TOPIC # 1
EVOLUTION & GROWTH OF MUSLIM SOCIETY IN SUBCONTINENT
Pakistan emerged on the world map on August 14 1947. It has its roots into the remote past. When British archaeologist, SIR MORITIMER WHEELER was commissioned in 1947 by the government of Pakistan, he entitled his work as “Five Thousand Years of Pakistan”. He writes in “The Indus Civilization” that Pakistan has a history that can be dated back to the Indus valley civilization.
A. ADVENT OF ISLAM IN INDIA (712-1206):
1. Arab rule of Sindh: During Hazrat Omar’s Caliphate, the Governor of Iraq sent an expedition by land, which captured Makran under the command of Rabi Bin Zeyad Haris. Though Makran was conquered but the victory was short-lived, as the locals recaptured the country. In fact the permanent Muslim foothold in the subcontinent was achieved with the entrance of Muhammad Bin Qasim.
2. Trade relations b/w Arabia & the Subcontinent: long before the advent of Islam in Arabia, the Arabs used to visit the coast of Southern India, which then provided the link b/w the ports of South and South East Asia. A number of Arabs lived in coastal area embraced Islam. During those days of 711 A. D., some Muslim traders living in Ceylon died and the ruler of Ceylon sent their widows and orphans back to Baghdad. They made their journey by sea. The King of Ceylon also sent many valuable presents to Walid and Hajjaj. As the eight-ship caravan passed by the seaport of Daibul, Sindhi pirate, who were being supported by Raja Dahir, looted it and took the women and children prisoner.
3. Muhammad bin Qasim’s invasion (712):
In 712, Hajjaj sent 6000 selected Syrian and Iraqi soldiers and a baggage train of 3000 camels to Sindh under the command of his nephew and son-in-law Imad-ud-din Muhammad Bin Qasim (695-715). He first captured Daibul, and then turned towards Nirun. Dahir was overpowered and killed and Muslims conquered Brahmanbad.
In the words of Italian scholar “F. Gabrieli,” “Present day Pakistan, holding the values of Islam in such high esteem, should look upon the young Arab conqueror, Muhammad Bin Qasim, almost as a founding father, a hero of South Asian Islam.”
Besides being a great general, he was also an excellent administrator. He established peace and order as well as a good administrative structure.
4. Spread of Islam:
5. Raids of Mahmud of Ghazni (998-1030): Mahmud of Ghazni (979-1030) led a series of raids against Rajputs and rich Hindu temples and established a base in Punjab for future incursions. His court was full of scholars including Ferdosi the poet, Behqi the Historian and Al-Beruni the versatile scholar. He was called the Idol Breaker.
6. Al-Beruni, real founder of two-nation theory in South Asia: he wrote Kitab-ul-Hind
7. Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Ghuri’s rule: he was the first Muslim ruler to conquer Delhi and established a Muslim rule in India. In 1192, he defeated Raj Chauhan in the 2nd battle of Tarain. He had no heirs so he left his throne for his slaves to whom he treated as sons.
8. Effects of the establishment of Muslim rule:
B. DELHI SULTANATE (1206-1526):
1. Slave Dynasty: Qutbuddin Aibak, the first Muslim Governor of Delhi.
2. Khalji Dynasty (1209-1320): founder was Jalal-ud-din.
3. Tughluq Dynasty (1325-1413): Muhammad Ibn Tughluq (1290-1351) was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325- 1351. Mahmud was the last ruler from 1399-1413.
4. Destruction of Delhi by Tamerlane (1398):
5. Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1451):
6. Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526):
7. Role of Delhi Sultanate in expansion of Islam:
I. Role of Sufis & Ulemas: Hazrat Ali Hajveri, Moin-ud-din Chisti, Qutub-ud-din Bakhtiyar Kaki, Farid-ud-din Ganj Shakar, Nizam-ud-din Aulliya, Bahaudin Zikariya, Rukn-ud-din Alam.
II. System of administration:
III. Cultural development:
IV. Economic development:
V. Social development:
C. ESTABLISHMENT OF MUGHAL EMPIRE (1526):
1. Battle of Panipat (April 1526): Babar ousted Ibrahim Lodi
2. Wars of Succession, Humayun & Sher Shah (1530-1556): Humayun defeated Bahadar Shah in 1535 and captured Gujarat. Later on, Sher Khan defeated Humayun and ruled over many parts of subcontinent and finally died in 1545.
3. 2nd battle of Panipat & reestablishment of Mughal Empire (1556): Humayun recaptures Hindustan just before his death.
4. Akbar the Great (1556-1605): I. Akbar and Islam II. Prosecution of Islam in the name of Din-e-Illahi III. Political impact of Akbar’s Toleration policies on Muslims.
5. Glorious period of Shah Jahan (1628-1658):
6. Shah Jahan & English Company: in 1632, he permitted the English merchants to set up a trading post in Surat. K. K. Aziz in ‘A History of the Idea of Pakistan’ “By 1700, the East India Company extended its commercial activities in Bengal and had established itself as a leading player in Indian politics.”
7. Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658-1707): he was regarded as Zinda Peer. He compiled Fatawa-I-Alamgiri. He converted Dar-ul-Harb into Dar-ul-Islam.
8. Fall of Mughal Empire:
9. Ahmed Shah Abdali & 3rd battle of Panipat (1761):
D. IMPACT OF ISLAM:
1. Religious influence:
2. Cultural influence:
3. Social influence:
4. Influence on intellectual life:
5. Economic influence:
6. Influence on political life:
7. Influence on Business:
E. RELIGIOUS AMALGAMATION:
1. Bhakti Movement: the purpose of the movement was to eradicate the evils of Hindu religion. There was no difference b/w Ram and Rahim and Quran and Pran in this movement. The main purpose was to resist spread of Islam.
2. Mahdavi Movement: Sayyid Muhammad of Junapur stood and claimed himself as Mehdi. But with the blessing of God, he was put to his end at the fatwa of Sheikh Makhdum-al-mulk.
3. Akbar’s Din-I-Illahi:
TOPIC # 2
“The history of efforts and movements aimed for the renaissance of Islam and the Muslim rule in the subcontinent is as old as the downfall of the Muslim rule. No doubt these various efforts and movements failed to achieve their objectives immediately but it can be said with out any doubt that the various efforts made and the movements launched for the renaissance had the great impact on the advent of Muslim nationalism. Therefore, all these efforts and movements inevitably are considered to be a great asset of the Muslims of the subcontinent.”
1. IMAM RABANI HAZRAT MUJADID ALF THANI (1564-1624):
I. Introduction: born in Sarhind on June 26, 1564. He joined Naqshbandia Silsila at the age of 36. His father Sheikh Abdul Ahad was a well-known Sufi. He was one of the disciples of Khawaja Baqi Billah.
II. Un-Islamic Practices:
IV. Negative attitude of Ulema:
V. Submissive attitude of masses:
I. Purification of Muslim society: in his writings Ittiba-al-Nubuwwah, he quoted Imam Ghazali justifying the need for prophet hood and explaining the inadequacies of human intellect. He had an excellent knowledge of Hadith and Tafsir.
II. Preservation of Islamic faith:
III. Preservation of values:
IV. Logical negation of Hindus’ beliefs:
V. Wahad-ul-Shahud: he was highly critical of the philosophy of Wahadat-ul-Wajud, against which he gave his philosophy of Wahadat-ul-Shahud; the difference b/w the man and his creator. His greatest work was the Tauheed-I-Shahudi.
VI. Negation of Din-e-Elahi:
VII. Two-Nation concept:
VIII. Imam Rabani & the Mughals: he refused to prostrate before Jehangir, as a result of which he was imprisoned at Gwalior Fort for 2 years until the Emperor realized his mistake.
IX. Publications of Imam Rabani:
X. Dr. Riaz-ul-Islam in his book ‘A history of Freedom Movement’ wrote, “Mujaddid boldly opposed all plans to bring Islam and Hinduism together on the religious level, which could not but loosen the Muslim grip on the sources of Imperial strength. He clearly enunciated that Islam and Kufar were two different entities which cannot be fused together.”
XI. “He passed away leaving behind him a deathless legend, a legend of dedication to the cause of Islam.”
XII. Gardan Na jhuki jis ke Jehangir ke agy, jis ke nafs-e-garam se garamey Ehrar.
2. SHAH WALLI-ULLAH (1703-1762):
I. Introduction: in the 18th century, after the death of Aurangzeb, Islam in the subcontinent was facing menacing problems such as sectarian conflicts, low moral tone of the society, poor understanding of the Holy Quran etc. Shah Walli-ullah was born on February 21st, 1703 in UP. His real name was Qutab-u-din Shah Wajud-ud-din. His father Shah Abdul Rahim was a Religious scholar who had founded the Rahimiya Center for religious learning in Delhi. At the age of 14, he completed his studies in the fields of Holy Quran, Hadith, Fiqah, philosophy, Jurisprudence and basics of medicine. At the age of 17, he became the head of Rahimiya Center and had been serving for 12 years.
II. Allana wrote in “Our Freedom fighters”, “He was not an extremist in his religious views and his searches in the realm of Sufism had mellowed his thinking, making his teachings the voice of synthesis rather than that of anti thesis.”
III. Maulana Obaidullah Sindhi wrote in his book ‘shah Walli Ullah, “The essence of the teaching of Shah Abdur Rahim and his brother was an effort to discover a path which could be traversed together by the Muslim philosophers and Muslim jurists.”
IV. Religious Services:
i. Bridge the gap b/w Sufis and religious scholars:
ii. Emphasis on Islamic teachings:
iii. Translation and Teachings of the Holy Quran: in 1737-38
iv. Socio-religious services: during his visit to Mecca on the pilgrimage in 1730, he returned in 1732 with a vision. He wrote Hujjat-ullah-il-Balighah.
V. Economic Services: he advised the Mughals to be conscious of their duties and not to indulge in accumulation of wealth. Economic prosperity depends on the hard work of its Labourers. Those people have the right on wealth of the nation who work hard for the prosperity of country.
VI. Political Services: he wrote letters to Ahmad Shah Abdali. Finally, Marhattas were defeated by Abdali and Najib-ud-Daula, in the 3rd battle of Panipat in 1761. He wrote, “ Give up the life of ease. Draw the sword and do not to sheath it till the distinction is established b/w true faith and infidelity.”
VII. Allama Iqbal his address published under the title ‘Reconstruction of religious thought in Islam’, “The task before the modern Muslim is immense. He has to rethink the whole system of Islam without completely forgetting the past. Perhaps the first Muslim who felt the urge of the new spirit in him is Shah Wali Ullah of Delhi.”
VIII. G. Allana wrote, “Shah Wali Ullah always thought ahead of his times and was in that respect a true visionary and pioneer. He had an encyclopedic mind and a heart that beat in union with compassion for his fellowmen. He has left a mark on his times and has bequeathed a rich legacy of learning to the Muslims of India.”
