be more than enough.
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Anjuman-i-Himayat-e-Islam


Outline:
• Introduction
• Establishment Of The Anjuman-i-Himayat-e-Islam
• Objectives Of The Anjuman
• Educational Reforms Of The Anjuman
• Muthi Bhar Scheme Atta Scheme
• Political Services
• Social And Religious Services
• Conclusion



Introduction:

Aligarh Movement and Darl-Ul-Uloom Deoband adorned the Muslims lives with modern and Islamic education. Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam also did the same job but in a different way.

Establishment Of The Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam:

On September 24, 1884 Anjuman was found in the mosque Bakan Khan gate, Lahore. Anjuman-i-Himayat-e-Islam was based on uplifting the Muslim glory and respect by its own means and source without the support of the British government. When this Anjuman was found there were about 250 members of it. Khalifa Hameed-ud-Din was the founder of this Anjuman Abdur Rahim, Dr. Mohammad Din Nazir, Maulvi Charagh Din, Maulvi Ghulam Mohammad, Haji Meer Shams-ud-Din and Khan Najam-ud-din were other active members of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-Islam Lahore. The objectives of the Anjuman were as follows.


Objectives Of The Anjuman:

The renaissance and betterment of the Muslims by its own means was the chief objective of the Anjuman, other were as under:
i) To furnish modern and Islamic education to the Muslims.
ii) Prevention of the propaganda of Christianity.
iii) Establishment of an Islamic Society on sound foundations.
iv) Protection of orphan children and to give them education.
v) Protection and development of the Muslims’ social, political, economic, and educational rights.

Educational Services:

Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam was a pragmatic institution to achieve its objectives; the Anjuman took some practical steps.
In 1884, two schools were established under the administration of this Anjuman. The primary school for girls was also established. In 1925, a girl’s primary school was upgraded to high school. In 1938, Islamia college for women, Cooper road, Lahore was started by the Anjuman.
In boys sector, in 1889, a boy’s school named Madrassa-tul-Musalamin in Sheranwala Gate, Lahore was established. In 1905, Islamia College Railway Road, Lahore for boys was also established by the Anjuman.
Islamia College Civil Line, Lahore, Islamia college Lahore Cantt, Himayat-i-Islamia college, Lahore and Islamia Degree College, Kasur were other institutions really quenched the thirst of education of the students of the Punjab.
Sir Syed, Allama Iqbal, Nawab Mohsin-ul-Malik, Sheikh Abdul Qadir, Justice Shah Din and Maulana Altaf Hussain Hali attended its sessions and supported its activities.

Muthi Bhar Atta Scheme:

Muthi Bhar Atta Scheme was introduced for raising funds for the Anjuman. In every Muslim’s home a small quantity of the flour (Muthi Bhar Atta) was saved to support the Anjuman. After one week, members of the Anjuman accumulated that flour from every house and disposed of it for raising funds.

Political Services:

Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam also rendered invaluable political services under the flag of Muslim League. It played a major role in the freedom of the Muslims of the Sub=Continent by arranging its annual meetings which were presided over by the leading Muslim personalities like Sir Syed, Allama Iqbal, Abdul Qadir, Maulana Hali. Later on, the students of Islamia College Railway Road, Lahore played a significant role in Pakistan Movement. They spread throughout the country and propagated the Two-nation theory. In March 1940, these students played a leading role in organizing the annual session of the Muslim league Minto Park, Lahore.

Social And Religious Services:

Anjuman established an orphanage and two centres for adult education. Moreover, it published error-free Quran and introduced the Islamic education in its institutions.

Conclusion:

The Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam was a more middle class body that represented a spontaneous desire on the part of middle-class Muslims of Lahore to cooperate with each other for common good. The Anjuman also played a vital role to provide a political platform for Indian Muslims.
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Sir Syed Ahmed khan (1817-18918) & Aligarh Movement


Outline:
• Introduction
• Conditions Of The Muslims After War
• Syed’s services For The Renaissance Of The Muslims
i) Syed’s Educational Services
ii) Political Services
iii) Literary Services
iv) Social Services
v) Religious Services
• Pioneer Of The Two-Nation Theory
• Aligarh Movement
• Conclusion


Introduction:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan flourished from 1817 to 1898. As the founder of Aligarh movement, he is ranked among the greatest Muslim reformers of the 19th century. He came to the rescue of his co-religionists after the War of Independence (1857) when the British unleashed a wave of vengeance against the Muslims. As a result of the atrocities of the British, the Muslims were cut of the mainstream of political, social, economic and educational development. At this critical juncture Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim to realize that if the Muslims continued to keep themselves aloof then they would be completely absorbed by the Hindu community.

