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Old Thursday, December 15, 2011
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Default Pakistan Affairs Notes

IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN


Meaning of an Ideology
The word “ideology” is composed of two Greek words “ideo” and “logos”. It literally means “the science or study of ideas”.

The ideology of any nation reflects the ideals and aspirations of its people, and religion and cultural shape, their thinking which binds them together. An ideology in the positive sense is a system of beliefs, values, ideals, convictions, institutions, goals and a body of knowledge which a people considers true, binding and practicable.

How Ideology Emerges?
Ideologies tend to arise in the times of crises and social stress. A society having no ideology, when faced with a crisis, may find it difficult to decide by reacting to its ethical and practical aspects as to whether to confront it with courage or retreat from it. At such a moment, while ideology has its binding functions, it also provides a simple and sure answer, leaving no chances for subsequent regrets. This is inherent it the fight for principle. According to Reo M. Christenson (Ideologies and Modern Politics) that;

“An ideology emerges when people feel strongly that they are being mistreated under an existing order when their status is threatened by fundamental changes occurring in society and when the prevailing ideology no longer satisfies them…….”

Political Ideology
A political ideology is a system of beliefs that explain and justifies a preferred political order, either existing or proposed and offers a strategy (institutions, processes programmes) for its attainment

Ideology of Life
When a significant purpose becomes a joint ideal of people’s life then it is a common ideology of life.


Characteristics of an Ideology
The ideology must contain following traits;

1. Maximum people should be united on this ideology.
2. The ideology must be harmonized with the feelings, emotions, traditions, beliefs and values of the nation.
3. Enough individual /man-power is requisited in it.
4. This can be obtained by collective efforts.
5. An organized party of leaders to implement this ideology is imperatively required.

Importance of an Ideology
Ideology is important in following aspects;

1. Ideology is a motivating force for a nation, which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity to its nationhood.
2. It provides the cement-binding base to the scattered groups in a society and brings them closer to each other on a common platform.
3. Ideologies impel their adherents to follow a joint line of action for the accomplishment of their goal.
4. Ideologies give shape to the revolutions and give birth to new cultures and civilizations.
5. Ideologies stress on their adherents to insist on the realization of their ideals through total transformation of society.
6. An ideology offers an interpretation of the past, and an explanation of the present and a vision of the future.

Thus the ideologies contain a set of proposals about human nature and society. These proposals explicitly manifest human conditions, approaches and understanding of a social and political order and provide and basis for the accomplishment of a desired social system.

Ideology of Pakistan
The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of the Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. However when they realized that their future in a ‘Democratic India’ dominated by Hindu majority was not safe, they changed their demand to a separate state.

The ideology of Pakistan stemmed from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality in the Hindu society. The Muslims believed that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but are two social orders that produced two distinct cultures. There is no compatibility between the two. A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and Muslims are not confined to the struggle for political supremacy but are also manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than one thousand years, they continue to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, all are poles apart.

The basis of the Muslim nationhood was neither territorial nor racial or linguistic or ethnic rather they were a nation because they belonged to the same faith, Islam. They demanded that the areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state, wherein they could order their lives in accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of Holy Prophet (PBUH).

The creation of Pakistan was unique in the sense that it was based on an ideology which sought its roots from the religion of Islam.

The famous slogan was as under:-


PAKISTAN KA MATLAB KIYA, LA ILLA HA ILL ALLAH”


It became the corer of the freedom movement and the basis of Pakistan.

Meaning and definitions of Pakistan Ideology are explained as under:-

1. Ideology of Pakistan is actually implementation of Islamic teachings.
2. To maintain and arouse the national dignity and struggles for unity among Muslim Ummah and Islamic rule is in fact Ideology of Pakistan.
3. Two-Nation Theory on the basis of Islamic Philosphy in political and cultural background of Sub-continent is called ideology of Pakistan.
4. Ideology of Pakistan is actually Islamic ideology.
5. The idea of Muslims, attaining Pakistan was infact Ideology of Pakistan.



Quaid-i-Azam and Ideology of Pakistan


Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a history-making leader who changed the course of history. He possessed a visionary leadership, commitment to the cause and political mobilization capacity. He was a Charismatic Leader in the real sense of the meaning.

ROLE OF JINNAH
On March 8,1944 Quaid-i-Azam while addressing in Muslim University Aligarh, said;

“Actually Pakistan came into being when the very first Hindu converted into Muslim, it happened, when there was no rule of Muslims. The foundation of Muslims is Kalama-e- Tauheed rather than state or race. When a Hindu converted his religion he became a member of separate nation and new nation came into being.”

Jinnah played a decisive role in articulating the Muslim demands and pursuing these faced strong opposition from the Hindus and the British. He started his political career in 1906 by joining the Indian National Congress. He was elected to the Legislative Council in 1909 and in 1913 he also joined the All India Muslim League (AIML). Now he was member of both the political parties. Having disagreement with Gandhi on the issue of Swaraj (self-rule), complete freedom from the British and on using extra-constitutional means, Jinnah resigned from the Congress in 1920. His early efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity were materialized when THE LUCKNOW PACT (1916) was signed. The Hindus accepted the Muslim demands:

· Separate Electorate
· One-third Seats in Central Legislature
· protection of minority rights

In the Nehru Report, the accepted Muslim rights were ignored. Jinnah retaliated forcefully by presenting 14 Points in 1929. He defined Muslim identity and mobilized them with reference to Islam and convinced others that Muslims are different from the Hindus and the Congress. Islamic principles, concepts and symbols surfaced in his speeches and statements.

Jinnah used the term NATION for the Muslims of India in Feb 1935 (Legislative Assembly). He argued that the combination of religion, culture, race, arts, music and so forth make a minority a SEPARATE ENTITY. In March 1936 Bombay, he stated that the Muslims could arrive at a settlement with Hindus as TWO Nations. In 1937, he asserted that there is also a third party in India, the Muslims. In 1939, he roared that the Muslims and Hindus are two nations and they are going to live as a nation and playing part as a nation:

“We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral code, custom and calendar, history and tradition, aptitudes and ambitions; in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all cannons of international law, we are a nation.”

Speeches and statements: 1940-47
Jinnah believed in the force of Islam as he said that Islam is a dynamic force that can unite the Muslims. It can help to overcome the present crisis. It’s a source of inspiration and guidance providing ethical foundation, a framework, social order and civilization.

Guidance & inspiration for constitution-making and Governance
He also talked of the modern notions of state, constitution, civil and political rights and democracy. He assured that constitution of Pakistan would be framed by the elected assembly.

Modern democratic and Islamic State
He gave assurance of equality of all citizens and rights and freedom to religious minorities in the new state.