IX. “Crowns come and go, the people alone are immortal”
3. MUJAHIDEEN MOVEMENT BY SAYYID AHMED SHAHEED BARAILVI:
I. Introduction: Ahmed Shaheed was born on 29 November 1786 in Rai Bareli. He was very mush impressed by the teachings of Alf Thani and Shah Walli-ullah. After performing Haj in 1821, he stayed in Mecca and acquired knowledge of various Islamic movements of the world.
II. Religious services: the basic purpose of the movement was to make Islamic government should be based on Shariah that bound the Muslims into a single community, as was in the times of “Khilafat-e-Rashida”. He laid a great stress on the importance of Jihad for Muslims and organized them against the Sikhs. In 1818, he wrote Sirat-i-Mustaqim.
III. Political services & Jihad movement: he directed Maulana Ismail and Maulana Abdul Haye to march with a party of 6000 Mujahideen. He reached Nowshera in 1826. He sent message to Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh to embrace Islam. On December 1826 at Akora, Mujahideen defeated the Sikhs. Mujahideen fought 2nd battle at Hazro and won that too. Yar Muhammad, the Governor of Peshawar joined Syed Ahmad along with the Pathans. Mujahideen were rose to 80,000. Yar Muhammad betrayed and killed by Mujahideen in 1829. In 1930, Syed Ahmad captured Peshawar. Shariah was imposed. After leaving from Peshawar, at Balakot, Sikhs attacked the Mujahideen in which Syed Ahmad and other eminent leaders were died.
4. TITU MIR:
I. Introduction: Titu Mir, original name was Mir Nisar Ali born in 1782, led a peasant revolt against the exactions of the government and oppression of the landlords. After returning from pilgrimage.
II. Spiritual influence of Syed Ahmed Shaheed: he made Narkelbaria, a village near Calcutta, the center of his activities. He organized a command and appointed Masum Khan as a commander of his forces and Miskin Shah as his advisor.
III. Peasant revolt: he defeated Krishna Deva in Bengal and set up government. But he was defeated by the British + Hindu troops due to the lack of military equipment.
5. FARAIZI MOVEMENT BY HAJI SHARIATULLAH (1780-1840):
I. Introduction: Shariatullah was born in 1780 in Bengal near Faridpur District. At the age of 18, he went for performing Haj. He stayed there from 1799 to 1818 and got his religious education. He learnt Persian and Arabic from Maulana Basharat.
II. Why name Faraizi? The basic purpose was to turn Muslims towards fulfilling their fundamental Islamic duties.
III. Movement: the conditions of Bengali Muslims were miserable. There was a revolutionary change in the Muslim masses with his teachings and character. In the place of concept of Pir and Murid, he established another relationship of Ustad and Shagrid. His chief innovation was the non-observance of the Friday prayers. He died in 1840.
6. POLITICAL MOVEMENT OF DADHU MIAN:
I. Introduction: after the death of Hajji Shariatullah, his son Muhammad Mohsin, popularly known as Dadhu Mian, organized the movement. He was born in 1819.
II. Political organization: the most famous one was the organization of ‘Fara’izin’. He divided the Bengal into different circles from administration point of view. He appointed Khalifahs in different regions.
III. Opposition against landlords: he got popularity because he opposed the taxes imposed by the Hindus landlords for the decoration of durgah. He declared that “Earth belongs to God and that no one has a right to occupy it as an inheritance or levy taxes upon it.” He was put under arrest for organizing the peasants of Faridpur districts against the British government in 1857 rebellion. He died in 1862.
TOPIC # 3
WAR OF INDEPENDENCE (1857-59)
1. Background: The British maintained their empire in the Indian subcontinent for nearly 200 years. The first 100 years were marked by chaos and crisis. The Sepoy Rebellion erupted in 1857 was an important event in the history of the Indo-Pak.
2. Causes of Revolt:
I. British had failed to respect the Traditions & religion of their troops:
II. Rumours circulated that the cartridges for the newly issued Lee-Enfield rifles were greased with the fat of cows & pigs:
III. The revolt first started at Barrack Pore in Bengal in March 29th 1857:
IV. The issue exploded in Meerut, near Delhi in the Ganges River Valley: 85 men of the 3rd light cavalry refused on April 23 1857.
V. Members of 11th and 20th infantry regiments too revolted: slaughtered 40 British officers and civilians in Meerut.
3. War Period:
I. Sepoy reinstated 82-year old Bahadar Shah Zafar.
II. State of Oudh was the center point of the rebellion.
III. On May 30 1857, rebel forces besieged Europeans along with the Loyal Indians at the British residency in Lucknow.
IV. British forces retaliated and on September 15, five days of ferocious fight was held.
V. A relief force reached Lucknow residency on September 25 but became pinned there until late November, when 2nd relief force broke the siege and evacuated them.
VI. The British returned to Oudh in February 1858 with an army of 30,000 men.
VII. On March 23, 1858, the city of Lucknow fell; Bahadar Shah was exiled to Rangoon where he later on died.
VIII. Finally, Nana Sahib, his general Tantia Topi and other leaders were killed and arrested, and in April 1859, the revolt ended.
I. Absence of unity:
II. Ill-planned war:
III. Formal end of Mughal Empire:
IV. Started the Crown rule:
5. Impact of British rule on Muslims after War of Independence:
I. Treated with distrust:
II. Ruthless punishments:
III. Government posts were snatched away:
IV. Took all inherited lands and palaces:
V. New education system:
VI. Employment opportunities were closed:
VII. Poverty etc.
TOPIC # 4
DEOBAN + NADWA + HAMAYAT-I-ISLAM
A. DEOBAND MOVEMENT (1866-1947):
1. Background: Apart from the Aligarh Movement, there were many other forces working in the Sub-continent that contributed to national consolidation. These were in the form of institutions that grew up within the country. These institutions occasionally held views in opposition to the Aligarh leadership, but they all worked towards a common goal; national awakening and integrity.
2. Establishment: Iqbal said “Its neither a creed nor a sect; Deobandi is the name of every rationalist religious man.”
• Most important of these institutions was the seminary at Deoband. The original idea of establishing a madrasa for teaching religious subjects was that of a practicing sufi and a reputed saint, Haji Muhammad Abid of Deoband. He became the honorary patron and manager of the seminary, and when ample funds became available, Maulana Muhammad Yaqub, a leading educationist, was appointed as the headmaster. On April 14, 1866, the madrasa started functioning in a small mosque.
• The madrasa at Deoband followed the Madrasa-i-Rahimiyah in its emphasis on Hadith, but it also incorporated many features of the new educational institutions established by the British, e.g., division of students in regular classes, attendance registers and written examinations. By 1931, 900 students were enrolled in the madrasa, including 43 foreign students.
• Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan, who remained head of the institution for 23 years, encouraged contacts between Aligarh and Deoband. In 1920, the Maulana established the Jami'ah Milliyah for students who had discontinued studies at Aligarh during the Non-Cooperation Movement. The Jami'ah incorporated many features of Deoband.
• Another personality associated with Deoband was Maulana Ubaid Ullah Sindhi. He figured in the "Raishmi Roomal Tehrik" launched by Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan and left India for Afghanistan during the World War I to organize actions against the British. He was appointed as Home Minister in the provisional government of India formed at Kabul. However, after the failure of the scheme, he proceeded to Moscow and then from Turkey to Mecca.
3. Need for Establishing Deoband:
I. Historical grudges of the Christians:
II. Against the Christian missions:
III. Spread of European culture:
I. Fundamentalist in religious matters but flexible in political affairs.
II. Calling for the true Islam of Quran and Hadith.
III. Upholding the principles of immutability of the Shariat.
IV. Projects the golden vision of Islam.
V. Stipulates e central role of Ulema in rejuvenation of Muslim society.
5. Contribution of Dar-ul-uloom:
I. Role of Ulemas:
II. Muslim’s inferiority complex was removed:
III. Struggle for freedom:
IV. Strengthen the faiths:
V. Madrassah Mazahr-e-Uloom:
6. Comparison of Deoband & Ali Garh:
I. Religious difference: Deobandis stood for rigid and orthodox Islam; the study of Hadith occupied the main place. The door of Ijtihad was closed tightly. While Sir Syed approached Islam from the values of the modern west. He felt the necessity of Ijtihad.
II. Political difference: Sir Syed remained loyal to the British, while Maulana Qasim fought against the British.
B. ANJUMAN HIMAYAT-I-ISLAM (1884-1947):
1. Background: For a thousand years, Lahore had been a great cultural and intellectual center of the Muslims. Under the Mughals, Lahore boasted of rapid progress in the domains of education and learning. But towards the end of the Muslim rule in India, the Sikhs devastated large areas of Punjab. The annexation of Punjab brought peace to the region, but failed to create conditions conducive to the growth of intellectual and academic activities. The War of Independence of 1857 added to the woes and worries of the Indian Muslims. The Muslims refused to acquire modern education.
2. Introduction: Towards the close of 19th century, the impact of Sir Syed's Aligarh Movement was felt all over the Sub-continent and Punjab was no exception. In March 1884, Maulana Qazi Hamid-ud-Din invited his pupil Maulvi Ghulam Ullah Qasuri and a number of other public-spirited persons to a small gathering and set up the Anjuman Himayat-i-Islam. On September 22, 1884, the establishment of the Anjuman was formally announced and Qazi Hamid-ud-Din was elected its first president.
I. To arrange for the religious and general education of Muslim boys and girls.
II. To propagate and defend Islam against the Christian missionaries.
III. To counteract the propaganda against Islam through speeches and publications.
I. In 1885, the Risala-i-Anjuman Himayat-i-Islam made its appearance, publishing the principles of Islam
II. In 1892, the Anjuman established the Islamia College at Lahore. This was later elevated to degree level in 1903.
III. Awakened the Muslims:
IV. Textbooks and literature:
V. Orphanage organization:
VI. In 1939, the Anjuman established the Islamia College for Girls.
C. DAR-UL-ULOOM NADWAH-TUL-ULOOM OF LUCKNOW (1894-1947):
1. Background: Prof. Dr. Shafique Ali Khan in ‘Two Nation Theory-As a Concept, Strategy & Ideology.’ “There was a common view that there was three main distinct tendencies prevailed among Muslims; the first was that of Deoband, pro-religious and anti-English; the 2nd tendency was that of Ali Garh, pro-English and anti-Congress and the third tendency was that of Nadwah, pro-British, anti-Ali Garh and anti-Deoband.”
Under the president ship of Maulana Lutfullah Sahib, the first session was held at Kanpur in 1893. The purpose was to bridge the gap b/w modern and orthodox group.
2. Founders of Nadwah: Maulana M. Ali Mongheri was the first secretary general. Others were Maulana Shibli Nomani, Syed Sulaiman Nadvi etc.
I. To introduce suitable changes in the syllabi of Islamic theological institutions.
II. To change the syllabi with the view to bringing it in line with the change conditions of the modern age.
III. To examine the principles and injunctions of the Shariat with a view to keep it conformity with the fundamental guidance of the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
IV. To train and educate preachers who have the deep knowledge of the Holy Quran and Ahadees along with the deep insight of the prevailing situation.