Conditions Of Muslims After The War Of Independence (1857):

The British considered Muslims to be responsible for the War of Independence. Thus, they subjected them to all sorts of cruelties. Leading Muslim leaders were hanged or sentenced to jail and their properties were confiscated. Moreover, they were denied important government jobs. Resultantly, the ratio of Muslim representation went on dwindling till 1871 when the number of Muslim government servants almost came to a naught. According to William Hunter’s disclosure in his book “The Indian Mussalmans” published in 1871.
“In the three grades of Assistant Government engineers, there were fourteen Hindus and not one Mussalman; among the apprentices, there were four Hindus and two Englishmen and not one Mussalman. Among the Sub-Engineers there were 24 Hindus to one Mussalman. In the office of Accounts there were 50 names of Hindus and not one Mussalman and in the upper subordinate department there were 22 Hindus and again not one Mussalman.”
Ashok Mehta, an Indian Socialist Leader, thrown light on the misery of the Muslims after the war in his book entitled “The communal Triangle” in these words, “Not only were the Muslims economically crushed, educationally and socially also their position was deliberately depressed by the government. In 1870, the Muhammadan pleaders presented two memorials to the High Court pointing out that while closed holidays allowed to the Christians were sixty and those to Hindus were fifty-two, only eleven were granted to the Muhammadans.”

Sir Syed's Services For The Renaissance Of Muslims:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the founder of Aligarh Movement which checked the decline of the Muslims in political, social, educational and economic spheres. He devoted his whole life for the renaissance of his co-religionists and succeeded in pulling them out of the depths of ignorance and backwardness. His services can be summed up as under:

i) Sir Syed’s Educational Services
ii) Sir Syed’s Political Services
iii) Sir Syed’s Literary works
iv) Sir Syed’s Social Services


i) Sir Syed’s Educational Services:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who realized the importance of education for his people. In order to equip Muslim with the ornament of knowledge, he opened many educational institutions and societies which revolutionised the life of the Muslims.

• Two Madrassahs in Muradabad (1858) and Ghaziabad (1862) which imparted education in Persian.
• In 1864, Sir Syed laid the foundation of a Scientific Society which translated English works into Urdu.
• M.A.O High School was founded in 1875.
• In 1877, M.A.O High School was given the status of a college and inaugurated by Viceroy Lord Lytton. Later on, this college became a University in 1920A.D.

Muhammadan Educational Conference:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan established Muhammadan Educational Conference in 1886 in order to bring political awareness among the Muslims. The Conference held its annual conferences regularly till 1906 when in its Dhaka session All-India Muslim League was founded.

ii) Political Service:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan rendered meritorious political services in order to defend the rights of the Muslims. His services were as under:

• After the War of Independence 1857, sir Syed compiled a pamphlet entitled Rasala-i-Asbab-e-Baghawat-i-Hind, in which he explained to the British that the Muslims were not the only force behind the catastrophe of 1857. He enlisted the following factors which led to the uprising.
a) Misunderstanding of the people about the rulers.
b) Maladministration by the army.
c) Government’s unawareness of the conditions and grievance of the people.
d) Promulgation of regulations which were contrary to the wishes of the people.
• Sir Syed Ahmed khan wrote a commentary on William hunter’s book.
• He is regarded as one of the greatest exponents of Two-Nation theory because after the Hindu-Urdu controversy he was convinced that Hindus were not sincere towards the Muslims. Answering a query of Mr. Shakespeare, Commissioner of Banaras, he remarked.” Now I am convinced that both these communities will not join whole-heartedly in anything though, at present, there was no open hostility between the two communities, but on account of the so-called educated people it will increase immensely in future.”
• Sir Syed founded a Patriotic Association in order to counter the anti-Muslim propaganda by the Hindus.
• Soon after the establishment of Indian National Congress, he came to realise that it was a purely Hindu organisation. Consequently, he asked the Muslims to desist taking part in its activities.
• He proposed the system of separate electorate for the Muslims in order to protect the political rights of the Muslim Community. He highlighted his views in this regard in a speech in 1883 by saying, “The system of representation by election means the representation of the views and interests of the majority of the population”.

iii) Sir Syed’s Literary Works:

Sir Syed Ahmed khan was not only a prominent educationalist but also a capable author. His writings include the following:
• Asarul Sanadid
• Rasala-i-Asbab-e-Baghawat-i-Hind
• Tarikh Sarkashi-e-Bijnaur
• Risalah Ahkam-i-Ta’am-i-Ahle-Kitab
• Tabeen-Ul-Kalam
• Kutbat-e-Ahmadiyah
• Risalah Tehzib-Ul-Akhlaq
• Jame-Jama

iv) Sir Syed’s Social Services:

