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Old Friday, March 16, 2012
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Lightbulb lets start pak affairs

AOA,
i m going to start a new thread for pak affairs's preparation with the grace and help of ALLAH MIGHTY.
I WILL post all notes and assignment which i did and collected from different resources i hope that my efforts will help u in regard to achieve ur goals
so do let me know abt ur opinions and ask queries if u have any ambiguity i will try my level best to help u all .
plz do lots of prayers 4 my success
regards.
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here i am posting first topic
it is in points.these all r relevant points and also very important u can expand it or either stick to it because they are comprehensive and precise
all of u will find it understandable and easy INSHALLAH

Muslim Reformist Movements

Mujadad Alf Sani
Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi

Brief Life History
Birth 26th June 1564, Sirhind in East Punajb. Named Ahmed and title was Badr-ul-Dir
S/o Sheikh Abdul Ahad uptio Hazrat Umer Farooq
Read Quran, Hadith and Fiqh from father and Maulana Kamal and Maulana Yaqub Kashmiri
Journey to Agra and met with Fazl and Faizi
Journey to Delhi and met with Hazrat Khawaja Baqi Billah Bairang
Died in 10th December 1624 in Sirhin

Quotation
Hazrat Khwaja Baqi Billah predicted
“Sheikh Ahmad is such a light which will illuminate the whole world”

Service to Islam
Origin of Concept of Wahdatul Shahood against Mohayyudin Ibn-e-Arabi’s concept
Efforts against Bhakti Movement and Deen-e-Ilahi
The Bhakti movement is a Hindu religious movement in which the main spiritual practice is loving devotion among the Vaishnava saints.

Bhakti Movement
The history of the movement goes back to the time of great reformer Shankracharya who gave Hinduism a solid philosophical background. But the movement became popular in the middle ages. Chaitanya led the movement in the east( modern Uttar Pradesh), Tuka Ram, Nam Dev and Tirlochan in the Central India, Sadna, Pipa, Mirabai, Tulsi Das and above all Kabir were its leaders in the north. Kabir’s teachings had great influence in the Punjab, but actually the movement in the Punjab was led by Guru Nanak and his nine successors. The message of love and devotion to god was spread among the people of the Punjab for ten generations. This intense and organized propaganda of the Bhakti cult by the Sikh Gurus led to the foundation of a community of Bhaktas known as the Sikhs.

Quotation
“To consider Ram and Rehman as one is stupidity because creator cannot be one with its creation”

Reformation Efforts
Transfer of Kingdom to Prince Saleem (Jehangir)
Connection with Dignitaries specially with Ameer Nawab Jahan Khan
“You can add the abiding by of Shariat in your services and do the work of prophets which will exalt the religion. Begars like us cannot reach anywhere near you even if we try for yers with our lives”
Imprisonment by Jehangir in Gwaliar for one year but later recdeived Khilat-e-Fakhira and 1000 rupess
Promotion of Naqshbandia Chain
Reformin Scholars and Mystics
Oppsition of Bidaat
Reformation through Documents
Starting of two-nation theory
Concept of Government (Amir Sheikh Farid Bukhari
“The position of a king is the same as that of the heart in the body, if the heart is pure the body will be pure and if the heart is not pure how an the body be pure.”


Effect of Teachings
Differentiation of Kurf and Islam (Ram and Rahman, Kaaba and Kaashi, Quran and Paran)
Dominance of Islam
Opposing United Nationnhood
Advise on Shariat
Shariat’s superirority to Myticism

Quotations
“Kashf and revelation get value through the book of Allah and Sunnah and not through wajd”
“If Muslims want to live as a nation than they have to quit the talk of shirk and Bidat and stay separate from Hindus. If the awareness of separate national identity is not awakened in Muslims than it is feared that they would be swept away with the flood of combined nationhood. Islam would become observed in the soil of and would be destroyed like Buddhism and other religion which have been observed in Hinduism.”
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Old Saturday, March 17, 2012
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Exclamation

