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Old Friday, December 16, 2011
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Lucknow Pact 1916


In 1913, the Quaid-e-Azam’s inclusion in the Muslim League was a historic event which gave new dimensions to Muslim League’s struggle. He was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity and was widely respected in Muslim League and the Congress. He succeeded in persuading both the Congress and the Muslim League parties to hold their annual sessions in Bombay in 1915. Both the parties set up Reform Committees for making a scheme for constitutional changes in consultation with other political parties.

The atmosphere of Lucknow in 1916, where the Muslim League and the Congress, for the first time in the history of India, held their joint sessions, was even more cordial. The scheme for constitutional reforms prepared by the Reform Committees of Congress and Muslim League, in which the Quaid-e-Azam played a major role, was placed before the joint session for approval. Finally the scheme was approved and an agreement on the scheme of constitutional reforms was reached between Congress and Muslim League known as Lucknow Pact. It was decided that both Congress and Muslim League would submit the jointly approved scheme to the Government for its introduction after the war in order to introduce self-Government in India.

Main Recommendations

Following were the main recommendations of the pact:

1. One Third seats for Muslims in the Imperial Legislative Council.
2. Separate Electorate
3. Half members of the Executive Council should be Indian to be elected by the Imperial Legislative Council.
4. Commissioned ranks of the army for Indians.
5. Expansion of Provincial Legislative Councils.
6. Half members of the Governor’s Executive Council should be Indians to be elected by the elected members of the Legislative Council.
7. Weightage to minorities in provinces.
8. Unofficial bill, if opposed by three-fourth members of a community, it will not be passed.

Role of the Quaid-e-Azam

Jinnah was the principal architect of the Lucknow Pact and was hailed as an ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity. He presided over the League session at Lucknow in December 1916. Jinnah said,

“To the Hindus our attitude should be of good-will and brotherly feelings. Co-operation in the cause of our motherland should be our guiding principle. India’s real progress can only be achieved by a true understanding and harmonious relations between the two great sister communities. With regard to our own affairs, we can depend upon nobody but ourselves”

Gains from Muslim Point-of-view

1. Separate Electorate
2. One Third Muslim seats in Central Legislature.
3. Unofficial bill, if opposed by three-fourth members of a community, it will not be passed.

Achievements of Lucknow Pact.

On August 20, 1917 the Secretary of State Montague promised for:

1. Greater association of Indian in all branches of government.
2. Responsible government
3. Induction of Indians in the commissioned ranks.

Importance of Lucknow Pact

The Lucknow Pact was a bright chapter in the dark and gloomy environs of the Indian political history marred with communal strife and narrow-mindedness. It was a political agreement which set in a new path leading towards a happy and prosperous future. The Lucknow pact created political homogeneity between the two separate political entities, Hindus and Muslims, who frankly and fairly admitted each others interests with sincerity. The credit for creating this harmonious situation undoubtedly went to the unflinching and untiring efforts of the Quaid-e-Azam who was conferred with a proud title of Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity by the famous poet politician Mrs. Sarojni Naidu.

The historical struggle of the Muslims confirmed their identity. They organized their political party to address the demands. They also got recognition by the Hindus as a separate nation. The British accepted their role in the political domain.

Reaction of the Hindus and the Muslims

The Hindus of the United Provinces expressed their resentment because it granted separate electorates to the Muslims of India. All India Hindu Mahasbaha also did the same. Muslims belonging to the “Sir Syed School of Thought” in the Punjab and UnitedProvinces went against the Lucknow Pact. Sir Muhammad Shafi led this group. In retaliation, Sir Muhammad Shaft’s Punjab Muslim League was disaffiliated from the Central Muslim League and the Muslim League under Sir Fazal Hussain was recognized. The Bengali Muslims also disapproved the Lucknow Pact because their majority was changed into minority in the Provincial Legislative Council. Newspaper of Aligarh i.e., “Al-Bashir”, “Al-Mizan”, “Zulqurnain”, “Mashriq” and “Aligarh Institute Gazette” were against the Lucknow Pact.
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  #12  
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Government of India Act, 1919 (Montague-Chelmsford Reforms)


Background

The reforms introduced by the Act of 1909 failed to satisfy the people of India. Some significant developments in 1909-1919 like World War I- 1914- 1918, change in Muslim League objectives, Lucknow Pact 1916 were happened. The Rowlett Committee presented its report to the Government in 1918 which contained very strict measures to be adopted against those who were found involved in the political activities against the Government. These incidents contributed a great deal towards a widespread sense of hatred towards the Government received an immeasurable fillip giving rise to large scale anti-British propaganda.

Montague-Chelmsford Reforms

The country was passing through the most critical and unstable period of its history. The British Government realized that something should be done for the Indians. The British government announced that gradual induction of Indians in all branches of government would be done. Gradual introduction of responsible government would be done. Commissioned ranks of Army would be given to the Indians. Mr. Montague, Secretary of State visited India from November 1917 to April 1918 and discussed the constitutional matters with Viceroy Lord Chelmsford and the Indian political leaders. The outcome was the government of India Act 1919.

Salient Features, Government of India Act, 1919

The Government of India Act, 1919 was based to a great extent on the Montague-Chelmsford Report. The following were the most important features of the Act, 1919.

· Bicameral legislature was established in the Centre. The Upper House was known as the Council of State and the Lower House was named as Central Legislative Assembly. The membership of the Upper House was fixed at 60 members while the Lower House consisted of 146 members.
· The Upper House was elected for 5 years and the Lower House for 3 years.
· Separate electorate was retained for minorities.
· Self-Government would be established gradually in India.
· The system of Dyarchy was introduced in the provinces. The provincial subjects were divided into Reserved and Transferred ones.
· The subjects were divided between the Centre and Provinces. The central subjects were Defence, Foreign Affairs, Currency, Railway and Telecommunication. The Provincial subjects included Education, Health, Irrigation and Local Government.
· The Governor-General’s Executive Council was responsible to the Secretary of State for India who was sitting in London.
· The Governor-General retained the right to certify any legislation which he considered essential.