Allama Iqbal and Ideology of Pakistan


VISION OF A SEPARATEMUSLIMSTATE
Men like Allama Iqbal are born but in centuries. He was conscious of significance of Islam in lives of the Muslims. His first public appearance was in 1899 at the annual session of Anjuman Himayat-i-Islam in Lahore when he presented the poem, Nala-i-Yatim. At initial stages Dr Iqbal was a nationalist by ideas and his poetry contained verses like Tarana-i- Hind. His poetry was a critique of the existing societal conditions. Being educated from Europe, he knew all weak aspects of the Western culture. He criticized capitalism, materialism and lack of spiritualism.

IQBAL- Focus on the conditions of the Indian Muslims


Islam can salvage the Muslims


Islam has always saved Muslim


Islam is a living and dynamic ideology that can


meet modern challenges


Islam to help them to overcome their internal


Discord and enable them to meet external challenges


With spiritualism based derived from Islam


Ijtehad and Reinterpretation



(Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam)


Address to the Muslim League Session, Allahabad, December 1930
The climax of Iqbal’s political career came in 1930 when at the annual session of All India Muslim League, he boldly stated the Muslim demand for creation of a separate Muslim state within India. He added:

“I would like to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Balochistan amalgamated into a single state as a self government within the British Empire or without the British Empire, The formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least, of North-West India.”

In short Iqbal gave the idea of Pakistan. He inspired the Muslims of India to make the demand for a separate homeland. He infact, prepared the ground for Mr. Jinnah, who finally led the Muslims to the goal of Pakistan. Mr. Jinnah acknowledged his debt to Dr. Iqbal in the following words:

“His views were substantially in consonance with my own and had finally led me to the same conclusions as a result of careful examination and study of the constitutional problems facing India”.

Mr. Jinnah paid him a tribute two days after the Lahore Resolution that:

“If I live to see the idea of a Muslim state being achieved and I were than offered to make a choice between the works of Iqbal and the ruler ship of the Muslim state, I would prefer the former”.


Significance of Pakistan Ideology


Ideology of Pakistan is very important in national life and its some salient aspects are explained as under:-

1.Protagonist of Success
Ideology of Pakistan is a supporter of its success and triumph. The Muslims of Sub-continent were unified into oneness only because of ideology of Pakistan. They rank their differences entirely and prompted for the attainment of Pakistan. Resultantly, they succeeded to foil cunning tactics of Hindus and English. So, this ideology kept on strengthening them and inordinate power of thinking and religious potency kept increasing in them and it resulted in an independent state.

2. Bearer of Morality and Good Character
Due to adoption of Ideology of Pakistan such a Muslim nation can be developed which would have lofty ethical traits, honesty, good character and valour as well.

3. Development of New Islamic World
One of the fundamental aims of Ideology of Pakistan is to unify all the Muslims world over and thus ideology apprises the Muslims of unity and fraternity. By adopting it we can get rid of interior and exterior worries, extortion and imperialistic, conspiracies very easily.

4. Inevitable for Country and National Safety
It is inevitable for the sublime and safety of the nation. It places the people residing in different provinces at one platform and creates unity among them. As long as it is strictly adopted the unanimity of the nation would be elevated. It will help in foiling the aims of terrorists, saboteurs, time servers and vested interests elements. Thus, the safety of Pakistan ideology is necessary for the integrity of the country.

5. Source of Religious Power
it is also a great source of religious power. This ideology forced the English and Hindus to bow down in the past too and others can also be forced to bow down by adopting the ideology in future. So it is the need of the hour to cordially adopt this idea so that we may be prominent in living nations.

6. Ideology of Islamic State
This ideology has been founded on Islamic teachings. Therefore, by adopting this ideology the Muslim nation would develop into staunch Muslim and righteous and good Muslims would be produced by owning this theory.
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Old Thursday, December 15, 2011
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Default Two nation theory

TWO NATION THEORY


Nation

The word “NATION” is derived from Latin route “NATUS” of “NATIO” which means “Birth” of “Born”. Therefore, Nation implies homogeneous population of the people who are organized and blood-related. Today the word NATION is used in a wider sense.

A Nation is a body of people who see part at least of their identity in terms of a single communal identity with some considerable historical continuity of union, with major elements of common culture, and with a sense of geographical location at least for a good part of those who make up the nation.

We can define nation as a people who have some common attributes of race, language, religion or culture and united and organized by the state and by common sentiments and aspiration. A nation becomes so only when it has a spirit or feeling of nationality.

A nation is a culturally homogeneous social group, and a politically free unit of the people, fully conscious of its psychic life and expression in a tenacious way.

Nationality

Mazzini said:

“Every people has its special mission and that mission constitutes its nationality”.

Nation and Nationality differ in their meaning although they were used interchangeably. A nation is a people having a sense of oneness among them and who are politically independent. In the case of nationality it implies a psychological feeling of unity among a people, but also sense of oneness among them. The sense of unity might be an account, of the people having common history and culture. But nationality largely requires the element of political independence either achieved or aspired.

Secondly, a nation must have a political organization of passionate desire for such an organization. But a nationality is a political, cultural, spiritual and unified community of a people.

A.E. Zimmern said:

“Nationality, like religion, is subjective, psychological, a condition of mind, a spiritual possession, a way of feeling, thinking and living”.

Two Nation Theory

The two-nation theory in its simplest way means that cultural, political, religious, economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities, Hindus and Muslims of the Sub-continent. These differences of outlook, in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving rise to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of the sub-continent into two independent states.

The two-nation theory means that the Hindus and the Muslims are two different nations. On the basis of two-nation theory the Quaid-i-Azam demanded the partition of India into two states, a Muslim state to be called Pakistan and the other Hindu India that is Bharat.

Evolution of Two Nation Theory

Concept of Muslims as a Nation developed before the establishment of Pakistan. Pakistan was the product of this concept of nationhood rather than Pakistan creating a concept of nationhood. Retrospectively the Muslim nationalism emerged with the advent of Islam that introduced new principles pertinent to every sphere of life. It pledged the redemption of the humankind establishing a benign society based on Qur’anic teachings. The beginning of the Muslim nationalism in the Sub-Continent may be attributed to the first Indian who accepted Islam. The Arab traders had introduced the new religion, Islam, in the Indian coastal areas. Muhammad bin Qasim was the first Muslim invader who conquered some part of India and after that, Mahmud of Ghazna launched 17 attacks and opened the gate to preach Islam. The Muslim sufi (saints) like Ali Hejveri, Miran Hussain Zanjani etc. entered Sub-Continent. They, rejecting the vices in the Indian society, presented the pure practical picture of the teachings of Islam and got huge conversions. Qutub-ud-Din Aibuk permanently established Muslim dynasty in India that followed Sultanate and Mughal dynasties. Thus a strong Muslim community had emerged in India who had its own way of life, traditions, heroes, history and culture. Islam could not be absorbed in Hinduism. Deen-e-Ilahi, Bakhti movements, etc. created reaction amongst the Muslim ulama to preserve the pure Islamic character and save it from external onslaught. Role of Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi and others is noteworthy. Equality and social justice inspired conversions to Islam.