RESPECTED ASPIRANTS,
IF U PEOPLE WANT TO BE CLEAR in ur preparation AND WANT TO AVOID THE situation
in which mostly students dwindle between different books then
Buy Struggle for Pakistan BY I H Qureshi
and Formative phase of pak BY KB Saeed
these 2 books will give u clear concepts , precise ideas abt the topic and fulfill ur requirements
3rd and last best option is IKRAM RABBANI book. but buy it only when u want quick and short preparation i am not saying that it is not gud but people mostly follow those books which r already in prepared notes form .these books r good but for those who are doing some job side by side but if u have time like 1 whole year is left 4 next css exams attempt so u people should buy these books and should prepare ur own notes .bcoz when u will prepare ur own notes u will also
give ur opinion and ideas which is most imp in exams
secondly u will get analytical skills and will draw conclusion easily
and above all in exams u will not get enough time to revise whole bundle of books
so these notes will give u precise review.

lastly plz give ur opinion that is this help u
i will further upload tomorrow
regards.
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AOA,
hope all enjoying good health with grace of ALLAH ALMIGHTY.
HERE I M POSTING OTHER REFORMER


Shah Wali Ullah
Qutbuddin


Early Life
21st February 1703 in Moza Phalat near Delhi
S/o Abdul Rahim founder of Madrassa Rahimia
Pedigree leads up to Hazrat Umer from father’s side and to Imam Musa Kazim from mother’s side

Educational and Religious Services
Persian Translation of Holy Quran to answer questions of Christian Missionaries
Al Fauz al Kabir, Muqadima Fe Tarjumatul Quran, Hajjat ul balagha, Shahrah al Mustafa, Shahrah al Musawa, Insaf-e-Biyan Fe Sabab Ul Ikhtilaf, Aqd ul Iayad Fe Ihkam ul Ijtihad ul Talqid, Tafhemat Ilahi

Social and Political Services
Ending of Social Evils
Reformation of Islamic Society
Invitation to Ahmed Shah Abdali and formation of Majlis-e-Muntazima
Representation of Unity of Islamic World
Opposition of Sectarianism
Revolutionary Legislature for Islam

Shah Waliullah’s four basic principles of economics
Shah Waliullah has discussed about the four basic principles of economics; such as Production of wealth, consumption of wealth, distribution of wealth, exchange of wealth.The whole nation is participant in the production of wealth, so it should be distributed in the whole nation. He established the principles for distribution of wealth among people as well as the values that how the wealth should be consumed. That economic system is successful which establishes the principles for these four branches.
The first principle is that people living in specific geographic boundaries has the right over the resources of that area. That economic system in which all the people are equal no single person or specific class can get hold of the resources. He has narrated Hazrat Abu Bakkar Siddique in Aizaalatul Khifa “Equality is better in economics than giving priority to one group over other.
Second principle is that everybody has the right to have limited owner ship as the abilities of every individual are different. Not that the whole nation should have same clothing, food and houses.
Third principle is that any practice which concentrates wealth in certain hands will not be tolerated and the system will oppose it.
Fourth principle is that such a balance should be maintained in these factors that society develop as a whole.Shah waliullah stressed on the creation of a party on such principles which will end the outmoded system and built a new system which ensures the development of society as a whole.



Aligarh Movement
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan



Early Life
17th October, 1817 to Syed Muhammad Taqi
Joined East India Company in 1836 in the office of Commissioner of Agra and soon promoted as sub-judge
In 1857 saved 20 British Families and was made Sadr-us-Sadoor
In 1869 along with Syed Mehmood went to England and wrote Khutbat-e-Ahmadia
In 1878 Lord Dalton nominated him Member of Imperial Council
In 1887 Lord Defren made him Member of Civil Service Commission
Died in 1898 in Ali Garh