An Appraisal of the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms

The Montague-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 conceded far less than the Lucknow Pact had demanded. The Act did not make important changes at the Centre. The bicameral system of legislature was introduced at the Centre but there was not appreciable increase in the powers of the legislature. In the domain of provinces, Dyarchy was introduced but it was unsound in principle and unworkable in practice. Such concessions were not acceptable to the Congress and the Muslim League. The Indians felt that the Reforms of 1919 had not given them enough powers and they were dissatisfied with them. The Rowlett Act, the Jullianwala Bagh Tragedy, Martial Law and other sad happenings added to the resentment and bitterness of the people.

The political circles declared these reforms as inadequate and unsatisfactory. Congress split into two factions over the question of accepting the Reforms, one group was in favour of accepting the Reforms while the other was for rejecting them. Muslim League too, was not very optimistic about the proposals as they did not contain any concrete suggestions about the introduction of self-rule in India. Thus the reforms introduced by the Act of 1919 failed to satisfy the people of India and the people did not think the 1919 Reforms worth for any consideration of attention.
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The Khilafat Movement


The Khilafat movement was a religio-political movement launched by the Muslims of British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate and for not handing over the control of Muslim holy places to non-Muslims.

Turkey sided with Germany in World War 1. As it began to lose the war, concerns were expressed in India about the future of Turkey. It was a peak period from 1919 to 1922 casting demonstrations, boycott, and other pressure by the two major communities, the Hindus and the Muslims. Being brothers, the Indian Muslims realized their religious duty to help the Muslim country. It was the extra territorial attachments based on Islam. Another factor same to the first was that the Indian Muslims considered Ottoman Caliphate a symbol of unity of the Muslim world as Ummah.

Goals:

1. Ottoman Khilafat should be kept intact.
2. To preserved the Territorial solidarity.
3. Control of holy the places should not be given to non-Muslims.

Dimensions:

The writings of the Muslim intellectuals provoked the sentiments for the preservation of Khilafat and retention of the Muslims control of the holy places. The Muslims journalism played a vital role to steer the direction of the struggle. Zamindar of Zafar Ali Khan, Comrade and Hamdard of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, and Al-Hilal of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad etc. were the prominent newspapers and magazines which performed their duties to express their resentment. The Allies imposed humiliating terms on vanquished Turkey.

Protests in India:

All India Khilafat Committee was formed at Bombay in July 1919. The first Khilafat Conference at Delhi in November 1919 was arranged in which the Congress leaders like Gandhi and Nehru participated. In this way, the major political parties joined hands to assault the injustice with the Muslim community. These steps were announced:

· No participation in victory celebrations.
· Boycott of British goods
· Non Cooperation with the Government

The second Khilafat Conference (Amritsar) was held in Dec. 1919. Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali joined the session after being released from prison. In Jan. 1920, M. A. Ansari led a delegation to Viceroy while Maulana M. A. Jauhar to Europe. The Khilafat Committee decided to start non-cooperation in collaboration with the Congress in May 1920.

Rowlett Act, 1919

Rowlett Act was a black law introduced in India. To the law, the government got authority to persecute any Indian and the arrested had no facility of legal assistance and right to appeal just as the ‘Lettres de Cachet’ in France before the French Revolution. Jinnah resigned from the central legislature as a protest.

Jallianwala Bagh Incident, April 1919

The people gathered in Jallianwala Bagh at Amritsar but General Dyer opened fire to disperse the throng that cast huge human casualties (379). It is considered one of the great tragedies in India. In 1940, by killing Governor Punjab, Sir Michaal O’ Dayer, ‘Ram Muhammad Singh Azad’ got revenge of the Indian massacre.

Non-Cooperation:

The Nagpur Session of the Congress (Dec. 1920) approved non cooperation with Government but Jinnah opposed and left the Congress on 13th April 1923, because he was against the use of extra-constitutional means of protests.

The country was passing through a critical period and both the Congress and the Muslim League fully felt the necessity of mutual co-operation to the Khilafat Movement. The leaders of the two movements met at Amritsar and resolved to launch a country-wide agitation under the leadership of Mr. Gandhi. So the two movements, one led by Maulana Muhammad Ali and the other by Mr. Gandhi merged into one and it was directed against the British Government.

The policy of ‘progressive, non-violent, non-cooperation’ was to be given effect to in the following manner:

· Renunciation of all Government titles.
· Boycott of courts and educational institutions.
· Resign from jobs.
· Later resign from police and military jobs.
· Refusal to pay taxes.
· Boycott of foreign goods.

Khilafat Conference, Karachi, July 1921

In the session the participants expressed their loyalty to Turkish Sultan. They decided to continue the agitation and supported Attaturk to expel foreign forces from Turkey.

Hijrat Movement 1920-21

The Indian ulama (religious leaders) declared India ‘Darul Harab.’ Darul Harab means the place (country) where Muslims are not allowed to perform their religious practices. In the said situation, the Muslims should migrate to the nearest safe place. The ulama issued verdicts to go to Darul Islam, Afghanistan. There was an impression that King of Afghanistan would welcome them. So the migration took place at large scale. Initially Afghans welcomed them. Later, they closed the border and pushed the migrants back to the Indian territories. It resulted in loss of lives and money. Many died during this mission. Some went to Soviet Union from Afghanistan because they had nothing in India now.