The British won over the Muslim rulers due to the industrial and scientific developments and modern war strategy. The War of Independence (1857) was a shattering setback to the Indian Muslims who were held responsible for the rebellion by the British. The Muslims were put into the backwardness with the help of Hindus. This was one of the outstanding motivations that paved the way to declare the separate identity of nationalism, the Muslim nationalism. The Muslim scholars sought to reform the teaching of Islamic law and to promote its application in a Muslim society. The prominent name among them is Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-98) who awakened and guided his community well in time. His educational drive, the Ali-Garh movement, proved to be the best means of social mobility for the Muslim gentry under colonial rule.

In 1885 the Indian National Congress was founded to indicate the beginning of the Indian nationalist movement under the British. The Congress worked and helped the British rule. Sir Syed advised the Muslims not to join it because, he thought, the Muslims were not in position to involve into the anti-government activities. It has been argued that Sir Syed's fear of Hindu domination sowed the seeds for the "Two Nations Theory" later espoused by the All-India Muslim League, founded in 1906 and led to its demand for a separate state for the Muslims of India. Sir Syed argued that modern education and non-political activities might be the key to Muslim advancement. The Ali-Garh movement produced educated leadership who could protect the Muslims’ rights on the Western political lines.

All India Muslim League had been founded in Dhaka to promote loyalty to the British and to protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India. Thus the concept of ‘separate electorates’ was put forward to dawn a new day for the Indian Muslims.


Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Two-Nation Theory


In beginning Sir Syed believed in Indian Nationalism but later due to Hindi-Urdu controversy, Sir Syed’s faith in a united India was shaken and he began to advocate the two nation theory. He made the Muslims realize that they are separate nation. Their religion is very powerful. Muslims should demand for separate homeland of their own.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who used the word “NATION” for the Muslims of Sub-continent. According to Sir Syed in India there exist two nations, the Hindus and Muslims. They could not live together and that as the time would pass the hostility between the two-nation would grow. Sir Syed was of the view that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations because their religion, history, culture and civilization were different from each other.

Sir Syed’s political views could be summed up as:

1. That India was a continent, not a country.
2. That it was inhabited by a vast population of different races and different creeds.
3. That among these, Hindus and Muslims, were the major nations on the basis of nationality, religion, customs, cultures, cultural and historical traditions.
4. After the British quit, they could not share the political power equally. That was simply impossible and inconceivable.
5. The Indian National Congress was not acceptable to the Muslims.
6. Muslims could not accept a democratic set up of western type because with a one to four ratio of population, they could be enslaved by the Hindus.
7. There would be a disastrous civil war if the Congress persisted in its policy of yoking together the two nations.

The above discuss leads us to conclude that Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the staunch believer and eminent preacher to Two-Nation Theory; on account of which, he may be called the real founder to two-Nation Theory in sub-continent.


Allama Iqbal and Two-Nation Theory


Allama Iqbal was a great poet, philosopher and a politician. Iqbal had a sensitive heart and a deep-thinking inquisitive mind. He was dismayed at the pathetic conditions of the Muslims in general and of the Indian Muslims in particular.

Allama Iqbal delivered historical address at Allahabad.

“The units of Indian society are not territorial as in the European countries. India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races speaking different languages and professing different religions. Their behaviour is not at all determined by a common race-consciousness.”

Under such circumstances, Allama Iqbal proposed a separate state of the Muslims. In his presidential address to the Allahabad session of the Muslim League in 1930, he said:

“Personally I would go further…. I would like to see the Punjab, North WestFrontierProvince, Sindh and Balochistan amalgamated into a single state. Self-government within the British Empire or without the British Empire, the formation of a single consolidated North-West Indian Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims at least of North WestIndia.”

Allama Iqbal claimed that the Muslims were a separate nation in every respect. His own words in this regard were as follows:

“We have a population of seven crore among all nations of the sub-continent, we are the most united. In fact, of all the nations inhabiting the country, Muslims are the only true nation according to the most modern definition of the world.”

In short the prophecy of Iqbal acted as a spur for the Muslims of India who craved out an independent state Pakistan for themselves, Seventeen years later (Allahabad Address 1930) on 14th August 1947.


Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Two-Nation Theory


Quaid-e-Azam’s struggle also based on two-nation theory: Quaid-e-Azam said:

“Difference in India between the two major nations, the Hindus and the Muslims are thousand times greater when compared with the continent of Europe.”

Quaid-e-Azam further said:

India is not a national state. India is not a country but a Sub-continent composed of nationalities, the two major nations being Hindus and the Muslims whose culture and civilizations, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of value and proportion, laws and jurisprudence, social moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and ambitions, outlook on life and of life are fundamentally different. By all canons of international law we are nation.”

In 1940, Muslim League embraced the creed of Chaudhry Rehmat Ali and the historic session on March 23, 1940 in Lahore demanded the establishment of Pakistan. On that occasion, Quaid-e-Azam in his presidential address said:

“Islam and Hinduism are not religions in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders… The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, literatures. They neither inter-marry nor inter-dine together and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.”

He refuted the claim of All Indian Nation Congress that India had only one single nation, in the name of Indian by the following statement.

The history of the last twelve hundred years has failed to achieve the unity and has witnessed, India always divided into Hindu India and Muslim India.

Quaid-e-Azam made the English ruler realize the fundamental deep rooted spiritual economic, social and political differences. He said that their efforts would frustrate which they were making to bind all Indians through central Government.


Importance of Two Nation Theory


The Two-Nation Theory served as the basis of demand for Pakistan by the Muslims in British India. There are two major nations in British India. The Muslims are not a community but a nation with a distinctive history, heritage, culture, civilization, and future aspirations.

The Muslims wanted to preserve and protect their distinct identity and advance their interests in India. They wanted to order their lives in accordance with their ideals and philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority.

Initially, they demanded safeguards, constitutional guarantees and a federal system of government with powers to the provinces for protection and advancement of their heritage, identity and interests. Later, they demanded a separate state when neither the British nor the Hindu majority community was willing to offer those guarantees and safeguards.
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Default Aligarh Movement

Aligarh Movement


Aligarh Movement is, in fact, the name of continuous struggle of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan that he launched for the betterment of Muslims. This movement performed the educational, social, religious and literary services for the Muslims, so Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Aligarh Movement are the two names of one and the same thing.