Chronology of Sir Syed’s EffortsAligarh Movement
1859: Built Gulshan School in Muradabad.
1863: Set up Victoria School in Ghazipur.
1864: Set up the Scientific Society in Aligarh. This society was involved in the translation of English works into the native language.
1866: Aligarh Institute Gazette. This imparted information on history; ancient and modern science of agriculture, natural and physical sciences and advanced mathematics.
1875: Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental School (M. A. O.), Aligarh, setup on the pattern of English public schools. Later raised to the level of college in 1877 and university in 1920.
1886: Muhammadan Educational Conference. This conference met every year to take stock of the educational problems of the Muslims and to persuade them to get modern education and abstain from politics. It later became the political mouthpiece of the Indian Muslims and was the forerunner of the Muslim League.
MAO College Aligarh to Muslim University

1870: Committee Striving for the Educational Progress of Muslims


Objectives of Movement
To protect Islam against the onslaught of Orientalists and to prove that it was the one true religion;
To remove the bitter enmity which had arisen between the Muslim and the British for religious or political reasons and to establish friendly relations between them;
To reinterpret the teaching of Islam and bring them in harmony with modern science and philosophy so that educated Muslims while holding on to their religion, might take a rational and enlightened view of life and meet the demands of the new age;
To persuade Muslims to learn the English language and Western sciences so that they might secure a substantial share in the administration of the country.
To maintain Urdu along with English as an associate official language and to develop it through translations and original writings

Effects of Aligarh Movement
Development of Western Education
Establishment of Islamic Educational Institutes
Economic Development of Muslims
Political Leadership
Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar, Maulana Shokat Ali, Nawab Mehdi Khan (Mohsin-ul-Mulk), Nawab Wiqar-ul-Mulk and Nawab Ishaq Khan, Liaquat Ali, Nazimuddin
Development of Urdu Language
Role in Pakistan Movement
Negative Effects of Aligarh Movement

Quotations
Educate, Educate, Educate
Landmarks of the Pakistan Movement by S.M.Burke
“Hindus and Muslims are two irreconcilable Nations” (While talking to Altaf Hussain Hali)
The British System of Election;Pure and Simple is not suitable for india

C.F. Andrews and Girja Mookerjee, The Rise and Growth of the Congress in India p 52
“Other men have written books and founded colleges; but to arrest as with a wall, the degeneration of a whole people, that is a work of a prophet


Quotations
G.F.I. Graham The Life and Work of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
“One of his great characteristics is his untiring energy. In addition to great breadth of views on question of national importance, he posseses a power of work as regards minute details which is astonishing. Up at 4 am he writes his newspaper articles, his books and pamphlets- sees visitors, official and private – conducts the onerous duties of the secretary ship to the College Committees not only by dat, but not infrequently far into the night. His meals are served in European style, and he is a rigid abstainer from all liquor except Adam’s ale. The topics of conversation range from discussions on metaphysics, religion, and politics to quotations from Persian poets and humorous anecdotes. He is of middle height and of massive build, weighing upwards of nineteen stone. He has a hearty laugh and enjoys a joke as much as any man”
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Dar-ul-Alum Deoband
Uttar Pardesh,India



Background
Effect of Aligarh Movement
Establishment of Dar-ul-Aloom Deoband
The foundation of Darul Uloom Deoband was laid down in 1283 A.H. (21st of May 1866 A.D.) beneath a pomegranate tree
Haji Syed Hussain of Deoband with the help of Mehtab Ali and Sheikh Nehal Admed opened a Juma Mosque in Deoband
Poper working on 3rd May, 1867 by a student Mehmood-ul-Hasan and a teacher Maulvi Mohammad Mehmood
Maulana Muhammad Qasim at 10 rupees/month
Later becaemt he second largest Islamic University

Rise of Dar-ul-Uloom Deoband
Efforts of Maulana Qasim and its expansion
In Muradabad, Saharan Pur, Nagina
Later Jamia Millia Nawakhlian (Qasim-ul-Aloom)

Basic Principles of Darul Aloom
Principles were conceived by Maulana Qasim Nanautvi
Steps for collecting donations
Permanent Residence for Students
Coordination Among Teacher
Educational Syllabus
No Interference
Donors and Preachers
No permanent Income
The faculty instructed its students primarily in Urdu, the lingua franca of the urbanised section of the region, and supplemented it with study of Arabic (for theological reasons) and Persian (for cultural and literary reasons. In due course, it also unwittingly cemented the growing association of the Urdu language with the north Indian Muslim community