End of the Movement


Moplah Revolt Malabar Coast, near Kalicut

Moplahs were the descendents of the Arab Muslims settled in the Sub Continent even before the arrival of Muhammad Bin Qasim. In August 1921, they revolted against Hindu landlords whose treatment was very brutal with them. Later this clash changed as Moplahs versus the Police and Hindu. This embittered the Hindu-Muslim relations. There was an increase in violence day by day and the Chorachori Incident (UP) in February 1922 worsened the situation. The Congress volunteers set a police station on fire and 21 policemen were killed. Gandhi suddenly called off the movement without consulting other leaders.




Developments in Turkey

In 1922 Attaturk emerged as a national leader and restricted powers of Sultan. Next he was appointed Chief of the state by Grand National Assembly. In March 1924, Khilafat was abolished. This caused a widespread resentment among the Indian Muslims. They sent delegations to Turkey but failed to achieve their objectives.

Results of the Khilafat Movement

Despite its failure, the Khilafat Movement left a far-reaching impact on the Indian politics. Following are the most significant influences which the Khilafat Movement left on the Indian Politics:

· The Khilafat Movement was a great Muslim struggle which provided dynamic leadership to the Muslims and established foundations to launch further Muslim Freedom movement on stable and firm basis.
· It confirmed to the Muslims that the Hindu mind can never be sincere to the Muslims.
· The Khilafat Movement effectively demonstrated the religious enthusiasm of the Muslims to the British. The British now seriously felt of giving independence to India.
· The Khilafat Movement also cultivated a new outlook amongst the Muslims not to rely on others support and to wholly depend on self-determination for the achievement of national cause.
· The Khilafat Movement developed a sense of concern amongst the Muslims about their national matters and inculcated among them the awareness about their future.
· The Khilafat Movement immensely strengthened the Two-Nation Theory which became the basis of establishment of Pakistan.
· The Khilafat Movement added much to the economic miseries of the Muslims who resigned their jobs.

Reasons for the Failure of the Khilafat Movement

Following factors can be attributed towards the failure of the movement.

· Gandhi’s action of calling off the Non-Cooperation movement at a moment when the Government was about to make major concessions, was a severe set-back to the movement.
· The Government arrested all important leaders of the movement which left the Muslims leaderless who drifted aimlessly from one side to the other. The Government after arresting leaders, adopted repressive measures on the masses to quell their agitation.
· The Grand National Assembly of Turkey elected Mustafa Kamal as their leader who abolished the institution of Caliphate and the last Caliph Sultan Abdul Majeed was banished from Turkey.
· The Hindu-Muslim unity, achieved at Lucknow, disappeared in the beginning of the movement and could not be recaptured.
· The extremist Hindu movements, Shuddi and Sanghtan, began converting the Muslims to Hinduism which provided a new cause of bitterness between Hindus and Muslims.
· The communal clashes and riots erupted in the country which adversely affected the political conditions of India.

Conclusions:

The Khilafat Movement was of considerable importance in the history of Muslim India. It served the important purpose of the mass-awakening if the Muslims. It also served to demonstrate the religious and political cohesion among the Muslims of the sub-continent. Its failure led them to believe that the Muslims, if they wanted to survive in the sub-continent, must rely upon their own strength and work out their political destiny. The movement later gave and impetus to the struggle for the independence and for a separate homeland for the Muslims.
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Nehru Report


Background

The Nehru Report was an answer to the challenge thrown to Indians by Lord Brikenhead that the composition of the Simon Commission had to be purely British because Indians were incapable of arriving at an agreed solution as regards the constitutional problem of India. The main objective was to constitute proposals for the Indian Constitution. The Congress called All Parties Conference that appointed a 10-member committee in May 1928 under the Chairmanship of Motilal Nehru and Secretary ship of Jawaharlal Nehru. It included spokesmen of the various communal points of view like those of the Muslims, the Hind Mahasabha, non- Brahmins, Sikhs and also those representing the Liberal viewpoint and the interests of labour.

The Report referred to what it considered the illogical fear of Muslims of being dominated by the Hindu majority. But what was significant was the way Muslims were thinking of tackling this problem. They had made a novel suggestion that ‘they should at least dominate in some parts of India. Hindus on the other hand, in spite of enjoying all-India majority, were fearful of Muslim majorities in Bengal, Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and North-West Frontier Province. But the Report ended on an optimistic note saying that once alien authority and intervention were withdrawn from India, people would start thinking in terms of the larger economic and political problems. In such a climate, political parties based mainly on economic grounds were a natural outcome.


Features


The summary of the contents of the Nehru Report is as follows:

Ø India should be given the status of a Dominion on unity basis with a parliamentary form of Government.
Ø Residuary powers should be vested in the centre.
Ø There should be no separate electorates or weightage for minorities. It should be substituted by adult and universal franchise.
Ø The reservation of seats for Punjab and Bengal as suggested by Quaid-e-Azam under Delhi proposals was ruled out. However, reservation of Muslim seats could be possible in the provinces where Muslim population was at least ten percent, but it was to be in strict proportion to the size of the community. The report contained: “A minority must remain minority whether any seats are reserved for it or not.:
Ø Muslims could enjoy one-fourth representation in the Central Legislature.
Ø It agreed to the Muslim demands for the separation of Sindh from Bombay and the raising of the North-West Frontier Province to the status of other provinces.
Ø It suggested the creation of a new Canarese-speakingProvince in South India.
Ø It tried to show by detailed examination of the distribution of the Muslim population in the various districts of Punjab and Bengal that Muslims without reservation of seats could certainly expect to have elected majorities at least in proportion to their numbers in their provinces.
Ø Hindi should be the official language of India.
Ø The Central Government would comprise a Prime Minister along with other six Ministers appointed by the Governor General.

The Nehru Report, published in August 1928, made the Hindu-Muslim rift final and irrevocable. It recommended a fully responsible system of Government in which the majority would be sovereign. Muslim electorates were to be immediately abolished.

As the Report was totally against the Muslim interests, it became the charter of the Hindu intelligentsia and was supported by Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose and all other Hindu leaders. Gandhi took it as a great achievement accomplished by the All-Parties Committee and warmly congratulated Motilal Nehru.