1:- Educational Services

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan opened educational institutions for Muslims so that new paths of progress might open for them, for they had become literally backward. The English introduced English as an official language in place of Persian. Hindus by getting English education, got the jobs but Muslims remained behind terrified. Sir Syed made it clear that it was quite wrong to think that English education would keep them away from religion. Our religion did not forbid to learn English language and Western sciences. Where he put emphasis on the learning of English language there he did not ignore Urdu. He gave full attention to it. He also shifted the Society of Scientific Knowledge to Aligarh. He constituted the committee for the progress of Muslims. The aim of it was the acquisition of the knowledge of the reasons of low strength of Muslims in government’s colleges and schools; and why they gone behind in learning the new sciences. The research showed that the Muslims wanted to have their own institutions for the education of the Muslims. For this purpose Muhammadan College Fund Committee was established. In May 1875 MuhammadanAngloOrientalHigh School was established in Aligarh, and after two years the school was upgraded to a college. In a short time it became the important educational institution of Muslims. The reason of it was the availability of the boarding facilities for the students alongwith the modern and religious education. Sir Syed desired that the college be given the status of a University, but this did not happen in his life time. Twenty years after his death AligarhCollege was made a University in 1920.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan realized that the AligarhCollege even after becoming a University would not be able to meet the educational needs of all the Muslims of India. Therefore, he made a way out to spread the message of Aligarh in all the parts of India. For this, he established Muhammadan Educational Conference. The meetings of it were held every year in different cities, and attempts were made to solve the educational and other problems of the Muslims.

2:- Social Services

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan wrote many books and magazines for the social involvement of Muslims. He brought out the magazine ‘Tehzeeb-ul-Akhlaq’ in 1870, in which he narrated the rules and principles to make the Muslims dynamic and effective. He established an orphanage in Muradabad. Sir Syed wanted to bring Muslims socially closer to the English. Therefore he taught new ways of living to the Muslims; coat, pantaloon, modern designing of houses and use of knife and fork in eating. All that was done to curtail the distance among the Muslims and the English. Sir Syed published a pamphlet ‘Loyal Muhammadans of India’ and mentioned the services rendered by the Muslims in saving the lives of the English, so the English should not ignore this aspect of Muslims, and forget the enmity with them.

3:- Religious Services

The Aligarh Movement did not ignore religion, but put great emphasis on it, and negated the superfluous rites. Sir Syed published the Commentary of the Holy Quran in which he tried to prove the Quranic Verses logically and scientifically true, but it was disliked by the religious scholars. He wrote ‘Tabayen-ul-Kalam’ a book on Bible and put more emphasis on the things common in Islam and Christianity. Besides this he wrote an article “Tehqeeq Lufze-Nasara” to remove the misunderstanding from the minds of the English. The English believed that Muslim ‘Nasara’ was a distorted form of ‘Nasarath’, a birth place of Christ, hence they had ridiculed them. He made it clear that there was no truth in that, but the fact was that the word ‘Nasara’ was derived from the Arabic word ‘Nasir’ that means helper of friend. He further clarified that Islam and not forbidden the Muslims from the friendship and eating with Christians provided wine and unlawful things were not served. Therefore he wrote a booklet ‘Ahkam-e-Tuam-e-Ahle-Kitab’. It changed the attitude of many of the Muslims and the English. The publication of these books and pamphlets did not actually mean that he honoured the English in all respects, and wanted to ignore the Islamic rules. He took a firm stand in matters of religion. When an English writer, William Meore, wrote a book “The Life of Muhammad” in which he disgraced the Prophet (PBUH). Sir Syed could not tolerate it and refuted him by writing a book “Khutabat-e-Ahmadiya”


4:- Political Services

After the war of independence of 1857 the British Government wanted to punish the Muslims by declaring them the real accused of the rebellion. But Sir Syed Ahmed Khan in his magazine “Causes of Indian Revolt” made it clear that Hindus, Muslims and the English were equally responsible for that revolt.

Sir Syed attributed the following reasons to the outbreak of the war of Independence:

1. Non-representation of the Indians in the legislative councils.
2. Forcible conversion of Indians to Christianity.
3. Mismanagement of Indian army.
4. Many other ill-advised measures of the Government which created large scale dissatisfaction among the various sections of society.

On the other hand he advised the Muslims to keep away from politics for the time being because they were far behind in education and the English saw them with suspicious eyes. In 1867, with the rise of Hindi-Urdu controversy, Sir Syed became suspicious of Hindus and said that it was not now possible for Hindus and Muslims to go along together. He said that Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations and could not live together. He also believed that the British parliamentary form of government could not succeed in India because there was not a single nation here. Even by the implementation of the separate electorate the Muslims would not gain a considerable amount of representation. Similarly the Muslims would not get jobs through competitive examination because they were far behind in education. Therefore a quota in jobs might be fixed for Muslims so that they could also have government jobs.

5:- Literary Services

Sir Syed worked very hard for the protection and progress of Urdu language. Hindi Urdu conflict made it clear that Hindus wanted to damage the cultural, social, and literary heritage of the Muslims. He established Urdu Defence Society and defended Urdu language. Due to the opposition of Aligarh, Hindi could not become the official language. He also wrote a book “History of Revolt of Bejnour” in which he mentioned the circumstances and events of war of Independence. “Asaar-Alsanadeed” was the famous book of Sir Syed. It provided the information of old buildings, ruins and historical places. A copy of it was presented to Royal Asiatic Society London, and Sir Syed was awarded the honour of fellowship. Besides this he wrote many other articles.


Effects of Aligarh Movement


Aligarh Movement trained the Muslims how to deal with the prevailing new circumstances. It guided the Muslims in every field of life.

1:- English-Muslim Reconciliation

Due to Aligarh Movement the feelings of hatred against Muslims started diminishing from the hearts of the English. The English started coming closer to the Muslims.

2:- Protection of Rights

Aligarh Movement created an awareness of the protection of rights among the Muslims. Sir Syed spent whole of his life in improving the educational, social, economic and political affairs of the Muslims. AligarhCollege was the biggest educational institution of the Muslims. It’s educated persons presented the problems of the masses before the government that considered from favourably. In 1906 the demand for separate electorate forwarded through the Simla Deputation was accepted.

3:- Supply of Political Leadership

The Muslims got education from Aligarh Movement and made themselves capable to face Hindus and the English. Muslim League was established by the educated political leadership that also owed to Aligarh Movement. Political awareness was created among the masses by Aligarh Movement. In fact the struggle for the establishment was originated from this movement.

