Reforms introduced by Shah Wali Ullah
History itself stands evident to the fact that whenever Islam was in danger, by any agency or enemy, it was saved by such personalities who through their spiritual power not only saved it but also gave it a new life. The movement of Shah Wali Ullah was the first in the Subcontinent that aimed at socio-economic and politico – religious reformation of the degenerated Muslim society.
The departure of Aurangzeb Alamgir, the Mughal king, from the scene of Mughal Empire in (1707) wreak havoc not only on the future of Mughal Empire but also on the future of Islam and the Muslims in the Subcontinent.
According to S. M. Ikram, “In the 18th century, Islam in the subcontinent was faced with such menacing problems as sectarian conflict, low moral values of society, poor understanding of the Holy Quran and general ignorance of Islam, that there were valid reasons for fearing that political disintegration would be accompanied by religious collapse. That did not happen was due to more than any thing else but the services of one man.”
Early Life and Education
• Shah Wali Ullah was born in 1703.
• His father was a sufi, saint and theologian who assisted Aurangzeb in the completion of Fatawai-Alamgiri.
• Shah Wali Ullah got his early education from his father in the fields of the Quran, the Hadith, logic, Metaphysics and Fiqah.
• He taught at his father's Madrissah for about twelve years after that he travelled to Arabia.
During his stay at Makkah, Shah Wali Ullah saw a dream in which the Holy Prophet (PBUH) blessed him with a binding that he would be instrumental in the organization of a section of the Muslim Community.
Condition of India at that time
The condition of India at that time was bad. There was no political unity, the whole country was divided into different states and there was no central authority.
The weak successors of Aurangzeb had divided the country / state into three parts. There was degeneration of morality and the rulers were indulged in immoral activities.
The situation had been aggravated by the defective laws of succession, demoralized army and economic bankruptcy. The size of the empire had become too large to be administered by one centre. Above all, the integrity and identity of Islam was at state.
The Muslim society was riddled with differences of all kinds like poor understanding of the Holy Quran and general ignorance of Islam and that had made the situation even worse. There was no unity among the Muslims and the religion of Islam was on the verge of losing its identity and spirit.
The situation had been aggravated by the defective laws of succession, demoralized army and economic bankruptcy.
In these circumstances, Shah Wali Ullah appeared on the scene as a great social reformer. He launched a movement to bring social, political and economic reforms in the society. His object was to alleviate the deteriorating condition of the Muslim society and to defend it from external threats.
a) Translation of the Holy Quran
Shah Wali Ullah was the first in the subcontinent who translated the Holy Quran into Persian language for better understanding of the holy book.
b) Explanation of Muatta
• The life and traditions of prophets were the second source of Islamic teachings.
• He established schools for the study of Hadith.
• He selected “Imam Maliki's Muatta” as the most authentic collection of the Hadith.
c) Synthesis of different schools of thought
He wrote “Al-Insaf-fi-Bayan Sahab al Ikhtalaf,” in order to create a balance between the four schools of thought.
His object was to alleviate the deteriorating condition of the Muslim society and to defend it from external threats.
d) Emphasis on Ijtehad
Shah Wali Ullah was the first person to emphasize the importance of Ijtehad for the solution of intricate problems in every day life.
e) Efforts for the Revival of Islam
He was against the limited universality of the applications of the injunctions of the Quran. He tried to resolve the controversies among various schools of thoughts and gave a new life to the spirit of Islam.
Promotion of Madarras Rahimiya
He rendered great services to Islam by the promotion of Madarrasah Rahimiya.
In his famous book “Hijjat-ul-Balagh,” he pointed out that social and economic factors were responsible for the problems in human society.
The working and poor class was being exploited but the noble, ulema and rulers were being fed on the public treasury without performing their corresponding duties. Shah Wali Ullah raised his voice for:
• Economic equilibrium
• Removal of inequalities
• Equitable distribution of resources
He appealed to the classes concerned responsible to realize their responsibilities and duties towards the people.
Shah Wali Ullah wrote many letters to “Ahmad Shah Abdali” and encouraged Najib-ud-Daula of Bengal to help him save the Muslim Community from the Marhattas. He gave a crushing defeat to the Marhattas at Panipat. The occasion was the culmination of Shah Wali Ullah's political efforts.
He emphasized on all basic rights such as free dispensation of justice, equality, brotherhood, etc.
• The efforts of Shah Wali Ullah for the integration of whole Islamic structure would never be forgotten.
• He can be called “The founder of Neo-Islamization” of the Muslim society in the Sub-Continent.
It was because of the effects of Shah Wali Ullah's reforms that the other religious movements, such as movements of Syed Ahmad Shaheed and Sir Syed Ahmad Khan flourished after him.
Dr Quratul Ain Malik (CSP)
Who is Mujadid alf sani
thaks for uploading this informative
me ne shsh walli Ul Allah ka topic prepare kia h.mujhy cofusion ho rhi h k walli Allah mujadid alf sani thy?
ya sheikh sirhindi thy?
me ne jahan se prepare kia h wahan likhja hoa h k walli Allah thay
but jab objective prepare ker rhi thi to waha pe likha tha k sirhindi mujaded alif sani thy.
Every day do something that will inch you closer to a better tomorrow.
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multithinker (Tuesday, January 08, 2013)
Mujadid Alif Sani was Sheikh Ahmed Sarhandi.
Shah Waliullah was another muslim reformer.
for this goto link below:
Mujaddid Alf Sani''s Movement [1564-1624]
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