A Convention of all parties known as the All Parties National Convention met in Calcutta in the last week of December 1928, to consider the Nehru Report. Jinnah proposed three amendments to the Nehru Report and put forward before the open session of the Convention on 28 December 1928. Those amendments were:

1. One-third of the elected representatives of both the houses of the Central Legislature should be Muslims.
2. That the residuary powers should be vested in the provinces and not in the Centre.
3. That Muslims in Punjab and Bengal should be represented on the basis of population for ten years subject to subsequent revision of this principle.

All these amendments, proposed by the Quaid-e-Azam when put to vote, were rejected by the Hindu majority. The result was that the refusal to accept any amendments to the Nehru Report on the part of the Congress and Hindu leaders at the All Parties National Convention united the different factions of Muslims in the All-India Muslim Conference held in Delhi under the Chairmanship of Sir Aga Khan on 1 January 1929. Some of the noteworthy features of the Resolution passed in this Conference were:

1. The only form of Government suitable to Indian conditions was a federal system with complete autonomy and residuary powers vested in the provinces.
2. Muslims should not be deprived of the right to elect their representatives through separate electorate without their consent.
3. Muslims should continue to have weightage in the Hindu majority Provinces and they were willing to accord the same privilege to non-Muslim minorities in Sindh, the N.W.F.P. and the Balochistan.
4. Muslims should have their due share in the Central and Provincial cabinets.
5. One-third seats should be given to the Muslims in the Central Legislature.
6. There must be safeguards for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim charitable institutions.

Conclusion

The Quaid-e-Azam declared:

“The Nehru Committee has adopted a narrow-minded policy to ruin the political future of the Muslims. I regret to declare that the report is extremely ambiguous and does not deserve to be implemented.”

Muslims were shocked into unity. Members of the Central and Provincial Assemblies found it impossible to agree with the report. The Aga Khan doubted if any serious minded person could imagine the Muslims accepting such degrading proposals. The united provinces, all Parties Muslim Conference repudiated the Muslim members of the committee. In March 1929 the two groups into which the Muslim League had been split came together in opposition to the Report. When on March 12, 1929 the Report was debated in the Indian Legislative Assembly all the Muslim members, including Jinnah, who had sided with the Congress in boycotting the Simon Commission, rejected it.

On the other side the Congress made the rift irrevocable by not only adopting the Report in the entirely and congratulating the committee on “their patriotism and their far-sightedness” but also by giving notice that if the British Government did not accept it by December 1929, the Congress would launch a non-cooperation movement.

There is a little doubt that the Nehru Report conferred the real power upon the Hindu majority and envisaged a Hindu Raj. At least that was the impression if conveyed to the Muslim mind. The Lucknow Pact had been forgotten. The good old days of the Khilafat were fled, never to return. The unity of the Congress-League Scheme was buried deep under the debris of communal riots. Gandhi’s emphasis on Hindu-Muslim unity sounded unreal in juxtaposition to his ultimatum to Britain that the non-implementation of the report would lead to chaos. The fundamental Muslim demand for separate representation conceded in 1909 by the British and in 1916 by the Hindus was rejected by the Report and by the Congress in unqualified terms. The Muslims were completely disillusioned and from 1928 onwards the Congress became fall but in name a Hindu body. The Muslims would henceforth look upon it as the arch-enemy of their claims and interests.

Prof. Dr. Shafique Ali Khan writes in his famous book ‘Two Nation Theory’:

“Thus the Nehru Report, instead of bridging the gulf further widened it, which rather increased with the passage of time. The obvious reasons of the failure of Report lie in the uncompromising attitude of the Congress and the threats of the Mahasabha leaders.”

In retrospect it is now apparent that the Nehru Report was a blessing in disguise to Muslim nationalism. It united the Muslims as nothing else could have done at that time. All political differences and personal rivalries were hushed from this moment onwards there was nothing that could be called “Indian Nationalism” a separate Muslim National feeling had by now grown almost to maturity, though it was not given a name for another ten years.
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Default Fourteen Points of Quaid-e-Azam

Fourteen Points of Quaid-e-Azam


Quaid-e-Azam learned a bitter lesson from the All Parties National Convention of 1928. He had played the role of a compromiser and negotiator successfully in composing Hindu-Muslim differences at Lucknow in 1916. He thought in 1928 he could play the same role in negotiating a compromise. But he was bluntly reminded that he had no right to speak on behalf of the Muslims because he did not represent them. There he learnt the lesson that political leadership did not rest merely on one’s forensic ability to plead a political case. It also depended on political strength, that is, the actual support that one had among the masses of people. It was only when Jinnah acquired a large political following among Muslims and with his political astuteness (like Gandhi) succeeded in uniting different factions and interests of Muslims that he became a leader who was respected and feared by his opponents because he could veto any proposal that was not acceptable to the Muslim League.

The Quaid-e-Azam decided to give his own formula for the constitutional reforms in reply to Nehru Report. He convened the meeting of the Muslim League in 1929 in Delhi and gave his famous Fourteen Points Formula. While delivering his Presidential Address, the Quaid-e-Azam declared that no constitution shall be accepted by the Muslims of India without the Fourteen Points which were as Follow:-

1. The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers vested in the provinces.
2. A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all the provinces.
3. All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principle of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.
4. In the Central Legislature, Muslim representation shall not be less than one-third.
5. Representation of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorates as at present, provided it shall be open to any community at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favor of a joint electorate.
6. Any territorial distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority in the Punjab, Bengal and the North-West Frontier Province.
7. Full religious liberty, i.e. liberty of belief, worship, and observance, propaganda, association and education, shall be guaranteed to all communities.
8. No bill or any resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if three-fourths of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill, resolution or part thereof on the ground that it would be injurious to the interests of that community or in the alternative, such other method is devised as may be found feasible and practicable to deal with such cases.
9. Sindh should be separated from the Bombay Presidency.
10. Reforms should be made in the North-West Frontier Province and Balochistan on the same footing as in the other provinces.
11. Provisions should be made in the constitution giving Muslims an adequate share, along with the other Indians, in all the services of the state and in local self-governing bodies having due regard to the requirements of efficiency.
12. The constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim charitable institution and for their due share in the grants-in-aid given by the state and by local self-governing bodies.
13. No cabinet, either Central or Provincial, should be formed without there being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim Ministers.
14. No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature except with the concurrence of the State’s contribution of the Indian Federation.