Pattern of Education
Deoband's curriculum is based on the 17th-century Indo-Islamic syllabus known as Dars-e-Nizami. The core curriculum teaches Islamic law (Shariah), Islamic jurispridence (Fiqh), traditional Islamic spirituality (known as Tasawwuf, which is the focus of Sufism), as well as several other fields of Islamic study.[4][5]
The current syllabus consists of four stages. The first three stages can be completed in a total of eight years. The final stage is a post-graduate stage where students specialize in a number of advanced topics, such as the sciences of Hadeeth, Fiqh and so on.

Evolution
Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi tookover in 15th April, 1880
Legitimacy regarding relations with non Muslims
Thus western Education also nourished
Mehmood-ul-Hassan (Sheikhul Hind) in 1889 and Tehreek-e-Reshmi Romaal
Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi in 1920 and Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam

Impact of Deoband School
Many Islamic schools throughout modern India and Pakistan - and more recently in Afghanistan, the United Kingdom, South Africa - as well as in hundreds of other places throughout the world are affiliated, or theologically linked, to Darul Uloom Deoband. Famous seminaries have been established by its graduates, e.g. Nadwatul Ulama in Lucknow, Madrassah In'aamiyyah [6] Camperdown, near Durban in South Africa, and three important seminaries in Pakistan, viz. Darul Uloom Karachi, Jamia Ashrafia Lahore, [7] and Jamia Zia-ul-Quran (Al-maroof bagh wali masjid) Faisalabad. As the official website of the Darul Uloom proclaims in flowery language, 'the whole of Asia is redolent with the aroma of this Prophetic garden.'

Notable Ulema
Mehmood-ul-Hasan
Anwar Shah Kashmiri
Mufti Mohammad Naeem Ludihanavi
Raees-ul-Ahrar Maulana Habib-ur-Rehman Ludihanavi
Shabbir Ahmad Usmani
Ubaidullah Sindhi
Husain Ahmed Madani
Ashraf Ali Thanwi
Muhammad Shafi Uthmani (Mufti-e-Azam Pakistan)
Qari Muhammad Tayaib Qasmi (President of Khatm-e-Nubuwwat Movement Hong Kong,China).
Muhammad Ilyas]] Kandhelvi
Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Nik Aziz Nik Mat (Chief Minister of Kelantan State, Malaysia)
Allama Ghulam Mustafa Qasmi, Sindh, Pakistan
Shaikhul Hadith Maulana Naseer Ahmad Khan Buland Shehri

Recent Developments
The Darul Uloom has expanded its activities and started new departments during the last decades. In view of great challenge from the Ahmadiyya Movement*(Qadiyanism), Darul Uloom convened the All India Tahaffuz Khatm-e-Nubuwwat Conference and established a special department to refute Qadiyanism. It started the 'Shaikhul Hind Academy' for publishing books, and training students in Urdu journalism. In 1996, the Computer Department was opened, which was later extended and an Internet Department also added. The Darul Uloom has also introduced a two-year full-time Diploma in English language and literature for students wishing to pursue higher education in universities.

Quotation
Khan Abdul Ghafar Khan
“I have had relation with Darul Uloom since the time the Shaikh-ul-Hind, Maulana Mehmud Hasan, was alive. Sitting here, we used to make plans for the independence movement, as to how we might drive away the English from this country and how we could make India free from the yoke of slavery of the British Raj. This institution has made great efforts for the freedom of this country”

Comparison with Aligarh Movement
Western vs. Orthodox education
Educatinal Consciousness
Role in Pakistan Movement
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nadwatul Ullama
Lucknow