I. Bridge the gap b/w religion and modernism:
II. Create a new mould of educational system:
III. Body of Ulema:
IV. Served as envoys and ambassadors:
V. Finest Islamic literature:
VI. The Dar-ul-Musannifin, or "Academy of Authors", at Azamgarh, manned by the former students of the Nadwa, is a byproduct of the institution.
5. Contribution of Shibli Nomani: Shibli Nomani wrote extensively on Islam, highlighting those periods and personalities that offered guidance, and provided inspiration to the Muslims, enabling them to take their proper place in the world. His writings include the series "Heroes of Islam". The first book of this series was "Al-Mamoon", a biography of Mamoon-ur-Rasheed. Other books in the series included the biographies of Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Ghazali and Maulana Roomi.
TOPIC # 5
SIR SYED (1817-98) & ALI GARH MOVEMENT
1. “The events of 1857 have a two-fold significance in the history of modern Muslim India. They dealt a final blow to the idea of the Mughal Empire on one hand, and they put a seal on the debacle of the Muslims in all walks of life on the other.”
2. Dr. Waheed-uz-Zaman wrote in ‘Towards Pakistan’, “After the Holocaust of 1857, the Indian Muslims came under a dark cloud. It was perhaps natural for the new rulers to turn their back on those who by religion were connected with the erstwhile rulers of India. The Muslims were not only dislodged from power but were also penalized. The government singled them out for exclusion from any position of responsibility, as it was very widely believed that the responsibility for the ‘Sepoy Mutiny’ rested mainly on the Muslims. It was therefore quite natural again for the British authorities to suspect the Indian Muslims as potential rebels. The Muslims’ share in the administration of the country was reduced to negligible proportions.”
3. W. W. Hunter in ‘the Indian Mussalmans’, “There is now scarcely a government office in Calcutta in which a Muhammadan can hope for any post above the rank of porter, messenger, filler of ink-pots and menders of pens.”
4. “The War of Independence 1857 ended in disaster for the Muslims. The British chose to believe that the Muslims were responsible for the anti-British uprising; therefore they made them the subject of ruthless punishments and merciless vengeance. The British had always looked upon the Muslims as their adversaries because they had ousted them from power. With the rebellion of 1857, this feeling was intensified and every attempt was made to ruin and suppress the Muslims forever. Their efforts resulted in the liquidation of the Mughal rule and the Sub-continent came directly under the British crown.”
5. “After dislodging the Muslim rulers from the throne, the new rulers, the British, implemented a new educational policy with drastic changes. The policy banned Arabic, Persian and religious education in schools and made English not only the medium of instruction but also the official language in 1835. This spawned a negative attitude amongst the Muslims towards everything modern and western, and a disinclination to make use of the opportunities available under the new regime. This tendency, had it continued for long, would have proven disastrous for the Muslim community.”
6. Dr. Waheed-uz-Zaman wrote in ‘Towards Pakistan’, “Coupled with this policy of repression by the government was the Muslims’ unwillingness to reconcile themselves to the changed circumstances. They were loath to take to western learning as it would, they thought, produce disbelief in the Muslim faith. It was argued that to read English was forbidden by the laws of Islam. “Pride of race, memory of bygone superiority, religious fears and a not natural attachment to the learning of” Islam were some of the most powerful factors which precluded the Muslims from accepting their new position. They were not prepared to change with the times.”
7. Dr. Waheed-uz-Zaman wrote in ‘Towards Pakistan’, “While the Muslims thus sulked in the corner brooding over their misfortunes, the majority community, with its traditional flexibility of mind, continued to make a great progress.”
8. Dr. Waheed-uz-Zaman wrote in ‘Towards Pakistan’, “They desperately needed a bold leader who can pull them out of the quagmire and stem the tide of their further degeneration. It was at this time that Syed Ahmed Khan came forward to lead the destinies of his co-religionists and help them steer through stormy seas of ignorance and superstitions to safe shores of confidence and fresh aspirations.”
1. “As a social reformer, a political leader, a religious thinker and as a moralist, a rationalist, a humanist and a jurist, he contributed much to the realm of theology, philosophy, religion, history, literature, education and politics, besides building institutions which aimed at eradicating ignorance, apathy and superstition.”
2. “Sir Syed washed off the dust of the centuries and melted the ice of rigidities that had made the Muslims moribund. It was he who brought about a rapprochement b/w the British and the Muslims who had been characterized for over a century as the inveterate foes of the colonies.”
3. “A great thinker and reformer, Syed Ahmed Khan shaped the destiny of Muslims in the subcontinent and galvanized a frustrated mass of people into a nation with a future.”
4. “Syed Ahmed Khan appeared on the horizon of Indo-Pak at a time when the existence of the Muslims in the subcontinent was at a stake.”
5. “Sir Syed's first and foremost objective was to acquaint the British with the Indian mind; his next goal was to open the minds of his countrymen to European literature, science and technology. “
C. EARLY EDUCATION & PROFESSION:
He was born in October 17, 1817 A.D. in Delhi. His mother Aziz-un-Nisa took a great deal of interest in his education. Then he got education from Maulvi Hamid-ud-Din. He became Naib Munshi in 1839 and Munshi in 1841. In 1867, he was promoted as the Judge of the Small Causes Court. He retired in 1876.
D. CONTRIBUTION IN POLITICS: the political career of Sir Syed began after 1857.
Dr. Waheed-uz-Zaman wrote in ‘Towards Pakistan’, “He was neither a politician nor a political leader. He was essentially a social reformer and his panacea for all the ills of his community was education.”
1. The Causes of the Indian Revolt (1858): on July 28 1859 about 15,000 Muslims assembled in the famous Delhi mosque to thank Queen Victoria for the general amnesty. He wrote, “The British had no attachments with the land over which they ruled and had no access to the minds of its people.” The book was translated and sent to all, high officials and members of the British parliament.
HUME, the father of the India National Congress said, “It was after reading Syed Ahmed’s book on the Causes of Mutiny that I first felt the need of having a forum of public opinion of India and eventually the Indian National Congress came into existence.”
Sir Syed wrote, “Granted that the intentions of government were excellent, there was no man who could convince the people of it; no one was at hand to correct the errors which they had adopted.”
Dr. Waheed-uz-Zaman wrote in ‘Towards Pakistan’, “The pith and soul of this pamphlet is that the estrangement b/w the governors and the governed led to the Indian Mutiny.”
2. Pamphlet ‘The Loyal Muhammadans of India’ (1860): these were the series of articles.
3. Tabyin-ul-Kalam: he tried to bridge the gap b/w the Christians and the Muslims. Sent 500 copies to British parliament.
4. British Indian Association (1866): purpose was to keep in touch with the British parliamentarians. Both Hindus and Muslims could be the members.
5. Urdu-Hindi Controversy (1867): it was started at Benares. He said, “Now I am convinced that these two communities will not join whole-heartedly in anything. He who lives will see.”
6. Speech on Local Self Government System (1883): “For socio-political purposes – the whole of the population of England forms but one community. It is obvious that the same cannot be set of India.”
7. United Indian Patriotic Association (1888): “As a practical counterblast to the Congress, Sir Syed formed still another association in August 1888, which was open to members of all communities.”
He founded United Indian Patriotic Association and in connection with this party he wrote to General Graham, “The aim of this party is to oppose the political ideals and activities of the Congress.”
And Sir Syed was correct in his thoughts, it is also clear from the statement of the Governor of Madras who once said, “An eagle doesn’t care a bit for the chirping of sparrows (Hindus) but if a falcon (Muslims) dares to oppose him he at once breaks its neck.”
E. RELIGIOUS SERVICES:
1. Risalah Ahkam-I-Taam-I-Ahli-I-Kitab (1868):
2. Essay on ‘the Life of Muhammad and Subject Subsidiary Thereto’: Sir William Muir wrote a book “The Life of Muhammad” in which he gave false knowledge about Muhammad (PBUH) and Islam.
3. Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq (1870):
4. Tabyin-ul-Kalam: he tried to bridge the gap b/w the Christians and the Muslims.
5. Commentary on Holy Quran: it was in Urdu in 7 volumes.
6. Rahe Sunat Aur Rad Biddat & Kalamat-ul-Haq:
7. Muhammadan Defence Association (1893): to counter Anti-Cow Killing Society founded by B. G. Tilak in 1890. “Its aim was to acquaint the authorities with the views of the Indian Muslims and also to prevent them from participating in political agitation.”, writes Waheed-uz-Zaman.
F. AS A FATHER OF TWO-NATION THEORY:
1. “After the Urdu Hindi controversy, now I am convinced that these two communities will not join whole heartedly in anything, he who lives will see.”
G. EDUCATIONAL SERVICES:
1. Dr. Waheed-uz-Zaman wrote in ‘Towards Pakistan’, “He firmly believed that the crying need of the moment for his community was not their participation in politics but a comprehensive plan of education to fit them for life in a changing world.”
2. As a prophet of education:
In the words of Iqbal, “The real greatness of the man consists in the fact that he was the first India Muslim who felt the need of a fresh orientation of Islam and worked for it – his sensitive nature was the first to react modern age.” He was appreciated by The Times of London as a Prophet of Education.
3. Educate, Educate & Educate: “In our right hand will be the Holy Quran and there will be philosophy in our left hand and then there will be Crown of Laelaha on our head.”
4. 1859: Built Gulshan School in Muradabad.
5. 1863: Set up Victoria School in Ghazipur.
6. Translation Society (1864): established in Ghazipur. It was later on known as Ali Garh Scientific Society; the purpose was to translate the European books into Urdu for Muslims. It was being managed by Raja Jai Kishan Das.
7. Ali Garh Institute Gazette (1866): he himself wrote articles and editorials.
8. Society for Educational Progress of Indian Muslims (1870): in 1869, he went to London and took a keen observation of Oxford and Cambridge and decided to establish a university in India.
9. Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq (1870): he founded a monthly journal in the lines of Spectator, an English magazine. “Its object was to bring home to the Muslims the need for liberalizing their religious thoughts and turning to western education in order to regain their former prosperity.”
10. Muhammadan college Fund Committee (1872): purpose was to raise funds for new educational institutions. It worked for 3-years.
11. Ali Garh (May 24 1875):
Sir Syed said, “From the seed which we sow today there may spring up a mighty tree whose branches, like those of the banyan of the soil, shall in their turn strike firm roots into the earth and themselves send forth new and vigorous saplings. This college may expand into a university whose sons shall go forth throughout the length and breadth of the land to preach the gospel of free enquiry, of large hearted toleration, and of pure morality.”
Firstly MAO college, later on in 1920, it became Ali Garh Muslim University (AMU).
12. Ali Garh as nursery of politicians: Quaid regarded it as ‘ a nursery of politicians’. He also said that “Ali Garh is the arsenal of Muslim India.” He further stated, “Ali Garh is the ammunition for the Pakistan movement.”