Importance of Fourteen Points

These points were not given any importance in the Congress circle as well as by the Government authorities. As a result of it, the political attitude of the Muslims of India was constituted on the basis of these Points after 1930. As these points also contain the germs of the idea of Pakistan, they postulate the Muslims as a separate national identity. On the basis of these Points, it was suggested that the political power and opportunities for development were to be equally divided among Hindus and Muslims.

With the rejection of Fourteen Points by the Congress and other Hindu leaders, the Nehru Report was also doomed. The Nehru Report created great deal of suspicion in the Muslims who were now seriously thinking for the attainment of a separate homeland for themselves.

These Points attained historic importance. No future constitution could be evolved unless it was within the framework provided by these Points. Even Allama Iqbal seems to have drawn his concept of separate Muslim state in South Asia from these Points of Jinnah.
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Default Allama Iqbal’s Presidential Address December 1930

Allama Iqbal’s Presidential Address December 1930


Dr Allama Muhammad Iqbal ranks amongst the Muslim intellectuals who left a deep impact on history. He inspired Muslims of the Sub-Continent and beyond. He infused a moving spirit and identity in the Indian Muslims. He presented a framework of their political future and talked how that would help to achieve the goal of Ummah. He presented a vision and dream in his Allahabad Address.

Background

The Hindu-Muslim question had great importance and stood crucial to British Indian history after 1857, especially in the 20th century. To Muslims, the key issue remained ‘separate identity.’ They tried their level best to make the rival nations understand that the Muslims are a separate nation having different culture and civilization, interests and rights. The Two Nations theory could not fascinate the Hindus and the British peoples because they believed in ‘territorial nationalism.’ The Hindus desired to absorb them in their majority but they could not face the arguments of the Muslim intellectuals. By 1930, Muslims had developed a sense of identity and political demands. Iqbal delivered his Presidential address in this background.

Iqbal’s stay in Europe, 1905-08, helped to crystallize his thoughts. He returned to India in 1908 and started work on the roots of Muslim decline and the mechanism to uplift the Muslims. He reminded them to follow the teachings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) practically as the ideal leader. He emphasized on the ideals, teachings and principles of Islam. He sought salvation through Islam. He was awarded with many prominent social positions:

· Title of Sir was conferred in 1922
· Member Punjab Legislative Council (1927-1930)

He delivered lectures on Islam in Aligarh, Hyderabad and Madras (1928-29). At Allahabad, he presided over the meeting and delivered his famous address.


The Address, December 1930

Iqbal presented a review of the political and social situation of India and solution of the ills befalling India. He evaluated the importance of role of Islam in the lives of Muslims of British India. He said that the European view of duality of religion and state does not apply here in the Indian society. Rejecting the secularism he said, religion is not a totally personal affair.

He explained that Islam offers an ethical order, socio-political structure, legal framework, code of life, culture and civilization. It is a living, dynamic force that has a profound impact on the lives of Indian Muslims. With the force of Islam the scattered and disoriented people have been turned into an organized force.

The Muslims are not willing to submerge their religious individuality. They have lack of trust, fear of domination from Hindus. If the British want any sort of internal harmony it would be impossible unless the communal question is settled. It’s historical reality that India is a continent inhabited by diverse people. No political arrangement may be acceptable without recognizing this reality.

· If the Muslims have an opportunity to develop in accordance with their Islamic civilization and tradition, they would be willing to sacrifice their lives for India.
· Federalism cannot succeed without recognizing the national identity of the Muslims.
· Territorial redistribution of British India on the basis of religion has become a need of time.
· Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Balochistan be amalgamated into a state, self government within the British empire or without it. The formation of such a consolidated North Western Muslim state appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North West India. To India, it will offer peace and security due to internal balance of power.
· Islam is a people building force in India that has given moral consciousness and political identity to the people.

Importance

Iqbal’s address is a forceful and logical presentation of the Muslim case in India. Why should they be treated as a political entity rather than a minority?

· Territorial adjustments will enable the Muslims to develop themselves in accordance with their ideals and serve the cause of Ummah.
· Redistribution of territory developed later on concept of Muslim homeland.
· He further expressed these ideas in LETTERS TO JINNAH from May 1936 to November 1937. He talked of a separate federation of Muslim provinces. The North Western India and Bengal can be considered as entitled to self-determination like other nations in India and outside. Shariah’s development is impossible without a free Muslim state or states. He advised the Muslims to be above self interest and devote themselves to Islam
· In difficult times, Islam has saved the Muslims.
· Faith, culture and historical traditions are more important than patriotism.
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Default The Government of India Act, 1935

The Government of India Act, 1935


Background

The Act of 1919 did not make important changes at the Centre. The Indians felt that that the Reforms of 1919 had not given them enough powers and they were dissatisfied with them. The Rowlett Act, the Jullianwala Bagh Tragedy, Martial Law and other sad happenings added to the resentment and bitterness of the people. The major Indian parties and influential sections of people in the country boycotted the Simon Commission. The recommendations of the Round Table Conferences were contained in a white paper which was published in 1933 and discussed in the parliament.