4:- Concept of Separate Nation

Aligarh Movement made the Muslims realized that they were a separate nation having a glorious past, and also made it clear that Hindus and Muslims were two nations and could not unite together. Moreover Hindus were not the well-wishers of Muslims. This two nation theory was made the basis of Pakistan Movement by Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah who got a separate homeland for Muslims.

5:- Acquisition of Western Education

Muslims were afraid of western education but they could not make progress without it. As the source of modern sciences was the English language so it was necessary for them to learn it. Therefore arrangements of western sciences side by side with Islamic education were made in AligarhCollege that motivated a large number of Muslims to get education. Aligarh Movement also persuaded other affluent Muslims to start educational institutions; and in a short time the Muslims became prominent in the fields of English and modern education.

6:- Economic Progress

Aligarh Movement attracted the Muslims towards education and made them enabled to improve their economic conditions. By getting the share in government jobs, the Muslims rose to the higher positions, and in this way the economic condition of the Muslims improved a lot.

7:- Muslim Unity

Aligarh Movement created a sense of Muslims nationality. A Muslim wherever he lives in the world is a member of Muslim ‘Nation’. In 1919 the educated youth of AligarhCollege launched Khilafat Movement for the Muslims of Turkey. They created a sense of unity among the Muslims. Hence feelings of union, relationship and brotherhood were developed among them.

Conclusion

The Aligarh Movement injected a life in the dormant body of the Muslim nation and helped them to regain their lost position of eminence and glory. It revived confidence among the Muslims to fight for their economic and social rights. The Aligarh Movement was a broad movement which left its impact on every phase of the Muslim life. The actions taken by Sir Syed left a far reaching impact on the social, economic, religious, political and cultural aspects of the Muslims. His precepts and examples revived hope and self-confidence, showed new ways to progress and opened doors for the Muslims to modern education and economic prosperity.
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Default Indian Council Act, 1861

Indian Council Act, 1861


Background

On August 2, 1858 British Parliament passed a law for complete takeover of all rights of the East India Company over India. Post of Secretary of State for India was created through the cabinet. The Secretary of State for India was empowered about government and revenues of India. On November 1, 1858 Queen Victoria issued a proclamation for the assumption of control of India by the British Crown. Lord Canning, Governor General of India was given the title of “Viceroy.” He continued in office but not as the Company’s representative but direct representative of British Crown. Moreover armies of the Company came under British Control.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan had indicated in the causes of the Indian Revolt several weaknesses of the Government in the running of administration of the country. He advised the British Government to include the Indian people in the administration of the country so that the people’s mistrust and fear could be minimized. He advised the Government to give representation to the local people in the Legislative Councils to create sentiments of loyalty among their subjects.

Legislative Councils Act, 1861

The first ever constitutional structure was formulated in 1861. The British Government passed the Legislative Councils Act to introduce better provisions for the Governor-General’s Council and for Local Government.
According to this Act:

· The Indian people were included in the Governor-General’s Council for the first time in the history of India.
· The number of the members of the Legislative Councils was increased.
· The Governor was given authority to nominate at least six persons to his Council.
· The Legislative Council was to make laws.
· The nominated members were not authorized to criticize the actions of the Council and also could not put questions to the members of the Councils about the functions of the Legislative Council.
· The Governor-General could issue ordinances and was authorized to veto provincial legislation.

The enforcement of Legislative Council Act of 1861 was the first step taken for the constitutional reforms in India. It provided, in spite of its limited scope, an opportunity to the Indian People to safeguard their political interests. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was nominated as the member of Legislative Council under the Act of 1861.
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Default Indian Councils Act, 1892

Indian Councils Act, 1892


Background

Indian National Congress was formed in 1885 on the initiative of the retired British Civil Servant Sir Allan Octavian Hume. The Indian National Congress, which grew in time to be the most powerful and vocal political organization of India, was originally intended to provide a platform for the safeguard of the interests of all communities in India irrespective of their religion or political tendencies. But with the time it turned into a pure Hindu body working for the safeguard of the Hindu interests. The Indian National Congress expressed its dissatisfaction over the inadequate representation which the Legislative Councils Act of 1861 gave to the Indian people. It demanded more representation for the Indian people in the Legislative and administrative bodies of the Government. The Congress demanded that the nomination to the Central and Provincial Legislative Councils should be through general elections instead of by nomination. It also demanded the appointment to the Government service through competitive examination.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan vehemently criticized these demands by the Congress and advised the Muslims to keep away from the Congress politics. He said that the system of elections, on the pattern of Western Democracy could not be introduced in India as it would impose the Hindu majority rule over the Muslim minority. He, therefore, advocated the system of nomination introduced in the Act of 1861. He also opposed the appointment to the Government service by competitive examinations which meant the expulsion of the Muslims from Government service because the Muslims could not compete with the Hindus who were well advanced in modern education.

Indian Council Act of 1892

In 1892 the Government introduced another Act known as the Indian Councils Act of 1892. The salient provisions of this Act were as follow:
1. The number of the non-official members, in the Central and Provincial Legislative Councils was increased. However, the official members were still in majority.
2. The members of the Legislative Councils were given the right to put questions. They were also authorized to discuss the annual budget.
3. The local bodies were given right to send their elected members to the Legislative Councils.


The Act of 1892 could not ensure the maximum safeguards to the Muslims. The Muslim leaders now rightly felt for a separate electorate to protect the Muslim interest.
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Default Partition of Bengal

Partition of Bengal



Background

Bengal was the biggest province with a population of 78 million. It had a vast area and was an unwieldy administrative unit. The whole province was under one Lieutenant Governor who could not look after the administrative requirements of such a vast area alone. It was not possible for the Lt. Governor to go around the province whenever there was a dire need of such tours. Consequently a major portion of the province remained neglected due to its unwieldiness. In view of its size and enormous population it was felt that the province of Bengal should be divided into two parts in order to facilitate the administrative requirement of the vast area.

Partition

Lord Curzon became the viceroy of India in 1899. He was and able and efficient administrator. He undertook an extensive tour of the province of Bengal and felt that the province was too big to be administrated effectively. The provincial Governors had already complained about the administrative difficulties faced by them in the large province. They had recommended the partition of the province in view of its size and big population.

A number of partition proposals were viewed and discussed which, however, could not materialize. Lord Curzon decided to divide the province into two provinces. He prepared a comprehensive plan of the partition of Bengal in 1905 and sent it to England for approval. The British Crown gave approval to the partition plan and the province of Bengal was divided into two parts on 16th October 1905 named as Western Bengal and Eastern Bengal. The new province of Eastern Bengal consisted of Dacca as capital, Memansingh, Chittagong, Assam, Rajshahi, Khulna, Rangpur and Bogra as the constituted districts.