13. Ali Garh Movement & Freedom Fighters: Muhammad Ali, Shaukat Ali, Hasrat Mohani.
14. Scholars of Ali Garh: Saddat Hasan Minto, Ismat Chughtai.
15. Muhammadan Educational Conference (1886): a general forum which held its meetings at various places and carried the message of Ali Garh at all parts of the country.
16. United Indian Patriotic Association (1888): “As a practical counterblast to the Congress, Sir Syed formed still another association in August 1888, which was open to members of all communities.”
17. The Muhammadan Defense Association of Upper India (1893):
1. He once said, “I don’t agree with those who believe that political discursion would be conducive to our national progress. I regard progress of education as the only means of national progress.”
2. He was denounced as Kafir, but he persisted with determination.
3. Dr. Waheed-uz-Zaman, “Towards Pakistan”: “Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was neither a traitor nor a turn coat. He sincerely believed that the Muslims were backward, educationally and economically, and were far behind the Hindus in every respect. There could be no cooperation between them in a political struggle unless they were on a footing of quality. He, therefore, worked ceaselessly to divert the Muslim energies into literary rather than political activities. Cooperation with the government was their only chance.” “He started out as a nationalist and ended up as a champion of Muslim rights.”
4. Sir Syed’s contribution to Muslim renaissance in India can be summarized in one phrase, “that it was the inculcation of self-confidence in his people”.
5. “He shaped the destiny Muslims with a nation with future.
TOPIC # 6
THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (1885)
1. REASONS BEHIND THE CREATION:
I. Civil service agitation: in 1876, Surender Nath Banerjee of Bengal founded the Indian association with the object of making it the center of an all India movement. The agitation took a serious turn when the Secretary of State reduced the age limit for Civil Service examination from 21 to 19 years.
II. Vernacular press act & Arms act (1878): it made distinction b/w the Indians and the Europeans. The Vernacular press act imposed restriction only on the Indian languages press and not on newspapers published in English.
III. Ilbert Bill (1883): C. P. Ilbert who was the law member of the Viceroy council, introduced a bill to enable Indian session judges to try Europeans, as had been the practice in the presidency town, the Indian British community started a fierce and persisted agitation against the measure.
2. FORMATION OF CONGRESS:
I. Allan Octavian Hume, a retired British civil servant, held series of meetings with Lord Dufferin, the Viceroy. He further went to Britain met with John Bright, Sir James Caird and others.
II. Convention of the Indian National Union (Dec. 1885): on his return to India, he invited the convention of Indian National Union, an organization he had already formed in 1884. 70 delegates, most of them were lawyers, educationalists and journalists, attended it. The first session of Congress was presided over by Womesh chandra Banerjee. Out of these 70 delegates, only 2 were Muslims.
I. To seek the cooperation of all the Indians in its efforts.
II. Eradicate the concepts of race, creed and provincial prejudices and try to form national unity
III. Discuss and solve the social problems of the country.
IV. To request the governments to give more shares to the locals in administrative affairs.
4. BRITISH ATTITUDE TOWARDS CONGRESS:
The members of the Congress expressed their satisfaction and loyalty to the British Raj. But, the first demand of Congress in the field of constitutional reforms made in 1892, when it was urged that indirect election by the local bodies to Legislative councils should be held to be final and not to subject to veto by government. Lord Lytton declared that Congress represent nothing but the social anomaly of their own position. Lord Dufferin passed a remark on Congress as a “microscopic minority”.
5. ATTITUDE OF MUSLIMS TOWARDS CONGRESS:
Firstly, Congress showed itself as a national body. Two Muslim presidents were chosed b/w 1885-1896 named as; Badruddin Tyabji in 1887 and R. M. Sayani in 1896. but later on, Sir Syed changed the minds of the Muslims.
6. SIR SYED & CONGRESS:
He founded United Indian Patriotic Association and in connection with this party he wrote to General Graham, “The aim of this party is to oppose the political ideals and activities of the Congress.”
And Sir Syed was correct in his thoughts, it is also clear from the statement of the Governor of Madras who once said, “An eagle doesn’t care a bit for the chirping of sparrows (Hindus) but if a falcon (Muslims) dares to oppose him he at once breaks its neck.”
TOPIC # 7
PARTITION OF BENGAL (1905-1911)
“Important landmarks of history don’t reach their culmination without a long chain of precedent causes and events that imperceptibly direct the course of history to that final fulfillment.”
1. As the rule of the East Company spread form the South through Bengal to the North, country was divided into presidencies and provinces. Bengal with a number of adjacent territories like Assam, Orissa and Bihar became a very extensive and unwieldy province, Calcutta as capital.
2. Administrative problems due to huge size:
3. In Feb. 1904, Lord Curzon toured Eastern Bengal to study the problems himself. At Dacca, he was the guest of Nawab Salimullah with whom he held discussions.
4. Curzon, the Viceroy of India, sent the proposal to London in February 1905. The Secretary of State for India St. John Brodrich sanctioned it in June, and the proclamation of the formation of the new province was issued in September. The province of Bengal and Assam came into being on October 16 1905.
5. Before partition, in 1903, the total area of the province of Bengal was 189000 sq. miles with population of 78 million. Province was given revenues of 75,00,000 pounds.
6. Assam with capital of Calcutta, with population of 54 million (42 million Hindus and 9 million Muslims), and an area of 141, 580 sq. miles. Eastern Bengal with Capital at Dacca and an area of 106, 540 sq. miles. The population was 31 million (18 million Muslim and 12 Million Hindus).
7. Obstacles to travel in Eastern Bengal:
8. Little attention towards the education & public works:
9. Muslims were totally ignored in Eastern Bengal:
B. REACTION OF THE MUSLIMS:
1. “Incidentally, the partition went in favor of the Muslims. Before the partition, Western Bengal, being the first area to come under western influence, was developed and industrialized. It was a striking contrast to the eastern part where the Muslim peasantry was crushed under the Hindu landlords, the river system was infested with pirates, and very few funds were allocated for education. It was dreaded as a place of banishment. The partition helped boost Bengali literature and language; efforts were also made towards the social, economic and educational uplift of the Muslims.”
2. Hindus media and lawyers were enjoying monopoly before the partiton.
3. Nawab Salimullah Khan of Dacca established “Mohammedan Provincial Union”.
4. Muslims of West Bengal founded “Mohammedan Literary Society”.
5. Economic, social and cultural uplift of the Muslims in the Eastern Bengal:
C. REACTION OF HINDUS:
1. The Muslims outnumbered the Hindus in Eastern Bengal and this alleviated the Bengali Muslims politically and economically. This resulted in a series of unprecedented agitation by the Hindus.
2. They alleged that Lord Curzon had deliberately tried to divide the Hindus and the Muslims by drawing a line between the Hindu and the Muslim halves of Bengal. And by favoring the Muslims by giving them a new province in which they were in a clear majority, had struck a deadly blow to Bengali nationality. They branded him as the upholder of the devilish policy of 'divide and rule'.
3. He was blamed that he tried to vivisected the Bengali homeland; he had struck a deadly blow at Bengali nationalism.
4. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar writes, “The Bengali-Hindu had the whole of Bengal, Orissa, Assam and even UP for his pasture. He had captured the civil service in all these provinces. The partition of Bengal was a diminution in the area of this pasture – the opposition to the partition of Bengal on the part of the Bengali Hindus was due principally to their desire not to allow the Bengal Mussalmans to taken their place in Eastern Bengal.”
5. T. Walter Wallbank writes, “There were other motives too, less indigenous. Lawyers in Calcutta feared that the competition of the new law courts to be set up in Dacca and businessmen also dislike the prospect of competition from new enterprises that might spring up in the new provinces.”
6. Hindus feudal lords and businessmen vis-à-vis Hindu Officials:
7. They launched a mass movement, declaring October 16 as a day of mourning in Calcutta. Surrindernath Banerji and Bipin Chanderpaul were among the people who were more aggressive.
8. Influenced by the Chinese boycott of American goods, the Hindus started the Swadeshi Movement in 1908 against the British.
9. In the meantime, the Hindus raised the Band-i-Mataram (first appeared in a Bengali novel ANAND MATH written by Bankim Chandra Chatterji) as the national cry protecting worship of Shivaji as a national hero. This organized anarchist movement took a terrorist turn resulting in political sabotage and communal riots.
10. Dada Bhai Naroji encouraged the Hindus by saying that: “Agitate, agitate over the whole length and breadth of India.”
D. RESULT OF THE HINDU REACTION:
1. I. H. Qureshi writes, “Nothing illustrates so well the validity of Sir Syed’s reading of Hindu mind as the agitation against the Partition of Bengal.”
2. T. Walter Wallbank writes about B. G. Tilak, “Tilak’s nationalism was exclusively Hindu, and in this connection he founded a Cow Protection Society and that was aimed only at Muslims. B. G. Tilak was the father of Indian unrest; agreed by the mostly British historians.”
3. Hindus started targeting Muslims as well as the British officials. An attempt was made to assassinate the Viceroy. A bomb was also thrown on a Bengal magistrate; as a result two English ladies were killed. Many Hindus were arrested. It further exacerbated the situation.
E. ANNULMENT OF PARTITION (1911):
1. In 1911, the partition was cancelled by the Royal announcement by his Majesty King George V on 12 December at the occasion of the coronation at the Delhi Darbar.
2. “Keeping in view the fluid political situation in India and the cult of Hindu revivalism, the British decided to undo their earlier decision to please the Hindus. The provinces were reunited in 1911. This act saddened the Muslims. It was a catalyst in making the Muslims of India realize the need for a separate homeland.”
1. Hindu Muslim relations worsened:
2. It negate the Congress’s claims:
3. Sir Syed’s fears came true:
4. Establishment of Muslim League:
5. British-Muslim relations affected:
6. Call for the unity for the Muslims:
Waheed-uz-Zaman writes, “In December 1911, the settled fact of the Lord Morley was unsettled by the annulment of the partition of Bengal.”
THE GOAL OF ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE CHANGED AT ITS LUCKNOW SESSION HELD IN 1913 from G. Allana’s Pakistan Movement: Historic Documents:
“Attainment under the aegis of the British Crown of a system of self-government suitable to India through constitutional means, by bringing about, amongst other things a steady reform of the existing systems of administration by promoting national unity, by fostering public spirit among the people of India. And by cooperation with other communities for the said purpose.”
TOPIC # 8
ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE (1906)
• Three factors had kept Muslims away from the Congress, Sir Syed's advice to the Muslims to give it a wide berth, Hindu agitation against the partition of Bengal and the Hindu religious revivalism's hostility towards the Muslims. The Muslims remained loyal to Sir Syed's advice but events were quickly changing the Indian scene and politics were being thrust on all sections of the population.
• But the main motivating factor was that the Muslims' intellectual class wanted representation; the masses needed a platform on which to unite. It was the dissemination of western thought by John Locke, Milton and Thomas Paine, etc. at the M. A. O. College that initiated the emergence of Muslim nationalism.