The Government of India Act, 1935

A committee was set up under the chairmanship of Lord Linlithgow, the Viceroy of India, to consider the recommendations of the white paper. The report of the committee was published in 1934 which was contained in a Bill of Law. The report along with the Bill was presented in the British Parliament for approval. The Parliament passed the Bill which after the Royal assent on 24th July 1935 was enforced in the country as Government of India Act, 1935.

Salient Features of Act of 1935

It was the most important and most comprehensive legislation introduced by the British Government in India. The Act contained 14 parts and 10 schedules and consisted of two parts. Part I pertained to provincial subjects while Part II contained federal list of subjects. The Act came into operation on 1st April, 1937 except part II which could not be enforced until a specific number of Princely States acceded to the Indian Federation.

a) Provincial Reforms

The provincial reforms were as follows.

· The provinces were given more authority and powers and for the first time the provinces were made the separate entities.
· The system of Diarchy was scrapped in the provinces and introduced in the centre.
· Three lists of subjects were drawn up which were the federal list, the provincial list and the concurrent list.
· The provincial legislatures were given powers of legislation on provincial and concurrent subjects.
· The provincial executive was handed over to the representatives of the people who were accountable before the provincial legislatures.
· The country was divided into 11 provinces.
· Responsible parliamentary system was introduced in the provinces. The provinces were given complete autonomy. The Ministers were to be chosen from the representatives of the people.
· Every province was given a council of ministers whose advice was binding on the Governor. However, in the discharge of his responsibilities the Governor was to act under the general control of the Governor-General.
· Special powers were given to the governors for the protection of the rights of the minorities.

b) Federal Part of the Act

The main provisions of the Federal part of the Act were as follows:

· The Act proposed to give a federal form to the Indian Constitution.
· The proposed Federal Legislature was a bicameral body consisting of the Council of States (Upper House) and the Federal Assembly (Lower House).
· The Council of State was to consist of 260 members, out of these 104 nominated by the rulers were to represent the Indian States, 6 were to be nominated by the Governor-General and 150 were to be elected. The Council of State was a permanent body and its members were to be chosen for nine years, one-third retiring every three years.
· The Federal Assembly was to consist of 375 members, out of these, 250 members were to be representatives of British India and 125 of the Indian States. Its life was fixed at five years, unless dissolved earlier by the Governor-General.
· Dyarchy was to be introduced at the Centre. The Federal subjects were to be divided into two parts--- Reserved (Governed by the Governor-General) and Transferred (Controlled by ministers responsible to the Legislature.
· The division of legislative power is essential in a Federation.
· A Federal Court of India was to be established.

An Appraisal of the Act of 1935

The Act of 1935 failed to satisfy various political sections of the country. The political leaders of India rejected it for it did not meet the demands of the different political factions. Quaid-e-Azam described it as “thoroughly rotten, fundamentally bad and totally unacceptable”. Rajgopalacharia, too, declared it as worst than the system of Dyarchy. Nehru condemned it as “a new chapter of slavery”.

The Federal System introduced by the Act of 1935 was defective in many ways. There was no guarantee of individual liberties neither it could give a workable dominion status. The people were not given their rights. All authority was vested in the Parliament which was under British influence. The system of Dyarchy which had failed in the provinces was introduced in the Centre without any prospective results. Vast authority was given to the Governors in the provinces and to the Viceroy in the Centre which was against the principle of democracy and provincial autonomy. The Minister of State could interfere in the Government services without any reason.

The Central part of the Act could not be enforced and was suspended for some time. However, the provincial part of the Act was enforced on 1st April 1937, under which the elections were to be held in the country.
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Default The Congress Ministries-- Policies towards Muslims

The Congress Ministries-- Policies towards Muslims


Government of India Act, 1935 Implementation

The Government of India Act, 1935 was not fully promulgated but the only provincial part was introduced in the country. Muslim League and the Congress criticized it but agreed to contest provincial elections.

The 1937 Elections

The elections of 1937 were held with the restricted franchise and separate electorate. The Congress projected itself as an all-India force representing all religions and factions of the society. The Muslim League contested for the Muslim seats. There was a tough competition from the other Muslim organizations. The elections were completed in February 1937. The Congress got majorities in five provinces, Madras, U.P., C.P., Bihar, and Orissa. It emerged as the largest party in Bombay and won 704 out of 1585 general seats.

The Muslim League performed poorly in the elections and got only about 21 percent of Muslim seats without winning majority anywhere, Bengal, Punjab, NWFP, and Sindh. It was mostly due to the organizational problems and opposition by local Muslim groups

Formation of Provincial Governments:

In July 1937, Congress formed governments in 6 provinces. In NWFP, Khudai Khidmatgar and Congress formed a coalition government. In the Muslim majority provinces, the Muslim League could not form the governments. The Muslim League desired to be in government in the U.P. but the Congress consented to a conditional support:

1. Dissolve AIML Parliamentary Board
2. AIML members not to function as a separate group
3. AIML members to express allegiance to the Congress

Definitely the above-mentioned terms were a device to subvert the existence of the Muslim League. Therefore, no agreement was possible on this issue.

Policies of the Congress Governments

First all Congress governments in the provinces launched anti-Muslim drive basically to exclude the Muslim League and other Muslim organizations from the government making process. With the installation of Congress ministries the Hindus came out to impose Hindu nationalism on the Muslims. Following were the attitude and policies of the Congress ministries towards Muslims.

Bande Matram

In order to strengthen the Hindu nationalism, Bande Matram was adopted as a national anthem and was to be recited before the start of official business every day.

Wardha and Widdia Mander Schemes

The Wardha Scheme was the outcome of Gandhi’s philosophy. It preached the Hindu nationalism and principles of non-violence. It aimed to develop a high respect among the young minds about the Hindu heroes and religious leaders.