Background
Nadwa's objective was reaching a middle path between classical Islam and modernity. It was founded at Kanpur in 1894 in the first annual convention of Nadwatul Ulema ("Organisation of Scholars") by Allama Shibli Nomani, Muhammad Ali Mongiri, Ashraf Ali Thanwi and Mahmud-ul-Hasan, with an idea to counter the challenge of western education. The institution was intended to be a modified version of Deoband. The foundation stone was laid by Sir. John Briscott Hewitt, Lt. Governor of India on November 28, 1906.
Pioneer of the movement was Deputy Collector Maulvi Abdul Ghafoor
In 1894 Maulvi Muhammad Ali Kanpuri was made its first Administrator (Nazim)

Why NADWA?
The choice of the name Nadwa got inspiration from a hall in Mecca, where nobles used to assemble to deliberate. Nadwa was eventually shifted to Lucknow in 1898 (from Kanpur) and updated the Islamic curricula with modern sciences, vocational training etc

Vision of the Founders
The Present educational system and needs a reform.
Principles or representative of all the Islamic Institutions (Madaaris) should attend the annual convention of Nadwatul Ulema.
A Federation of Madaaris should be formed so that all the madaaris should come under one umbrella. To implement this scheme few large Madaaris should be started which will act as a main Madrasah known as Nadwatul-Uloom and rest will be their branches. Nadwatul-Uloom will keep an eye on the activities of the branches.
Expansion of Madarsa Faiz-e-Aam with Hostel facility.
Curriculum reform (This was proposed by Shah Muhammad Husain Allahabadi and seconded by Allama Shibli Nomani)

Aims
To serve as a bridge between the Old World and the new but firm and unbending in the matter of fundamentals.
Aimed at producing an educated class of Muslims well versed in traditional learning and yet actively involved with the ruling power.
Sought to give Arabic, both modern and classical, a central place in its system of education besides facilitating links with Muslim West Asia.
Safety of Islamic Society
Eliminating the Mutual Tension b/w Ulemas
Betterment of Indian Muslims

Reaction of the Society
Initially Opposition by both Muslims and Non Muslims
Sir Anthony Mcdonald governor of VP called them a “tool of politics”
Ahmad Raza Khan Brailvi organized a warrior group against them
Deoband Ulemas oppeded Maulana Shibli Naumani

Extension of the movement
British Government, Aga Khan and Nawabs of Bhopal and Bahawalpur donated
Maulana Shibli Naumani’s time as the administrator is called the golden period of nadwa

Comparison
Deoband and AIigarh were opposites and nadwa was formed to act as a bridge between them
Syed Suleman Nadvi and Ashraf Ali Thanvi an era of good relations started as Suleman was a disciple of Thanvi
All worked to educate the muslims

Tehreek-e-Reshmi Romal

The key leaders of that movement were Maulana Husain Ahmad Madni, Maulana Shah Raheem Raipuri, Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi and Maulana Muhammad Mian Mansoor Ansari.

Background
After World War -1 in 1914 Sheikh-ul-Hind Maulana Mehmood ul Hassan started a movement against Britishers
Maulana Ubaid Ullah Sindhi selected and was sent to kabul for that purpose
This movement is known as Tehreek-e Reshmi Rumal (Silken Kerchief movement) because the letters exchanged between Shaikhul Hind and his colleagues containing the outlines of the plan to recruit the volunteers for the army and to establish a national government(soraj) were written on silk piece of cloth.

Ubaid ulllah Sindhi’s plan of Freedom
Turk Army to enter India via Afghanista
Revolutionaries to support them from India
Agreements made with Afghanistan and Turkey. First between Mujahideen and Turk Government and Second between Turk and Afhghan governments
After repulsion of British the Turk Army would go back

Actuality of the Tehreek
Silk Handkerchiefs were made
Spied got hold of the information and Maulana Mehmood-ul-Hassan was arrested from Makkah by Hussain Sharif

Anjuman-e-Himayat-e-Islam
Lahore


Background
Christian Missionaries and Hindu Pandits were having the hold of the educational institutes of Punjab
On 24th Sep 1884 Chiragh Din called a meeting of 250 Muslims in Mochi Gate Mosque Lahore

Office Bearers
Qazi Khalifa Hammed ud Din was made President
Maulvi Ghulam Ullah Qasoori made the General Secretary
Munshi Chiragh Din, Haji Mir Shamshuddin, Maulvi Ghulam Ullah Khan, Najamuddin Nazir and Dr Muhammad Din Nazir