2. ESTABLISHMENT OF AIML:
• On December 30 1906, the annual meeting of Mohammedan Educational Conference was held at Dhaka under the chairmanship of Nawab Wiqar-ul-Mulk. Almost 3,000 delegates attended the session making it the largest-ever representative gathering of Muslim India. For the first time the conference lifted its ban on political discussion, when Nawab Salim Ullah Khan presented a proposal for establish a political party to safeguard the interests of the Muslims; the All India Muslim League.
• The headquarters of the All India Muslim League was established in Lucknow, and Sir Aga Khan was elected as its first president. Also elected were six vice-presidents, a secretary and two joint secretaries for a term of three years. The initial membership was 400, with members hailing proportionately from all provinces. Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar wrote the constitution of the League, known as the "Green Book". Branches were also setup in other provinces. Syed Ameer Ali established a branch of the League in London in 1908, supporting the same objectives.
I. To inculcate among Muslims a feeling of loyalty to the government and to disabuse their minds of misunderstandings and misconceptions of its actions and intentions.
II. To protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India and to represent their needs and aspirations to the government from time to time.
III. To prevent the growth of ill will between Muslims and other nationalities without compromising to it's own purposes.
4. CONCLUSION: “Many Hindu historians and several British writers have alleged that the Muslim League was founded at official instigation. They argue that it was Lord Minto who inspired the establishment of a Muslim organization so as to divide the Congress and to minimize the strength of the Indian Freedom Movement. But these statements are not supported by evidence. Contrary to this, the widely accepted view is that the Muslim League was basically established to protect and advance the Muslim interests and to combat the growing influence of the Indian National Congress.”
TOPIC # 9
Or THE ACT OF 1909
In 1906, Lord Morley, the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs, announced in the British parliament that his government wanted to introduce new reforms for India, in which the locals were to be given more powers in legislative affairs. With this, a series of correspondences started between him and Lord Minto, the then Governor General of India. A committee was appointed by the Government of India to propose a scheme of reforms. The committee submitted its report, and after the approval of Lord Minto and Lord Morley, the Act of 1909 was passed by the British parliament. The Act of 1909 is commonly known as the Minto-Morley Reforms.
2. MAIN FEATURES:
The following were the main features of the Act of 1909:
1) The number of the members of the Legislative Council at the Center was increased from 16 to 60.
2) The number of the members of the Provincial Legislatives was also increased. It was fixed as 50 in the provinces of Bengal, Madras and Bombay, and for the rest of the provinces it was 30.
3) The member of the Legislative Councils, both at the Center and in the provinces, were to be of four categories i.e. ex-officio members (Governor General and the members of their Executive Councils), nominated official members (those nominated by the Governor General and were government officials), nominated non-official members (nominated by the Governor General but were not government officials) and elected members (elected by different categories of Indian people).
4) Right of separate electorate was given to the Muslims.
5) At the Center, official members were to form the majority but in provinces non-official members would be in majority.
6) The members of the Legislative Councils were permitted to discuss the budgets, suggest the amendments and even to vote on them; excluding those items that were included as non-vote items. They were also entitled to ask supplementary questions during the legislative proceedings.
7) The Secretary of State for India was empowered to increase the number of the Executive Councils of Madras and Bombay from two to four.
8) Two Indians were nominated to the Council of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs.
9) The Governor General was empowered to nominate one Indian member to his Executive Council.
Muslims established legal and constitutional status in subcontinent in the shape of separate electorates. This scheme of separate electorate aroused Hindu antagonism.
Penderel Moon writes in his book ‘Divide & Quit’, “It propounding the two-nation theory and drawing attention so pointedly to the difficulties of majority rule in a country where the popularity is not homogeneous, he (Sir Syed) had not only put his finger on the main crux of the problem of Indian Constitutional Development, but also, by implication, had suggested a possible answer to it, for if two nations could not sit on the same throne, why should they not divide.”
TOPIC # 10
THE LUCKNOW PACT (1916)
Or THE CONGRESS LEAGUE SCHEME OF REFORMS
1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:
I. Waheed-uz-Zaman wrote, “The outbreak of the World War in which Turkey was engaged as an active belligerent against England created serious perplexities for the Indian Muslims. Their spiritual allegiance to their Khalifa and their loyalties to the King Emperor pulled them in opposite directions. They, however, remained loyal to England and fought her battle I distant theatres of war. But the situation on the home front was different. The anti-British feeling which had been gaining momentum for some time past apace and brought the Muslim League even closer to the Congress.”
II. “The first decade of the 20th century witnessed many such events which caused misunderstandings and bitterness b/w the Muslims and the Hindus. The misunderstandings and bitterness b/w the two communities however turned into better understanding and cooperation due to the political events taking place in the midst of second decade of the 20th century. The annulment of the partition of Bengal, Trablas and Balkan Wars, Kanpoor Mosque incidents were such events that made the Muslims suspicious and hostile towards the British Government. The beginning of the First World War also necessitated the better understanding and cooperation b/w the Hindus and the Muslims to force the British government to introduce further constitutional reforms in the subcontinent. When internal and external factors and events were paving the way for the close cooperation b/w the Hindus and the Muslim, an other step taken by the Muslim League raised the prospects of close ties b/w the Congress and the Muslim League.”
III. THE GOAL OF ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE CHANGED AT ITS LUCKNOW SESSION HELD IN 1913 from G. Allana’s Pakistan Movement: Historic Documents:
“Attainment under the aegis of the British Crown of a system of self-government suitable to India through constitutional means, by bringing about, amongst other things a steady reform of the existing systems of administration by promoting national unity, by fostering public spirit among the people of India. And by cooperation with other communities for the said purpose.”
IV. The following years witnessed the desire and efforts of both the Congress and the Muslim League in close their ties for the betterment of the peoples of both nations. For example, in 1913, the Muslim League passed a resolution expressing its earnest desire of the Muslims to seek close cooperation with all communities without any prejudices for the attainment of common objectives. The resolution expressing the belief that the future prosperity of people would be determined by the relations of the Congress and the Muslim League.
V. In 1913, Mr. Jinnah join Muslim League and tried to unite the Hindus and the Muslims.
VI. In 1914, Quaid advised the Muslims to hold its annual session at the same time with the Congress in Bombay. Such step was necessary to facilitate the negotiations b/w the two parties. Thus in December 1915, the sessions of the Muslim League and the Congress were held simultaneously in Bombay. At this session a resolution moved by Quaid was unanimously passed asking for the appointment of committee to prepare in consultation with other political organisations a scheme of reforms.
VII. The Congress reciprocated by appointing a committee to prepare a scheme of reforms in consultation with the Muslim League. Accordingly, both the committees of Muslim League and Congress held discussions in April 1916. Ultimately, the two committees succeeded in formulating agreed proposals for the constitutional reforms at their joint meeting in November 1916 at Calcutta.
VIII. Duke Memorandum: in October 1916, 19 member of Imperial Legislative Council of both the parties met and jointly prepared and submitted a memorandum to British government for the political reforms.
IX. Quaid’s role: Sarojini Naidu gave Quaid the title of “Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity”. He was also given the title of “Principle Architect”.
2. LUCKNOW PACT:
To pay homage and gratitude to Quaid-e-Azam for his yeoman services for the Hindu-Muslim unity, he was elected as the President of the 8th session of the All India Muslim League, which was to be held at Lucknow in 1916 along with the session of the India National Congress. Quaid made a strong plea for unity, “Towards the Hindus, our attitude should be of good-will and brotherly feelings, cooperation in the cause of our motherland should be of our guiding principle. India’s real progress can only be achieved by a true understanding and harmonious relations between the two great sister communities.”
Major provisions of the scheme:
I. The legislative assembly would be of 4/5 elected and 1/5 nominated members.
II. The members were to be elected directly by the people for the term of five years.
III. The strength of the members in major provinces was to be not less than 125 and 0 to 70 in small provinces.
IV. The scheme gave the Muslims right to elect their own representatives by the method of separate electorates in the following proportion:
Punjab 50% Bengal 40%
U.P. 30% Bihar 25%
C.P. 15% Madras 15%
V. “No bill or any clause therefore nor a resolution introduced by a non-official member affecting one or other community shall proceed if ¾ of the members of that community in the particular council, imperial or provincial council, oppose the bill or any clause of the resolution.”
VI. The provincial councils were rested with full power regarding the internal administration such as power to raise loans, to impose and alter taxation and to vote for budget.
VII. The provincial govt. was to be headed by the governor, not belonging to Indian Civil Services or any other permanent service.
VIII. With regard to the Central Legislative Council. The scheme envisaged that it would consist of 150 members, 4/5 of whom were to be elected on the basis of separate electorate by the members of the provincial council.
IX. The Muslim were given 1/3 representation of the Indian elected members in the central legislative council.
X. The government of India was to be headed by the Governor General, half of whose members were necessarily to be the Indians elected by the members of legislative council.
XI. The government of India or Central government was not entitled to interfere in the internal affairs of the provinces, except the general supervision over the provincial administration.
XII. In legislative and administrative matters, the government of India was to be independent of the Secretary of State or India.
3. MERITS OF THE SCHEME:
I. It gave autonomy to the provinces.
II. The Muslims were given the right to elect their own representatives by separate electorate.
III. People were given the right:
IV. India was given status equal to the other dominions.
V. No law can be enforced without the approval or consent of the minorities.
4. DEMERITS OF THE SCHEME:
I. The scheme did not envisage the full representative and effective govt.
II. The Muslim majority was reduced to minority.
III. The net result would have been a stalemate in which real power would have been exercised by the civil servants.
5. A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SCHEME:
I. It was argued by some Muslims that the interests of the Muslims would be jeopardized by enforcement of the scheme. They further argued that the Muslim majority was reduced to minority in Punjab and Bengal.
II. The greatest achievement for the Muslims was the recognition of the principle of separate electorate by Congress, which in other words was the recognition of separate Muslim identity in India.
TOPIC # 11
OR THE ROWLETT ACT OF 1919
In World War I, the British claimed that they stood for the protection of democracy around the world. Thus the Indians, who fought for them in this war, demanded that democracy should also be introduced in their country. In his famous August Declaration presented before the House of Commons on August 20 1917, Montague, the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs said that in order to satisfy the local demands, his government was interested in giving more representation to the natives in India. New reforms would be introduced in the country to meet this objective. He came to India and stayed here for six months. During this period he held meetings with different government and non-government people. Finally, in cooperation with the Governor General Lord Chelmsford, Montague presented a report on the constitutional reforms for India in 1918. The report was discussed and approved by the British Parliament and then became the Act of 1919. This Act is commonly known as Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.
B. MAIN FEATURES:
The following were the main features of the Act of 1919:
1.The Council of the Secretary of State was to comprise of eight to twelve people. Three of them should be Indian, and at least half of them should have spent at least ten years in India.