Another attempt was made to erase the Muslim culture by introducing a new educational system. The educational policy was known as Widdia Mander Scheme and meant to convert the non-Hindus to Hinduism. It was introduced in all educational institutions. Under this scheme the students were asked to pay respect and homage to Gandhi’s picture every day in their assemblies in the schools. The students were asked to bow before Gandhi’s picture and sing hymns in his praise. Dr. Zakir Hussain, a Congress Muslim, was the author of this scheme.
The Wardha and Widdia Mander schemes sought to isolate the young generation of the Muslims from their religion, culture and civilization.

Hoisting of Three-Coloured Flag

The Congress, after taking over the government in the provinces, immediately ordered the hoisting of three-coloured flag with the British Union Jack to prove that there were only two powers in India which were the British and the Congress.

Hindu-Muslim Riots

The Hindu-Muslim riots were usual during the Congress rule. Organized attempts were made on the honour, property and lives of the Muslims by indulging in the communal and religious feuds. The Hindus were free to assault the innocent Muslims in any area. The Muslim houses and property were set on fire and their women and children abducted. Muslim massacre and plundering of their localities were the scenes of the day.

Muslim Mass Contact Campaign

The Congress started a Muslim mass contact campaign. The main objective of this campaign was to crush the popularity of the Muslim League amongst the Muslims. It was Nehru’s imagination to destroy the image of Muslim League as the only representative party of the Muslims. The campaign began by directly contacting the Muslim masses with a view to win them over to the Congress.

The Congress ministries adopted overall negative and cruel attitude, especially towards the Muslim activists. This unjust treatment compelled the Muslims to be disciplined in every sphere of life.

Muslim Response

The Muslims were well aware of the theocratic inclination of the Hindu people. They arranged a close monitoring of the government. They publicized their policies and raised the issues. The mobilization of Muslims on these matters required keen probe to collect the original facts of the Hindu atrocities.

The Pirpur Report

On March 28, 1938, the Council of Muslim League appointed an eight-member committee under the presidentship of Raja Syed Muhammad Mehdi of Pirpur that presented its report on, November 15, 1938. It tried to dig out the cruelties of the Congress ministries in seven provinces. The report took up the Congress support to the rival Muslim organizations, intimidation and threats to the pro-Muslim League people.

The Sharif Report, March 1939

The ML deputed Mr. Sharif with members to investigate the injustices under the dictatorial rule of the Hindus. This report mainly collected the facts, concentrating on ill treatment of the government with the Muslims in Bihar.

The Fazl-ul- Haq Report: (December 1939)

A. K. Fazl-ul-Haq published a pamphlet entitled Muslim Sufferings Under the Rule of Congress and made many alarming revelations e.g. forbidding of Azan, attacks in mosques, noisy processions of the Hindu scoundrels, forbidding of the cow-slaughter etc. This pamphlet responded the indictments by the Congress on the Muslims.

All the reports described the Congress government as an attempt to create ‘Hindu Raj’ that wanted to overwhelm the Muslim culture and their identity. It was a rigorous threat to the Muslims’ interests.

Muslim League Activism

The Muslim League highlighted the issues and mobilized the Muslims to counter them adequately. It reorganized the Muslim community to cope with the situation. The Muslim League arranged its session at Lucknow in October 1937. Many prominent leaders like Fazl-ul-Haq participated in the session while Sikander Hayat and Saadullah announced their support to the Muslim League.

The Muslim leaders shed a sharp criticism on the Congress policies. They protested against the reduction of status of Urdu and other Muslim related issues. They created realization, amongst the Muslims, of what can happen under the Congress rule and urged for serious thinking about the future political and constitutional arrangements. They unearthed the real objectives of the Congress and urged the need of unity among the Muslims under the banner of Muslim League.

End of the Congress Rule

The Second World War began in 1939. Britain declared war against Germany. The government appealed to all political parties for help and assistance in this hour of need. Congress convened its meeting to consider Government’s appeal and put the following conditions for assistance in war:

1. The British Government should explain the objective of the war.
2. The Government should announce that the elected legislature would draft the constitution of India.
3. The members of the Viceroy’s Executive Council should be those only who enjoy the support of the Central Assembly.

The acceptance of these demands would have meant the transfer of power to the Congress as these demands clearly showed that the Congress was asking for the right of constitution making. The government could not accede to these demands as it wanted to pacify both Congress and the Muslim League. Viceroy declared that due consideration would be given to the point of view of every party and that dominion status would be given to India after the war.

The Congress did not believe the promises of the government. The Congress leaders expressed their utter disappointment on the decision of the government. The Congress with a view of putting more pressure on the government refused to extend co-operation to government in the war activities and announced to resign from the ministries. The Congress High Command asked its ministers to tender resignations in protest against the decision of the government. In November, 1939 the Congress ministries resigned from their office. The poor Muslim population took a sigh of relief as they have been relieved of the most tyrannical and oppressive rule of the Congress.

Day of Deliverance

With the resignation of the Congress ministries the Muslims of India were relieved of the most dreadful domination of the Congress and Hindu majority. The two and half years of the Congress rule was a bitter and painful experience for the Muslims of India who had seen the real Hindu mentality. The Quaid-e-Azam appealed to the people to observe the Day of Deliverance on 22nd December, 1939. The Muslims of India, in accordance with the appeal of the Quaid-e-Azam celebrated the day with happiness. Public meetings were held and thanksgiving prayers were offered in token of relief from the tyranny, oppression and high-handedness of the Congress regime.

The Muslim League redefined its position during the World War II. They expressed their enthusiasm that no constitution to be enforced without the consent of the Muslims. They eradicated their organizational weaknesses and refined their objectives keeping the experiences of the Congress ministries.
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Default The Lahore Resolution, 1940

The Lahore Resolution, 1940


The experience of Congress Rule compelled the Muslims to launch the movement for separate homeland. The Hindus made them realize that Hindu government would mean an anti-Muslim rule in India. The Muslims’ disappointment from the Congress leadership decided to open a new phase of history. Quaid-e-Azam’s article in Time and Tide concluded that Muslims are a nation. No Constitution can be enforced by ignoring Muslims. His comments on March 13, 1940 are remarkable:

“If some satisfactory settlement cannot be found for Muslims in united India, the Muslim will have to demand for division of the country.”