Reaction of Muslims Toward Partition

In the combined province of Bengal the Muslims were a suppressed and dominated class of society. The Hindus had monopolized trade and Government services which aggravated the economic condition of the Muslims. The new province of Eastern Bengal brought happier prospects of political and economic life for the Muslims. The Muslims overnight turned into majority by the creation of the new province. The Muslims were 18 million out of the total population of 31 million in the new province. The partition of Bengal provided chances of great progress to the Muslims who formed the majority group in the new set up. The partition of Bengal provided them with a chance to rehabilitate their social position. They hoped that their social status would get a tremendous boost in the new province. The Muslims, therefore, expressed their utmost happiness over the partition of Bengal. They offered their gratification in a loyal way to the Government for taking a step for their social, economic and political uplift.

Reaction of Hindus Toward Partition

The Hindus reacted toward the partition of Bengal in a hostile and violent manner. The Hindus could never support a move which was to bring prosperity and happiness to the Muslims.

Reasons of opposing partition

The reasons for Hindu opposition to the partition were as follows:

1. The Hindus believed that they would come under the domination of the Muslim majority in the new province and their superior position would be downgraded to the interior status.
2. As the provincial High Court and other judicial bodies were to be shifted to Dacca, the Hindus lawyers feared that their legal practice would be affected.
3. Since Dacca was to become the centre of journalistic and other academic activities, the Hindu press and media believed that from now onward the Muslim point of view would be projected in the newspapers and magazines. They also feared that their income would seriously be lessened.
4. The Hindu landlords, capitalists and traders did not like the partition as it was to put an end to their exploitation of the poor Muslims.
5. Before the partition of Bengal the Hindus enjoyed dominant position in the political sphere of the province over the Muslims. The new set up was to put an end to their superior political position and their political dominance over the Muslims will end.

Reaction

The Hindus launched an intensive movement against the partition of Bengal. They termed the partition as degrading and an insult to the national character of the Hindu population. Religious colour was given to the agitation and the partition was termed as the dissection of the Sacred Cow Mother, in order to arouse deep opposition by the Hindu masses. They considered the partition as an attempt to sow the seeds of hatred and discontentment among the Indian people to weaken the national movements for independence.

The day of partition was declared as a national tragedy. Strikes were held throughout the country. The Indian National Congress also jumped in to support the agitation against the partition. The Hindu students put up violent demonstration against the partition. The Congress severely criticized the partition in its annual session of 1906.

The Hindus agitation soon turned into a violent reaction. The people disobeyed Government orders by refusing to pay taxes and rentals. Communal clashes erupted at a number of places which aggravated the law and order situation in the country. Bombs were thrown and attacks were made on the lives of the British people. Swadeshi Movement was organized by which the foreign goods were boycotted. The train carrying the Governor of the Eastern Bengal was derailed and an attempt was made on Viceroy’s life which failed.

Annulment of the Partition

The vigorous Hindu agitation rocked the Government which could not withstand the extreme pressure of the movement. The Hindus threatened the Government to boycott the forthcoming tour of India of the King George. The threat proved successful and the British Government succumbed to the Hindus agitation. The partition of Bengal was ultimately annulled on 12th December, 1911 at a Royal meeting known as Delhi Darbar where the King George announced the decision of annulment to the extreme dismay of the Muslims of Bengal.
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Default Formation of All India Muslim League

Formation of All India Muslim League



Time had come to formally organize the Muslims after the success of the Simla Deputation. The Muslim leaders desired to create a permanent political forum. The Congress’s anti-Muslim activities too emphasized the need of a political platform for the Muslims from where the interests of Muslims could be projected. The Muslim leaders of Simla Deputation after their meeting with the Viceroy held consultations among themselves as to the possibility of forming a political association.

The annual session of All India Muslim Educational Conference was held in 1906 at Dacca. The prominent Muslim leaders from all over the country were attending this meeting. When the meeting ended, Nawab Saleem Ullah Khan of Dacca, convened a meeting of the Muslim leaders at his residence. The objective of this meeting was to discuss the possibilities of forming a political association for the Muslims. The meeting was presided by Nawab Viqar-ul-Malik on 30th December 1906. Nawab Saleem Ullah of Dacca had already circulated an idea of the political organization known as All India Muslim Confederacy. Nawab Viqar-ul-Mailk in his presidential address stressed the need for a political platform for the Muslims. He said that Congress political activities were highly injurious for the Muslims for which Sir Syed Ahmed Khan had asked the Muslims to keep away from the Congress politics. He said the Muslims form only one-fourth of the total population of India. It is obvious that if the British leave the country at any time, the Muslims will come under the domination of that nation which is four times bigger than the Muslims. The other participants also expressed their views in favour of forming a political organization for the Muslims.

Nawab Saleem Ullah Khan of Dacca, therefore, proposed Muslim League which was supported by Hakim Ajmal Khan, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan and other participants.

Nawab Mohsin-ul-Malik and Nawab Viqar-ul-Malik were elected provisionally as Joint Secretaries of the Muslim League. A Committee consisting of sixty members was set up to draft the constitution of the Muslim League. The Constitution Committee included all the members of Simla Deputation. Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, a distinguished student of Aligarh and Oxford, was given the responsibility of drafting the rules and regulations of the League.

The first regular session of the Muslim League was held at Karachi on 29th and 30th December, 1907 exactly after one year of its formation. Sir Adamjee Pirbhai, a prominent leader of Bombay, presided over this session. The draft Constitution prepared by the committee was placed before the session for approval. The Constitution was adopted after a further scrutiny by the members of the Constitution Committee present at Karachi session.

The Karachi session of the League was adjourned after adopting the Constitution. The session resumed after a few months and met again on 18th March, 1908 at Aligarh. Agha Khan was formally elected as the President and Major Hassan Bilgrami as the Secretary.

London Branch: May 1908

Justice Amir Ali Syed organized a branch of Muslim League at London and responded effectively to the misunderstandings and conspiracies of the Hindus against the Muslims.

Objectives and Goals of Muslim League

The purposes and objectives of the Muslim League were as follow:

1. Protection and promotion of political rights and interests of the Muslims.
2. Cooperation with other communities without prejudice to the above goal.
3. Fostering sense of loyalty, among the Muslims, towards the government.



Change in the Goals of the Muslim League 1913


The Muslim League with its establishment became active for the protection of the Muslim interests. It took over the Muslim struggle launched by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and was successful in securing a number of demands from the Government for the Muslims. The most important demand was the separate electorate, which the Government at last conceded in the Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909. The acceptance of separate electorate was the first step by the Government taken towards the establishment of self-rule in India.