2. The Secretary of State was supposed to follow the advice of his council.
3. Part of the expenses of the office of the Secretary of State was to be met by the British Government.
4. The Secretary of State was not allowed to interfere in administrative matters of the provinces concerning the 'Transferred Subjects' and also in the matters on which Governor General and his Legislative were in agreement.
5. The Governor General had the power to nominate as many members to his Executive Council as he wanted.
6. Members appointed to the Executive Council were to have served in India for at least 10 years.
7. The Central Legislature was to consist of two houses i.e. the Council of the State (Upper House) and the Legislative Assembly (Lower House).
8. Council of the State was to consist of 60 members out of which 33 were to be elected and 27 nominated by the Governor General.
9. The Legislative Assembly was to consist of 144 members out of which 103 were to be elected and 41 to be nominated by the Governor General.
10. The franchise was limited.
11. The tenure of the Upper House was five and of the Lower House was three years.
12. Both the houses had equal legislative powers. In case of a tie, the Governor General was to call a joint meeting where the matter was to be decided by majority vote.
13. The Executive Council was not responsible to the Legislature and the Governor General had the right to refuse its advice.
14. Provincial Legislatures were supposed to be unicameral.
15. Seventy percent members of the Provincial Legislative Councils were to be elected and thirty percent were to be nominated.
16. The Governors were given 'Instrument of Instructions' which guided them in carrying out their administrative affairs.
17. The System of Diarchy was introduced in the provinces.
18. Besides Muslims, other minorities including Sikhs, Anglo-Indians, Christians and Europeans were also given the right of separate electorate.
19. New reforms were to be introduced after ten years.
The Montague-Chelmsford reforms were not accepted by most quarters in India as they fell far short of the Indian natives' expectations. Although Jinnah advised his countrymen to “treat the Report with due respect and serious consideration.”
D. Aga Khan’s “India in Transition” from G. Allana’s Pakistan Movement: Historic Documents:
“If the British, on whom historical causes have thrown the ultimate responsibility for the future of India and of surrounding states and nations, were to fail in this their greatest task, Southern Asia would become the theatre of one of the heaviest disasters humanity was faced. Sooner or later, an ignorant and innumerable proletariat, extending over nearly the whole length of Asia from the Red Sea to Pacific, divided by religion and race and language, would be faced with the challenge of self-government and self-development.”
TOPIC # 12
I. “Victorious Nations were sitting on a peace table like vultures feasting in a carcass, each trying to grab as mush as it could of Turkey and of other Muslim Territories. Turkey the seat of Caliph was in danger, Muslims were bound to emphatically and violently protest against the unholy conspiracy against Muslim countries. The purpose being to save the Khilafat from being liquidated.”
II. Waheed-uz-Zaman wrote, “With the Allied victory at the end of the First WW, the Muslims became apprehensive about the probable destiny of turkey. They demanded that Jazirat-ul-Arab including Mesopotamia, Arabia, Syria and Palestine with the holy places situated therein must always remain under the direct suzerainty of the Khalifah.”
III. “As an institution, the Khilafat had a checkered past. It had originally migrated from Medina to Damascus and from Damascus to Baghdad. For sometime it was located in Egypt, then it fell to the lot of Turkey, very much as a prize.”
IV. “The Lucknow pact showed that it was possible for middle-class, English-educated Muslims and Hindus to arrive at an amicable settlement on Hindu-Muslim constitutional and political problems. This unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movements.”
The objectives were as follows:
1) To maintain the Turkish Caliphate.
2) To protect the holy places of the Muslims.
3) To maintain the unity of the Ottoman Empire.
There was absolute unanimity among the Indian Muslims. Though separated from Turkey by thousands of miles, they were determined to fight Turkey's battle from India.
3. JALIANWALA BAGH TRAGEDY:
Rioting started in Amritsar on April 10, 1919. On April 13, 1919, a crowd assembled at the Jalianwala Bagh. These protestors were unaware of a ban that had just been imposed by the martial law administrators on public meetings. Sir Michael O'Duiyer opened fire on the crowd, resulting in 379 dead and 1,200 wounded.
4. TREATY OF SEVRES (1920):
When the terms of the Treaty of Sevres were announced in 1920, it caused deep resentment among the Muslims. They felt betrayed. In June 1920, 90 influential Muslims wrote to Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy, informing him of their intent to start a non-cooperation movement against the government from August, until the terms of the treaty with Turkey were revised.
5. KHILAFAT CONFERENCE (1919): On 5th July 1919, under the leadership of Hakeem Ajmal Khan and Dr. M. A. Ansari, Khilafat Conference was held to set a platform for the Khilafat movement. October 27, 1919 was observed as the ‘Khilafat Day’ and the well-known Khilafat Movement was started.
“To secure the acceptance of their demands as body known as Khilafat Conference was institute at a meeting of Hindus and Muslims on November 23, 1919, at Delhi. B. R. Ambedkar wrote, “Mr. M. K. Gandhi took a leading part in these discussions and it was he who advised the Muslims to resort to non-cooperation to get their demands accepted by the government.”
“Ali brothers were ready to jump into the ring where brave men were needed to right a wrong, backed by orthodox Muslims.”
6. KHILAFAT COMMITTEE: Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, who in H. G. Well’s words, possessed “the heart of Napoleon, the tongue of Burke and the pen of Macaulay”, challenged the British imperialism on their breach of promises. Maulana Shaukat Ali was appointed as Secretary of the committee.
7. FIRST SESSION OF KHILAFAT CONFERENCE (DEC. 1919): first session was held at Amritsar under the president-ship of Maulana Shaukat Ali. In this conference, it was decided to send a delegation to Europe.
8. DELEGATION TO EUROPE: A deputation headed by Maulana Muhammad Ali reached Europe in March 1920 and addressed various meetings in Paris and London.
Speaking in London, he said, “Turkey cannot be torn into fragments like Germany and Austria, because the day you fear the Empire of the Khilafat to fragments, you outage the feelings of seventy five million of your own people. That is where the principle of self-determination comes in.” finally, the delegation returned home empty-handed in October 1920.
9. CONGRESS & NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT:
Waheed-uz-Zaman wrote, “It was not easy even for a man of Mr. Gandhi’s influence as there was a powerful section of opinion in the Congress who were opposed to their participation in an agitation which was purely religious and exclusively a Muslim affair. But Mr. Gandhi insisted that the Congress should join hands with the Muslims in their hour of trial.”
G. T. Garatt writes in ‘An Indian Commentary’, “for Mr. Gandhi, it was such an opportunity of uniting Hindus and Mohammedans as would not arise in a hundred years.”
Congress agreed on the non-cooperation programme at a special session at Calcutta in September 1920. This decision was later confirmed and elaborated at the annual session of the congress at Nagpur and following practical steps were recommended:
1) Surrender of all British titles.
2) Refusal to attend any govt. functions.
3) Withdrawal of all students from schools and colleges.
4) Boycott of British law courts by lawyers and litigants.
5) No service by Indians in the British army in Mesopotamia; and
6) No participation in the coming elections either as electors or as candidates.
10. QUAID-E-AZAM’S REACTION:
Waheed-uz-Zaman writes, “It was at this point that Mr. Jinnah finally left the Congress never to return (Sept. 1920). As a strict constitutionalist, he could not subscribe to the methods now being favoured by the Congress Party. He was not opposed to agitation or even to strong measures in support of India’s claim but he dislike and distrusted the kind of programme the Congress Party had now adopted.”
Quaid said, “Your way is the wrong way: mine is the right – the constitutional way is the right way.” He further said about Gandhi, “I have great respect and admiration for him, but I am sure he is taking the country to a wrong channel.” His words about non-violent were, “If we are going to regulate everything in our country by the doctrine of non-violent, non-cooperation, then I am afraid we are forgetting the human nature.”
Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada writes, “Besides the distaste for unconstitutional methods, he took exception to the Gandhian programme even on practical grounds. He could not contemplate how long the non-violent, non-cooperation could last if all the students were withdrawn from schools and colleges.”
11. KHILAFAT MOVEMENT & ITS FAILURE: According to W. J. Waston, “In terms of sheer physical proportion it was one of the greatest movements of the world.”
According to Jawaharlal Nehru’s ‘An Autobiography’, “It is estimated that during the months of December, 1921 and January, 1922 about 30,000 people belonging to both the communities went to jail.
12. THE HIJRAT OR THE MASS EXODUS (August 1920): it was the outcome of the suggestion by certain Muslim religious leaders and it was reported that it was Maulana Abu-al-Kalam Azad who was the first to prescribe this remedy of mass migration to Afghanistan vis-à-vis Jamiyat-al-Ulema-i-Hind – they issues a fatwa that India was a Dar-ul-Harb. Around 925 eminent Muslims signed this fatwa. Acting upon this advice some 18000 Muslims, mostly from Sindh and NWFP, marched towards Afghanistan. But the Afghan authorities declined to admit these intending emigrants and they were turned back with hundreds dying on the roadside due to the difficulties of the journey.
T. Morrison writes, “Leaving behind them the roads doted with graves of old men, women and children, when the unhappy Muhajarin returned, they found themselves homeless and penniless; their property which they had sold for a tithe of its value was in the hands of others.”
13. MOPLAH UPRISING (1921): Along the Malabar coast of India in the Province of Madras, there lived a fearless, fanatical and poverty-stricken group of Muslim people known as the Moplahs. In mid of August 1921, agrarian riots broke out in Nilambur. They rose first against the British authorities and then against their Hindu lords. Four thousand Moplahs were killed in action and tens of thousands were injured. Martial law was proclaimed and order was restored after a great deal of bloodshed.
W. C. Smith writes in ‘Modern Islam in India’, “The bitter; Moplahs were bitterly anti-Hindu, bitterly anti-British, bitter against the world that gave them only misery. According to a conservative estimate, the total loss of life was 10,000.”
14. MOPLAH TRAIN TRAGEDY:
Around a hundred prisoners, confined in a closed and almost airtight goods van, were transported by rail. When the door was opened, 66 Moplahs were found suffocated to death and the remaining 34 were on the verge of collapse.
15. ARREST OF ALI BROTHERS (Sept. 1921):
Besides other events, the arrest of the Ali brothers in September 1921 gave a severe blow to the Khilafat Movement.
16. INCIDENT OF CHAURI CHAURA (FEB. 1922): On 5th Feb. 1922, the non-cooperation movement was called off by Mr. Gandhi after the tragic incident at Chauri Chaura – small town of district Farkh-a-bad - where 22 policemen who interfered with a procession were burnt alive by the frenzied crowd.
17. ROLE OF GANDHI: Mr. Gandhi said, “I claim that with us both the Khilafat is the central fact, with Maulana Muhammad Ali, because it is his religion, with me because, in laying down my life for the Khilafat, I ensure the safety of the cow, that is, my religion from the Mussalman knife. This may seem a lower ideal. But there is no concealment in it.”
“Gandhi the so called “Prophet of Revolution” appeared to turn pale. He admitted that he had blundered. He undertook a fast like a penitent sinner. He had not the courage to face the natural consequences of his plans.”