The Lahore Resolution

The Muslim League held its annual session at Lahore on 22-24 March 1940. The Lahore Resolution was moved by Maulvi Fazlul Haq and seconded by Ch. Khaliquzzaman that finally approved on March 24, 1940. Jinnah rightly expressed his valuable remarks about the political circumstances of India and the Muslims stand.
He said:

“Indian problem is not communal but international. No Constitution can work without recognizing this reality. Muslims of India will not accept a constitution that establishes a government of the Hindu majority on them. If Hindus and Muslims are placed under one democratic system, this would mean Hindu Raj.”

Text of the Resolution:

· They decided that the Federal system under Government of India Act, 1935 was not acceptable for the Muslims.
· No revised constitutional plan would be acceptable unless it was framed with their approval and consent.
· Adjacent units where Muslims are in a majority, as in Northwest and East, should be constituted as Independent States where the constituent units will be autonomous and sovereign.
· Protection of minorities would be given priority.

Reaction of Muslims to the Pakistan Resolution

The Muslims responded to the Resolution with amazement and hope for better future. They gathered under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam who gave meaning and shape to their quest for independence. With the passage of Pakistan Resolution the Muslims began to acquire new hope and confidence in their destiny. The Resolution infused high spirits among the Muslims who were now determined to fight to the last end for the accomplishment of Pakistan. The Muslims were convinced that there was no other solution of the Indian problems except the creation of two separate and sovereign states of Hindustan and Pakistan. They demanded Pakistan because they were not accepted by the Hindus to live with them in peace in spite of their efforts and wishes. The Muslims were tormented by the fear that being Muslims they would not be acceptable to Hindu majority in the united India. Pakistan, therefore, was not demanded on the basis of hatred for the Hindus but for the safeguard of the Muslim civilization and culture.

Hindu Reaction to the Pakistan Resolution

The Hindu reaction to the Pakistan Resolution was hostile. The Hindu leaders condemned it and referred to the partition as vivisection of mother India. The Hindu leaders tried to build up agitation against the partition. Gandhi called it a moral wrong and a sin to which he would never be a party. The Hindu Press came out with the most aggressive propaganda against the resolution and declared it as a conspiracy against the unity of country.

Significance:

The Pakistan Resolution is a landmark in the history of the Muslim India as it eventually decided the future of the sub-continent. The attitude of the Hindus and Congress had intensified Muslim’s apprehensions, who feared Hindu subjugation. They were convinced that their future as a Nation was not secure in the united India and, therefore, decided to demand a separate homeland.

This Resolution did not specify any demarcation of the territory but it defined the future plan of struggle for the establishment of the Muslims states (later the word ‘states’ was replaced by ‘state’ in 1946) in the Northwestern and Eastern areas where the Muslims were in overwhelming majority. It also intended to give importance to the autonomy of the states. There was no use of the word Pakistan but Pakistan was kernel of the Resolution.
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Default Cripps Mission Plan

Cripps Mission Plan


Background

Japan joined the war against the Allies in 1941, and her success in conquering one country after another disturbed the pleasure of the British statesmen. The armies of Japan occupied Burma and threatened India. Both England and the U.S.A began to feel the necessity of changing their policy towards India.

Cripps Mission

The Britain Government appointed a delegation under the chairmanship of Sir Stafford Cripps, a prominent member of the War Cabinet of England. The Cripps Mission reached New Delhi on March 23, 1942 to hold discussions with the Indian leaders. The Cripps Mission could not hold talks with the Indian leaders and left after a fortnight. The Cripps Mission, however, submitted its own suggestions to the Government in April 1942 for constitutional reforms.

Important terms of the Proposal

Important terms of the proposal were as follows:

1. A Constitution-making Body would be set up immediately after the war.
2. There would be provisions for the participation of Indian States in the Constitution-making Body.
3. If any province did not like to accept the new constitution, it could later retain its existing constitutional position.
4. There would be provision in the constitution for the protection of racial and religious minorities.
5. The members of the Constitution-making Body were to be elected by an electoral college consisting of the entire membership of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies.
6. His majesty’s Government would retain control of Defence during the critical period of the war.
7. The suggestions are to be accepted or rejected as a whole and there shall be no amendments.
8. The recommendations would be implemented only if both Muslim League and Congress accept them unanimously.

Reaction of Muslim League

The scheme was opposed by the Muslim League because the proposals held out the prospects of a single Union of India.

Reaction of Congress

The Congress rejected the Cripps’s proposals because he did not give assurance that the Governor-General would act as a constitutional head in case of all the departments except Defence. Moreover, the Congress was opposed to the principle of non-accession of the provinces, because it virtually meant acceptance of the idea of Pakistan.

Quit India Movement

The Congress, in order to put more pressure on the Government, launched Quit India Movement against the British Government. The Congress had decided on 8th August 1942, to get independence from the British and to capture political power in India at all cost with a view of stopping the creation of Pakistan. Violent agitation was launched to press the British to quit India.

The Quaid-e-Azam considered Quit India Movement as anti-Muslim action of the Congress and declared it as political Blackmailing. The Muslim League, in reply to ‘Quit India’ slogans by the Congress, demanded ‘Divide India and go’. Quaid-e-Azam said,

“The Quit India Movement, in fact is a conspiracy to establish Hindu Raj and to finish Muslim demands.”

The Government took stern action against Quit India Movement. The prominent leaders of this movement including Gandhi, were arrested and put in jails. The movement lost its momentum and very soon failed
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