Sir Syed wanted that Muslims of the Sub-continent should get an honourable position in the Hindu dominated society. For this purpose he not only opened many schools but also established an orphanage at Muradabad to provide refuge to the orphan Muslim children. In fact his whole life revolved round his desire for the betterment of his community.
He took several steps for the revival and betterment of the Muslims. He wrote the most influential magazine Tehzib-ul-Akhlaq in which he outlined the ethical aspects of the Muslims’ life. In this magazine he criticized the conservative way of the Muslims and advised them to adopt new trends of life.
He set himself to the task of protecting the Urdu from being faded away and replaced by English. He worked laboriously for the promotion of Urdu and gave a new tone and colour to the Urdu literature. He founded Anjuman-i-Tarki-i-Urdu which worked for the protection of Urdu. He wrote another magazine as Ahkam-i-Ta’am-i-Ahle-Kitab in which the principles and etiquettes of eating and dinning in Islam were discussed. In this magazine Sir Syed wrote that it was not against Islam to eat with the Christians on the same table. He gave references from the Quran and proved that it was not un-Islamic to eat with a nation who was the bearer of Holy book.

v) Sir Syed’s Religious Services:

Sir Syed rendered many religious services through his movement.

• Essay On Life Of Muhammad (PBUH)
William Muir, a Christian writer, wrote a book, “Life of Muhammad of (PBUH)” and used derogatory remarks against the last prophet of Islam. Sir Syed took frequent notices of his book and wrote essays on the life of (PBUH) named Kutbat-i-Ahmadiyah in which he gave befitting reply to William Muir.

Tabeen-e-Alkalam:
Sir Syed also wrote a commentary on Bible in a philosophical style and explained the similarities between the Islam and Christianity with solid arguments.

vi) Sir Syed As A Pioneer Of Two-Nation Theory:

Sir Syed was the first Muslim leader of the Sub-continent who used the word nation (quam) for the Muslims. In clear language, he pronounced that the Hindus and the Muslims were two different communities with different interests. After learning bitter lesson from the Hindi-Urdu controversy, he reached the conclusion that both the communities could not work together. His views were evident in his speech delivered in 1886, in which he said, “the system of representation by election means the representation of the views and thoughts of the majority of the population. In a country like India where caste distinctions still exist, where there is no fusion of interests of various races, where religious differences are still violent, where education in the modern sense has not made an equal or proportionate progress among all sections of the population. I am convinced that the introduction of the principles of the election pure or simple by the representation of various interests in the local boards and district councils would be attended with the evils of greater significance than pure economic consideration. The larger community would totally override the interests of the smaller community”. According to V.A Smith:
“Sir Syed was not concerned with material things only. His Movement was one of general reforms. It was inspired by the thought that the Muslims of India were separate people and nation who must not be absorbed with Hinduism.”

Aligarh Movement:

Aligarh movement means that movement which was inspired by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, his colleagues and Muslim students of M.A.O College (later Aligarh University). The students of Aligarh College fired by the spirit of Muslim nationalism spread throughout the country and became the torch bearer of Two-Nation Theory. Thus, the quest of the Muslims for their national identity took the shape of a movement which resulted in the renaissance of the Muslims in the 19th century. This movement revolutionized the economic, social, and political status of the Muslims. However, Sir Syed was the chief architect of this movement. He worked day and night for the revival of Muslim glory. After the failure of the War of Independence in 1957, the Muslims became the victims of the wrath of the British rulers and they were subjected to an unprecedented systematic process of suppression and elimination. On the other hand the British rulers favoured the Hindus by granting them important government jobs in plenty. Thus the tide was turned on the Muslim community within a short span of time witnessed a steep fall from the high pedestal of the ruling class to a politically neglected and economically depressed minority.

Conclusion:

In the pretext of above mentioned efforts of Sir Syed we come to know that he took the responsibility of the renaissance of Muslim glory and to achieve its destination he guided the Muslim ship to a right direction and took it to a definite position where Muslims could mould their lives according to the pristine principles of Islam. Undoubtedly, Sir Syed’s Aligarh Movement was the pioneer of two-nation theory which injected life in the dormant body of Muslim nation. He restored confidence among Muslims and fought for their political, religious, cultural, social and economic rights. He died on 27th March 1898.
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nice attempt...add a little more detail about the first que...the one about sir syed ahmed seems nice to me.
good going

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