18. DIVISIONS B/W HINDUS & MUSLIMS:
I. All this was followed by Hindu-Muslim communal clashes, particularly in Multan and Bengal in September 1922. The Sanghattan and Shuddi movements were offshoots of these communal rioting, which were anti-Muslim and aimed at Hindu revivalism.
II. Waheed-uz-Zaman writes, “There were frequent occasions when Hindus and Muslims drank water from the same cup. On one occasion the Muslims even invited Swami Shardhanand, a Hindu religious leader, to address a Muslim gathering in a Delhi mosque. But these fits of sanity were so few and this phase of the Indian communal problem was so short-lived that nothing constructive was achieved. It did appear at the same time that the traditional hostility had been composed, but in fact the cracks were only papered over and no filled. It was an unreal alliance of strange bed-fellows in common misery and not an enduring unity which springs from purity of hearts and thorough understanding.”
III. He further writes, “Even in the prisons, the division b/w the Hindus and Muslims persisted. The situation in the Punjab seemed to have been specially severe. The Muslims were confined as C class prisoners were obliged to line up at a distance from the Hindu cooks who threw them their loaves of bread. Every care was taken to avoid ‘pollution’. The Muslim political workers had to put the iron cups in a row and retire. The non-Muslim cooks never put cooked vegetables or pulses if the cup was in the hands of the Muslim, because there was the danger of his pollution touch.”
19. HINDU MOVEMENTS:
I. Ariya Samaj: To spread hatred against the Muslims and establish the Hindu Temple of Learning.
II. Swami Shardanada Shudi Movement: To purify the subcontinent from the Muslims. Lala Lajpat Rai and Swami Shardanada were amongst the leaders.
III. Sanghatan movement: started by Dr. Moonje from Lahore. To spread hatred against the Muslims and trained the Hindus.
IV. Tabligh and Tanzeem: started by the Muslims to counter the Hindus’ aggression and intimidation.
20. CONCLUSION & RESULTS OF THE KHILAFACT MOVEMENT:
I. In 1924, Turks under Mustafa Kamal were consolidating their position in Turkey. They announced an end to the Khilafat. It was a great blow to Indian Khilafatists who had been campaigning on behalf of Turkey and Khilafat. Gradually the enthusiasm of the people died down and the Khilafat Conference and Committee developed new interests and in a short time nothing but their name remained.
II. Waheed-uz-Zaman writes, “It can safely be said that if the lack of political unity b/w the Hindus and the Muslims had been the only obstacle in the way of freedom. India had surmounted it during the Khilafat agitation days. But mush more important than the presence of political unity was the absence of social unity which had always stood like the Great Wall of China b/w the two communities.”
He further writes, “This was, in sum, the Khilafat Movement of India. Although it lingered on even after the instigation of the Caliphate was officially abolished by the Turks themselves in March 1924, the movement lost such effectiveness, as it had ever possessed when the non-cooperation agitation was suspended by Mr. Gandhi. As a reaction to the short-lived unity during the agitation days, a rich crop of communal riots followed all over India.”
III. “The Khilafat Movement was an asset for the struggle of Pakistan. It made clear to the Indian Muslims to trust neither the British nor the Hindus, but to look to their own strengths for self-preservation.”
IV. In the words of T. Walter Wallbank, “It could be argued that the seeds of Pakistan were sown by this one event.”
TOPIC # 13
NEHRU REPORT (AUGUST 1928)
1) Delhi Muslim Proposals:
A group of prominent Muslims met at Delhi on March 20, 1927, to find a way out of the existing political impasse. Mr. Jinnah presided in this meeting. The following formula was evolved: Sindh should be separated from Bombay; Reforms should be introduced in NWFP; In Punjab and Bengal, the proportion of representation should be in accordance with population etc.
2) The Government of India Act 1919:
was essentially transitional in character. Under Section 84 of the said Act, a statutory Commission was to be appointed at the end of ten years to determine the next stage in the realization of self-rule in India.
3) Simon Commission:
Accordingly, the Simon Commission was sent to the Sub-continent under the command of Sir John Simon. All members of the commission were British. This was regarded as highly insulting to the Indians and immediate protest was raised from all the important political parties against the “all whites”. When the Simon Commission arrived, the local masses welcomed it by with slogans of "Go back Simon!” All the major political parties of Sub-continent, except the Shafi League of Punjab, boycotted the Simon Commission (All India Muslim League was split into two wings in Dec. 1927.Shafi and Jinnah League.)
4) After the failure of Simon Commission, there was no alternative for the British government but to ask the local people to frame a constitution for themselves. They knew that the Congress and Muslim League were the two main parties and that they both had serious difference of opinions. “Birkenhead, Secretary of State for Indian Affairs, threw the ball in the Indian politicians' court, and asked them to draw a draft of the forthcoming Act on which both Hindus and Muslims could agree.”
B. ALL PARTIES CONFERENCES:
1. First Meeting (Feb. 1928): The Indian leaders accepted the challenge and for this purpose, the All Parties Conference was held at Delhi in February 12, 1928. More than a hundred delegates of almost all the parties of the Sub-continent assembled and participated in the conference. Unfortunately, the leaders were not able to come to any conclusion. The biggest hindrance was the issue of the rights of minorities. Shafi League did not attend the meeting.
2. The Second Meeting of the All Parties Conference was held in March the same year in Delhi, but the leaders still had their differences and again were not able to reach a conclusion. The only work done in this conference was the appointment of two subcommittees. But due to the mutual differences between Muslims and Hindus, the committees failed to produce any positive result.
3. Third Meeting: When the All Parties Conference met for the third time in Bombay on May 19 1928, there was hardly any prospect of an agreed constitution. It was then decided that a small committee should be appointed to work out the details of the constitution. This third meeting was presided over by Dr. Ansari. Motilal Nehru headed this committee. There were nine other members in this committee including two Muslims, Syed Ali Imam and Shoaib Qureshi.
4. Appointment of Committee:
I. Pandit Motilal Nehru (Chairman)
II. Sir Ali Imam (Muslim)
III. Mr. Shoaib Qureshi (Muslim)
IV. Mr. M. S. Aney (Hindu Mahasabha)
V. Mr. M. R. Jayakar (Hindu Mahasabha)
VI. Mr. G. R. Pradhan (Non.Brahmin)
VII. Sardar Mangal Singh (Sikh League)
VIII. Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru (Liberals)
IX. Mr. N. M. Joshi (Labour)
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was to act as the Secretary. Three members of the Committee took little or no interest in its proceedings; Mr. Jayakar; Mr. Joshi and Sir Ali Imam.
The committee worked for three months at Allahabad and its memorandum was called the "Nehru Report". The chairman joined hands with the Hindu Mahasabha and unceremoniously quashed the recent Congress acceptance of the Delhi Proposals. The Nehru Report recommended that a Declaration of Rights should be inserted in the constitution assuring the fullest liberty of conscience and religion.
With regard to separate electorate it said, “Everybody knows that separate electorates are bad for the growth of national spirit and are still worse for a minority community. They make the majority wholly independent of the minority and its votes are usually hostile to it.”
1. India should be given the status of a dominion.
2. There should be federal form of government with residuary powers vested in the center.
3. India should have a parliamentary form of government headed by a Prime Minister and six ministers appointed by the Governor General.
4. There should be bi-cameral legislature.
5. There should be no separate electorate for any community.
6. System of weightage for minorities was as bad as that of separate electorates.
7. Reservation of Muslim seats could be possible in the provinces where Muslim population was at least ten percent, but this was to be in strict proportion to the size of the community.
8. Muslims should enjoy one-fourth representation in the Central Legislature.
9. Sindh should be separated from Bombay only if the Committee certified that it was financially self-sufficient.
10. The N. W. F. P. should be given full provincial status.
11. A new Kanarese-speaking province Karnatic should be established in South India.
12. Hindi should be made the official language of India.
Waheed-uz-Zaman writes, “The recommendations of the Nehru Report went against the interests of the Muslim community. It was an attempt to serve Hindu predominance over Muslims. The Nehru Committee's greatest blow was the rejection of separate electorates.”
“Of the two Muslim members of the Nehru Committee, Syed Ali Imam could attend only one meeting due to his illness and Shoaib Qureshi did not endorse views of the Committee on the issue of Muslim representation in legislature. Thus the Nehru Report was nothing else than a Congress document and thus totally opposed by Muslims of the Sub-continent. The Hindus under Congress threatened the government with a disobedience movement if the Nehru report was not implemented into the Act by December 31, 1929.”
E. MUSLIMS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS NEHRU REPORT:
I. Waheed-uz-Zaman writes, “The reaction of the Muslims to the Nehru Report was distinctly unfavourable. Their objections were on points which they regarded as fundamental in the future constitution of India. The gulf b/w the two parties was at once revealed; separate electorates and the reservation of seats which the leaders of the Congress regarded as obstacles to the growth of Indian nationality, were insisted upon by the Muslims as the absolute minimum which they would accept.”
II. Maulana Shaukat Ali said, “As a young man I never seen greyhounds deal with a hare as the Hindus proposed to deal with the Moslems.”
III. This Hindu attitude proved to be a milestone in the freedom movement of the Muslims. It also proved to be a turning point in the life of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who was in Europe during these hectic days of political activity. After reading the Nehru Report, Jinnah announced, “This is the parting of the ways.”
IV. “The Nehru Report reflected the inner prejudice and narrow-minded approach of the Hindus.”
V. “The people belong to one God, the country belongs to the Britishers, the order is from the Mahasabah Bahadur.”
VI. “One immediate and important result of the Nehru Report was that it gave a powerful impetus to unity among the hitherto divided Muslims.”
F. QUAID’S THREE POINTS:
I. One-third Muslim representation in the central legislature.
II. Muslim representation in Punjab and Bengal should be on the basis of population.
III. Residuary powers should be vested in the provinces.
Sir T. B. Sapru said about Quaid, “If he is a spoilt child, a naughty child I am prepared to say, give him what he wants and be finished with it.”
G. ALL PARTIES MUSLIM CONFERENCE:
The immediate result of the publication of the Nehru Report was that Muslims of all shades of opinion united in opposition to it. The two wings of the Muslim League that had been split since 1924 came closer. On January 21, 1929, the All Parties Muslim Conference convened in Delhi under Aga Khan. Nearly every shade of opinion was represented. The Conference laid down the Muslims demands in the clearest possible terms:
1. The only form of government suitable to Indian conditions was a federal system with complete autonomy and residuary powers vested in the constituent states.
2. Muslims should not be deprived of the right to elect their representatives through separate electorates without their consent.
3. Muslims should continue to have weightage in the Hindu majority provinces and they were willing to accord the same privilege to non-Muslim minorities in Sindh, the N. W. F. P. and Balochistan.
4. Muslims should have their due share in the central and provincial cabinets.
5. Muslim majority in all Muslim majority provinces (with particular reference to Bengal and Punjab) should in no way be disturbed.