In spite of some early successes the Muslim League could not assume that political importance and significance which All Indian Congress had achieved. The Government too, was not very considerate and sympathetic towards Muslim League as it was towards Congress.

Some important developments occurred during the first decades of the 20th century like annulment of the Partition of Bengal and Western aggression towards Muslim countries, Balkan wars, Libya-Italy war, Demolition of the mosque in Kawnpur (1913), etc. weakened Muslim faith in the British. This led to a major drift in the Muslim League’s policy. In 1913, the League changed its goals:

· Self government under the British Crown keeping in view the peculiar conditions in India.
· Good relations with other communities’ cooperation with any party working for similar goals.

This change brought the Muslim League and Congress closer. In this way the era of cooperation between Hindus and Muslims set in. The role of the Quaid-i-Azam is highly noteworthy to bring the Congress and the Muslim League to the table. He joined the Muslim League in 1913.
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Default Government of India Act, 1909 (Minto-Morley Reforms)

Government of India Act, 1909 (Minto-Morley Reforms)


Background

By 1909 the political turmoil and unrest prevailed in India. The Extremists Hindu and Congress activities had forced the Muslims to give a serious thought to their future line of action in order to protect and safeguard their interests as a nation. By now the Muslims had come to realize with firmness that they were a separate nation. The demand for separate electorate by the Simla Deputation and later by the Muslim League was the first step taken into the direction to protect and maintain the separate image of the Muslims.

Minto-Morley Reforms

The British Government had realized the importance of Muslim’s anxiety about their future and was convinced that the present constitutional provisions were inadequate to provide safeguards to the Muslims. The Government therefore, decided to introduce new constitutional reforms to dispel Muslim suspicions. The Government made it clear that it was in favour of giving more rights to the Indian people. The Viceroy Lord Minto in accordance with the policy of the Government set to the task of preparing a draft Bill, in collaboration with Lord Morley, the Secretary of State for India, for the introduction of constitutional reforms. The Bill was prepared and presented in the Parliament for approval. The Bill, after approval by the Parliament and Royal Assent, was enforced in 1909 and came to be known as Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909.

Salient Features, Government of India Act 1909

The Act contained the following provisions:

· Separate Electorate was accepted for minorities.
· The preparation of separate electoral rolls was ordered.
· The Legislative Councils were expanded.
· The authority of the Council was enhanced. The members were given more liberties. Members were allowed to present Resolutions, discuss Budget and put up questions.
· The Viceroy’s Council’s membership was fixed at sixty members.
· The membership of the provinces of Bengal, U.P., Bihar, Bombay, Madras and Orissa was fixed at 50 members whereas the membership of the provinces of Punjab, Burma, and Assam was fixed at 30 members.
· The Indian were included in the Executive Council of the Viceroy and in the provincial Executive Councils.
· The local bodies, trade unions and universities were allowed to elect their members.
· Lt. Governors were appointed in Bengal, Bombay and Madras. These provinces were given right to form their own Councils.

Defects of Minto-Morley Reforms

There were some inherent defects in Minto-Morley Reforms due to which the Minto-Morley Scheme could not last very long. These reforms had following defects:

· The Minto-Morley Reforms did not provide for mode of electing the representatives.
· The system failed to develop a sense of accountability among the representatives.
· The voting rights were squeezed which made the electorate too narrow and restricted.
· The authority given to the elected members of raising questions and criticizing the policies proved useless as the real legislative authority rested with the Government and its nominated persons.
· The legislative bodies lacked effective control on the Government agencies.
· The Central Government exercised vast authority in the financial sphere. Provincial expenditures were controlled by the Central Government which could cut the provincial expenditures at will.

Significance of Minto-Morley Reforms

Following is the importance of Minto-Morley Reforms:

· The Minto-Morley Reforms gave impetus to the constitutional development in India.
· These reforms introduced the system of elections for the first time which created a great deal of political awareness among the Indian people.
· The acceptance of separate electorate for the Muslims enhanced their political importance and significance.

Conclusion

The importance and utility of Minto-Morley Reforms cannot be set aside because of some weaknesses in the scheme. It acceded the Muslims, their much cherished demand, the separate electorate in the provinces where legislative councils existed. The Muslim League performed in a commendable manner by achieving major demands of the Muslims after only two years of its inception. It scored an amazing political triumph within a short time of its political struggle. The separate electorate set the course of Muslim freedom movement which culminated in the shape of Pakistan after a forty years intense struggle. It also gave strength to the Two-Nation Theory which became the basis of Muslim freedom struggle.
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Default Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and His Contributions

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and His Contributions


Some personalities leave far-reaching effects in history and the succeeding generations cannot ignore them. Such is the personality of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan who showed the ray of light to the Muslims and enabled them to restore their lost status.

The great emancipator of the Indian Muslims Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was born at Delhi on October 17, 1817. This is the period when the great Mughal Empire was close to a complete collapse. Sir Syed’s family had already joined the East India Company and his maternal grandfather served in Iran and Burma under the British government. Sir Syed got interest in English from his maternal family. S M Ikram writes, “For this insight into the affairs of the state and first contacts with Western learning and civilization he was indebted to his maternal grandfather…” Sir Syed was very healthy by birth and his grandfather remarked: “A Jat has been born in our family.” He joined the British as head clerk in 1839. The death of his brother made him serious and energetic to face the neuroses of life courageously. Another event that changed him entirely was the War of Independence in 1857. In 1841, he passed examination and became sub-judge. At the eve of the War of Independence he was performing the duties as sub-judge in Bijnore. He established educational institutions and after coming at Aligarh he rejuvenated his aspirations to work for the depressed Muslims of the Subcontinent. He devoted his entire life for this purpose to bring the Muslims close to the British. He died on March 27, 1898 and was buried in Aligarh.

His Services

He took responsibility of the Indian Muslims when they had been thrown in backwardness, depression and humiliation. The British held them criminal of the War while the Hindus had won the British being anti-Muslim force. In such environment, Sir Syed guided his community to rejoin the life. To Dr Qalb-i-Abid, “Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was among a very few leaders produced by Muslim India, who like Mohammad Ali Jinnah made a tremendous contribution in guiding the destinies of the Indian Muslims.”

Sir Syed opened schools, one in Muradabad in 1859 and other in Ghazipur in 1862 so that the children of Muslims might get education. In 1863 he established a society of Scientific Knowledge in Ghazipur. The objective of it was the translation of English books in Urdu so that the inhabitants of the Sub-Continent could have the knowledge of English sciences. After this Sir Syed shifted to Aligarh that remained the center of his activities till his death.