Donation System
In the first meeting 54 rupees collected
In the first year 750 rupees collected

Administrative Structure
Lahore the centre office and the General Council sat there.
Standing Committee to take decision

Aims
Answer to the objections of christian missionaries
Formation of Modern Islamic Educational Institutes
Arrangements for

Services of Anjuman
The Amjuman is running an orphanage (Yateem Khana, established in 1884) as well as Dar-ul-Shafqat (Male)Dar-ul-Shafqat (Female)Dar-ul-Aman (Female)Dar-ul-Uloom Dinia (Male) & (Female)Public School(Co-Ed)Hamayat-e-Islam Degree College (Female)Hamayat-e-Islam High School (Boys)Hamayat-e-Islam Pasha Girls High School Hamayat-e-Islam Law CollegeHamayat-e-Islam Tibya CollegeHamayat-e-Islam Rajgarh SchoolHamayat-e-Islam Younani Shafa KhanaHamayat-e-Islam Library
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AOA,
respected members,
do let me know about ur opinion that whether it helps u or not
more notes will be uploaded soon.
thanks and regards.
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so Ikram Rabbani's book shuld be a second option? I haven't bought any book for Pak Affairs yet..So should I start with Qureshi's book?
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Quote:
Originally Posted by anastasia View Post
so Ikram Rabbani's book shuld be a second option? I haven't bought any book for Pak Affairs yet..So should I start with Qureshi's book?
AOA sister,
yeah u should buy Qureshi's book and k b saeed book.bcoz these r written in a fabulous expression and then try to build ur own conclusion and points.this will help u in developing ur own analytical skills and u will soon become expert in making accurate conclusion.

i m also going to mention some good suggestions below.
u should divide ur days like 15 days to each subject in this way u will do ur whole preparation in 7 month and after that also easily do revision
but start preparation of current affairs from December
but do 1 thing continuously that read dawn newspaper daily .mark all difficult words and find their meaning try to use them in ur daily routine in order to remember them.and u will see that in dawn newspaper on editorial's page
always three separate columns r there they r very short and are on left side of editorial's page try to read it with concentration and then reproduce it in ur own language and also write that what idea u have conceived from it.
then u will see how much u have improve ur english do nothing for improving english except this tip.

hope u have got ur answer .
if any query come to ur mind plz dont hesitate to ask. i will try my level best to answer u .

regards
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Partition of Bengal (1905)
and Muslim League (1906)


Paritition
Partition of Bengal, 1905*effected on 16 October during the viceroyalty of*lord curzon*(1899-1905), proved to be a momentous event in the history of modern Bengal. The idea of partitioning Bengal did not originate with Curzon. Bengal, which included Bihar and Orissa since 1765, was admittedly much too large for a single province of British India. This premier province grew too vast for efficient administration and required reorganisation and intelligent division.
The division was made on geographical rather than on an avowedly communal basis

Reasons
Are of 189,000
Population in 1903 had arisen to 78.5 million
Problems of Famine

Efforts to Re-Organize
In 1836, the upper provinces were sliced off from Bengal and placed under a lieutenant governor. In 1854, the Governor-General-in-Council was relieved of the direct administration of Bengal which was placed under a lieutenant governor. In 1874 Assam (along with Sylhet) was severed from Bengal to form a Chief-Commissionership and in 1898 Lushai Hills were added to it.