Sir Syed and Politics

In the political arena, Sir Syed carved numerous successes; he eradicated misunderstandings between the Muslims and the British infused due to the past particular incidents. Awakening among the Muslims about the political ups and downs and co-existence in the presence of other nations in India was another contribution of Sir Syed. He motivated the Muslims to absorb the modern education of the West because this was the very motive of the Western expansion in the world. He visualized the bright future of the Muslims if they engaged themselves in the Western learning.

Sir Syed won the British confidence and cordial relationship by saving their lives during the War of Independence. He utilized this relationship for the betterment of the Muslims. It was a subtle situation because the government had put the War crimes on the Muslim shoulders and assaulted their every aspect of life: “These events were a trauma for the Muslims; the methods used by them shocked the civilized world. The detestation of Delhi as a centre of Muslim culture was horrendous; Bahadur Shah Zafa was exiled to Rangoon; Lt. Hodson shot three Mughal princes and later 24 princes were tried and executed; a vast ocean of blood there was; Some Muslims were shot dead and their dead bodies were thrown into the river Jamna”. All Muslims were ousted from land, property and employments that made them third class citizens of India. This created revengeful sentiments among the Muslims who detested British, their culture and civilization. Sir Syed was of the view that British were a civilized, educated, wise and disciplined nation and occupied India with the new war strategy and munitions that could not be matched by the locals and particularly by the Muslims. Therefore at the juncture the Muslims should mould themselves according to the pace of time to avoid more disaster.

Sir Syed published Loyal Mohammedans of India and Risala Asbab-i-Baghawat i-Hind that helped both the nations to redress their grievances. In 1885 the Indian National Congress was founded but Sir Syed warned the Muslims from the sinister aspirations of the Hindus. Another factor was that he intended the Muslims to abstain from the politics that could result in friction with the ruling nation.

Urdu-Hindi Controversy

Urdu grew as common language of all the Indians regardless of origin or religion but in 1867 the Benarsi Hindus started campaign to replace Urdu by Hindi. To gain the objectives, they declared numerous organizations, which discouraged Sir Syed who said to Shakespeare that since now both the nations could not live together. Later the followers of Sir Syed tried their level best to save Urdu language. Mohsin ul Mulk was the outstanding person who organized the Muslims in defense of Urdu.

Muslims-as a Nation

Sir Syed used the word ‘nation’ for the Muslims. Some writers criticize that he declared Hindus and Muslims one nation. But as a matter of fact, he advocated the Hindu-Muslim unity that meant ‘the working relationship’ between the two nations as once he said: “Hindus and Muslims should try to be of one mind in matters which affected their progress.” He favored separate electorate for the Muslims in 1883 saying that the majority would override the interests of the minority.

United Indian Patriotic Association

In 1888, he set up the Patriotic Association to meet the propaganda of the Congress. Muslims and Hindus joined the Association. It advocated the Muslims’ emotions.

Mohammedan Defense Association

In December 1893, Sir Syed founded the Association. Its main purpose was to protect the political, religious and social rights of the Muslims. Sir Syed was great because he contributed greatly to the Muslim struggle for identity. Otto von Bismarck served the German nation with the help of all government sources but Sir Syed did the same without all this. To Khalid Bin Sayeed, “Many tributes have been paid to Sir Sayyed, particularly by modern educated Muslims for being daring enough to put forward such views in an age which was by no means liberal or tolerant.”
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Simla Deputation


Background

The political scene of India was affected by the vigorous political activities of the Congress which had no rival in the political arena. The Muslims believed that only an organized endeavour would lead them to success.

Political Scene of India in that arena was as follow:

1. Ever since its establishment in 1885 as a political organization, All India Congress had been actively striving for the Hindu cause. It had ignored the aims and objectives which said that the Congress would work for the protection of interests of all communities of India irrespective of their religion and nationality. It, however, could not pursue this lofty principle of looking after the interests of all communities of India and very soon indulged in purely pro-Hindu activities. It became clear, by Congress designs, that it was a forum meant to project the Hindu demands only.
2. The Hindu opposition to Urdu and partition of Bengal revealed it to the Muslims that the Hindus and Congress would never allow them a respectable place in the Indian society. The Hindu and Congress agitation intensified these feelings and aroused Muslim suspicions about Hindu designs.
3. The rise of Hindu Nationalism awakened Muslim’s feelings of separate identity.
4. The movement launched by Swami Dayanand and B.G. Tilak raised Muslims eye-brows who seriously pondered over their future plans to safeguard their interests.

Simla Deputation

The Simla Deputation of 1906 was the first systematic attempt on the part of the Muslims to present their demands, to the British government and to seek their acceptance.

The Simla deputation comprised 35 Muslims from all over India. It was a galaxy of Muslims leaders from all the provinces, from one end of India to the other and it had Muslims of all background. Therefore, when in 1906, this deputation called on the Viceroy, it was the most representative Muslim delegation. This delegation was led by Sir Agha Khan and Nawab Mohsin ul Malik served as a secretary and this delegation met the Viceroy in Simla that was why it was called as Simla Deputation.

The memorandum which they presented was a kind of demands which were the uppermost in the minds of the Muslims at that time. The delegation emphasized that the Muslims should not be viewed simply in numerical terms but they should take into account their historical importance and the kind of contribution the Muslims had made to British India and keeping in view that importance they should work towards accommodating their demands.

The delegation emphasized that democratic principle should be introduced keeping in view the peculiar conditions and circumstances of India. The diversity, the fact that there different kinds of people living in India and the fact that the Muslims consider themselves to be a separate entity, all these things had to be taken into account because the India was not a homogenous amalgamated or monolithic political identity. It was a political identity comprising diversity, divergence in view, divergence in outlook and when you introduce some kind of system then these realities had to be accommodated.

Demands of Simla Deputation

Muslim leaders presented following demands:

· Representation more than their population because of their importance.
· Separate electorate
· Reservations of Muslims seats in government jobs.
· Special share in Municipal or district boards University senates and syndicates
· Muslim representation in Viceroy Executive Council.
· MuslimUniversity at Aligarh.

The Viceroy was sympathetic towards the demands. It encouraged the Muslims to launch struggle for their rights parallel to the Indian National Congress but it required an organized platform.

Conclusion

It was a great achievement of the Simla Deputation to have convinced the Viceroy about the genuineness of the Muslim’s demands. The Muslims were now convinced that organized efforts were essential to press for the acceptance of the demands. The most important demand of separate electorate was accepted by the Government and included in the Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909. At this time the Muslims had left the Congress and had not political platform to project their demands. They badly needed a forum for the projection and safeguard of their interests to counter the false propaganda of the Congress. This led to the formation of All India Muslim League.
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