Objectives of Partition
Administrative Ease
Development of Asaam
Unite Uriya speaking population

Chronology of Events
Published in January 1904.
Curzon’s Tour
Assent of Bengal and Asaam
New Province included Chittagong, Dhaka and Rajshahi (excluding Darjeeling) and the district of Malda amalgamated with Assam
Bengal was to surrender not only these large territories on the east but also to cede to the Central Provinces the five Hindi-speaking states. On the west it would gain Sambalpur and a minor tract of five Uriya-speaking states from the Central Provinces. Bengal would be left with an area of 141,580 sq. miles and a population of 54 million, of which 42 million would be Hindus and 9 million Muslims

The New Province
'Eastern Bengal and Assam' with its capital at Dhaka and subsidiary headquarters at Chittagong. It would cover an area of 106,540 sq. miles with a population of 31 million comprising of 18 million Muslims and 12 million Hindus. Its administration would consist of a Legislative Council, a Board of Revenue of two members, and the jurisdiction of the Calcutta High Court would be left undisturbed. The government pointed out that the new province would have a clearly demarcated western boundary and well defined geographical, ethnological, linguistic and social characteristics. The most striking feature of the new province was that it would concentrate within its own bounds the hitherto ignored and neglected typical homogenous Muslim population of
Bengal. Besides, the whole of the tea industry (except Darjeeling), and the greater portion of the jute growing area would be brought under a single administration. The government of India promulgated their final decision in a Resolution dated 19 July 1905 and the Partition of Bengal was effected on 16 October of the same year.

Reaction by Hindus
Lawyers
Journalists
Business Community
Educated Elite
Hindu Nationalists
Anglo-Indian and British Press
Indian National Conference
Swadeshi Movement
Students


Initial Reaction By Muslims
Muslim Press and Leaders
Mohammedan Provincial Union
Farizi and Wahabi Movements
Economic Apprehensions
Factor of Land System in Bengal

Strong Reaction by Muslims
Islamic Conference in Dhaa 1906
Hindu Muslims Riots
Formation of Muslim League

Role of British Administration
Bampfylde Fuller Lt, Governor

Annulment of Partition
King George V and Lord Hardinge
Firstly, the Government of India should have its seat at Delhi instead of Calcutta. By shifting the capital to the site of past Muslim glory, the British hoped to placate Bengal's Muslim community now aggrieved at the loss of provincial power and privilege in eastern Bengal. Secondly, the five Bengali speaking Divisions viz The Presidency, Burdwan, Dacca, Rajshahi and Chittagong were to be united and formed into a Presidency to be administered by a Governor-in-Council. The area of this province would be approximately 70,000 sq miles with a population of 42 million. Thirdly, a Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council with a Legislative Council was to govern the province comprising of Bihar, Chhota Nagpur and Orissa. Fourthly, Assam was to revert back to the rule of a Chief Commissioner. The date chosen for the formal ending of the partition and reunification of Bengal was I April 1912.

Effect of Muslims
The Partition of Bengal of 1905 left a profound impact on the political history of India. From a political angle the measure accentuated Hindu-Muslim differences in the region. One point of view is that by giving the Muslim's a separate territorial identity in 1905 and a communal electorate through the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 the British Government in a subtle manner tried to neutralise the possibility of major Muslim participation in the Indian National Congress.
The Partition of Bengal indeed marks a turning point in the history of nationalism in India. It may be said that it was out of the travails of Bengal that Indian nationalism was born. By the same token the agitation against the partition and the terrorism that it generated was one of the main factors which gave birth to Muslim nationalism and encouraged them to engage in separatist politics. The birth of the Muslim League in 1906 at Dacca (Dhaka) bears testimony to this. The annulment of the partition sorely disappointed not only the Bengali Muslims but also the Muslims of the whole of India. They felt that loyalty did not pay but agitation does. Thereafter, the dejected Muslims gradually took an anti-British stance.


All India Muslim League



BACKGROUND
Mulim Rule
Formation of INS
Partition of Bengal
Simla Deputation

Founding Fathers
Nawab Sir Khwaja Salimullah
Cooper Trapp
Nawab*Mohsi n ul Mulk
Syed Ameer Ali
Sir Mian*Muhammad Shafi
Admirers, companions, and followers of the Aligarh Movement


Objectives
Following were the objectives of the Muslim League:
1. To inculcate among Muslims a feeling of loyalty to the government and to disabuse their minds of misunderstandings and misconceptions of its actions and intentions.
2. To protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India and to represent their needs and aspirations to the government from time to time.
3. To prevent the growth of ill will between Muslims and other nationalities without compromising to it's own purposes.
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