TOPIC # 14
QUAID’S 14 POINTS (MARCH 28 1929)
Or IRREDUCIBLE MINIMUM POLITICAL
DEMANDS OF THE MUSLIMS
A positive aspect of Nehru Report was that it resulted in the unity of divided Muslim groups. In a meeting of the council of All India Muslim League on March 28, 1929, members of both the Shafi League and Jinnah League participated. Quaid-e-Azam termed the Nehru Report as a Hindu document, but considered simply rejecting the report as insufficient. He decided to give an alternative Muslim agenda. It was in this meeting that Quaid-e-Azam presented his famous Fourteen Points.
These points were as follows:
1. The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers vested in the provinces.
2. A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.
3. All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principle of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.
4. In the Central Legislative, Muslim representation shall not be less than one-third.
5. Representation of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorate as at present, provided it shall be open to any community at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favor of a joint electorate.
6. Any territorial distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority in the Punjab, Bengal and the North West Frontier Province.
7. Full religious liberty, i.e. liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education, shall be guaranteed to all communities.
8. No bill or any resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if three-fourth of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill resolution or part thereof on the ground that it would be injurious to the interests of that community or in the alternative, such other method is devised as may be found feasible and practicable to deal with such cases.
9. Sindh should be separated from the Bombay presidency.
10. Reforms should be introduced in the North West Frontier Province and Balochistan on the same footing as in the other provinces.
11. Provision should be made in the constitution giving Muslims an adequate share, along with the other Indians, in all the services of the state and in local self-governing bodies having due regard to the requirements of efficiency.
12. The constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim charitable institution and for their due share in the grants-in-aid given by the state and by local self-governing bodies.
13. No cabinet, either central or provincial, should be formed without there being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim ministers.
14. No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature except with the concurrence of the State's contribution of the Indian Federation.
The council of the All India Muslim League accepted fourteen points of the Quaid. A resolution was passed according to which no scheme for the future constitution of the Government of India would be acceptable to the Muslims unless and until it included the demands of the Quaid presented in the fourteen points.
TOPIC # 15
IQBAL’S ADDRESS OF ALLAHABAD (1930)
Several Muslim leaders and thinkers having insight into the Muslim-Hindu situation proposed the separation of Muslim India. However, Allama Muhammad Iqbal gave the most lucid explanation of the inner feelings of Muslim community in his presidential address to the All India Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930. Allama Muhammad Iqbal was a poet, philosopher and thinker who had gained countrywide fame and recognition by 1930.
“Political events had taken an ominous turn. There was a two-pronged attack on the Muslim interests. On one hand, the Hindus offered a tough opposition by proposing the Nehru Report as the ultimate constitution for India. On the other, the British government in India had totally ignored the Muslim demands in the Simon Commission report.”
Iqbal addressed as President of the annual session of Muslim League:
“To base a constitution on the conception of a homogenous India or to apply to India the principles dictated by British Democratic sentiments is unwittingly to prepare her for a civil war…self-government with the British Empire or in about it, the formation of a consolidated North West Indian Muslim State appears to be the final destiny of Muslims, at least of North West India… I therefore, demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim State in the best interests of India and Islam. For India it means security and peace resulting form an internal balance of power; for Islam an opportunity to rid itself of the stamp that Arabian Imperialism was forced to give it, to mobilize its laws, its education, its culture and to bring them into close contact with its own original spirit and with the spirit of modern times.”
He further stated, “I would go further than the demands embodied in it. I would like to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sind, and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state, self-government within the British empire or without the British empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West India.”
C. HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE:
“That was a bombshell for the British as well as the Hindus.”
“The greatest historical significance of Allama Iqbal's Allahabad address was that it cleared all political confusion from the minds of the Muslims, thus enabling them to determine their new destination. The national spirit that Iqbal fused amongst the Muslims of India later on developed into the ideological basis of Pakistan.”
TOPIC # 16
ROUND TABLE CONFERENCES
1. Simon Commission: The Indian political community received the Simon Commission Report issued in June 1930 with great resentment. Different political parties gave vent to their feelings in different ways. The Muslims reserved their opinion on the Simon Report declaring that the report was not final and the matters should decided after consultations with the leaders representing all communities in India.
2. Civil Disobedience Movement: The Congress started a Civil Disobedience Movement under Gandhi's command.
3. The Indian political situation seemed deadlocked. The British government refused to contemplate any form of self-government for the people of India. This caused frustration amongst the masses, who often expressed their anger in violent clashes.
4. The Labour Government returned to power in Britain in 1931, and a glimmer of hope ran through Indian hearts. Labour leaders had always been sympathetic to the Indian cause. The government decided to hold a Round Table Conference in London to consider new constitutional reforms. All Indian politicians; Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and Christians were summoned to London for the conference.
B. FIRST ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE (Nov 1930-Jan 1931):
1. The first session of the conference opened in London on November 12, 1930. All parties were present except for the Congress, whose leaders were in jail due to the Civil Disobedience Movement. Congress leaders stated that they would have nothing to do with further constitutional discussion unless the Nehru Report was enforced in its entirety as the constitution of India.
2. Almost 89 members attended the conference, 16 from the UK, 16 from the Indian states and 57 were chosen from various communities and interests in British India. The prominent among the Muslim delegates invited by the British government were Sir Aga Khan, Quaid-e-Azam, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jouhar, Sir Muhammad Shafi and Maulvi Fazl-i-Haq. Sir Taj Bahadur Sapru, Mr. Jaikar and Dr. Moonje were outstanding amongst the Hindu leaders.
3. The Muslim-Hindu differences overcastted the conference as the Hindus were pushing for a powerful central government while the Muslims stood for a loose federation of completely autonomous provinces. The Muslims demanded maintenance of weightage and separate electorates, the Hindus their abolition. The Muslims claimed statutory majority in Punjab and Bengal, while Hindus resisted their imposition. In Punjab, the situation was complicated by inflated Sikh claims.
4. Maulana Muhammad Ali’s speech at the Fourth Plenary Session of the Round Table Conference in London on 19th Nov. 1930. “Freedom or death”:
“Mr. Chairman… we belong to the Army of India! I tell you this is the fact, God’s own truth, about the India Army. You take a plebiscite of the Indian Army, God Almighty being present, and the British spies, of course, being also present, but some of us also being present, and you will find that we know more than anybody else on that subject. India will defend herself today if you honestly want her to do so.”
5. Mr. Jinnah stood for full self-government, but added, “The first and foremost thing that we have to provide is that the various interests are safeguarded and you cannot possibly frame any constitution unless you have provided safeguards for the rights and the interests which exist in India.”
6. Eight subcommittees were set up to deal with the details. These committees dealt with the federal structure, provincial constitution, franchise, Sindh, the North West Frontier Province, defense services and minorities.
7. The conference broke up on January 19, 1931, and what emerged from it was a general agreement to write safeguards for minorities into the constitution and a vague desire to devise a federal system for the country.
C. GANDHI-IRWIN PACT:
Lord Irwin, the Viceroy extended an invitation to Gandhi for talks. Gandhi agreed to end the Civil Disobedience Movement without laying down any preconditions. The agreement between Gandhi and Irwin was signed on March 5, 1931
1. The Congress would discontinue the Civil Disobedience Movement.
2. The Congress would participate in the Round Table Conference.
3. The Government would withdraw all ordinances issued to curb the Congress.
4. The Government would withdraw all prosecutions relating to offenses not involving violence.
5. The Government would release all persons undergoing sentences of imprisonment for their activities in the civil disobedience movement.
D. SECOND ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE (Sept 1931 to Dec. 1 1931):
1. The second session of the conference opened in London on September 7, 1931. The main task of the conference was done through the two committees on federal structure and minorities.
2. Gandhi’s Stubborn attitude: Gandhi was a member of both but he adopted a very unreasonable attitude. He claimed that he represented all India and dismissed all other Indian delegates as non-representative because they did not belong to the Congress.
3. The Muslim delegation was much the same as in the first session with the addition of Allama Iqbal.
4. The communal problem represented the most difficult issue for the delegates. Gandhi again tabled the Congress scheme for a settlement, a mere reproduction of the Nehru Report, but all the minorities rejected it.
5. As a counter to the Congress scheme, the Muslims, the depressed classes, the Indian Christians, the Anglo-Indians, and the Europeans presented a joint statement of claims which they said must stand as an interdependent whole. As their main demands were not acceptable to Gandhi, the communal issue was postponed for future discussion.
6. Three important committees drafted their reports; the Franchise Committee, the Federal Finance Committee and States Inquiry Committee.
7. On the concluding day, the British Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald appealed to the Indian leaders to reach a communal settlement. Failing to do so, he said, would force the British government would take a unilateral decision.
8. Quaid-e-Azam did not participate in the session of the Second Round Table Conference as he had decided to keep himself aloof from the Indian politics and to practice as a professional lawyer in England.
9. On his return to India, Gandhi once again started Civil Disobedience Movement and was duly arrested.
E. COMMUNAL AWARD (August 16, 1932):
Mr. Ramsay MacDonald, “not only as the PM but as the friend of India,” announced a provisional scheme for communal representation, known as Communal Award. The Muslims who constituted 56% of the population in Punjab were given 86 seats out of a total membership of 175. Similarly, in Bengal where they were 54.8%, they were allotted 199 seats out of a total of 250. The award thus did not give the Muslims a clear majority in the two provinces where the problem was the most difficult, as there was a very heavy weightage in favour of the Sikhs in Punjab and the Europeans in Bengal. At this time, Ch. Rehmat Ali coined the word ‘PAKISTAN’, who was studying in London.
According to Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada, “Though the decision falls far short of the Muslim demands, the Muslim have accepted it in the best interest of the country reserving to themselves the right to press for the acceptance of all their demands.”
The Hindus, on the other hand, protested violently and at once organized a campaign against the award.
F. THIRD ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE (Nov. 17 to Dec. 24, 1932):
The third session began on November 17, 1932. This session is officially known as joint select committee appointed by Parliament with the Marquees of Linlithgow as its chairman, to draw up the Indian Constitution. The Conference was short and unimportant. The Congress was once again absent, so was the Labour opposition in the British Parliament. Reports of the various committees were scrutinized. The conference ended on December 25, 1932.
The recommendations of the Round Table Conferences were embodied in a White Paper. It was published in March 1933, and debated in parliament directly afterwards, analyzed by the Joint Select Committee and after the final reading and loyal assent, the bill reached the Statute Book on July 24, 1935.
TOPIC # 17
THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1935
A. Allama Iqbal’s press statement on the constitution (26th February, 1933):
“Whatever else one may say about the results of the Round Table Conferences, nobody can deny that they have given birth to a people who are at once new and ancient. I believe it to be one of the most remarkable facts of modern history. Not even a farsighted historian can realize the full consequences of the birth of this new – ancient people. I only hope that their leaders will remain alert and not allow the growth of self-consciousness among their people to be arrested by external forces, social or political.”
After the failure of the Third Round Table Conference, the British government gave the Joint Select Committee the task of formulating the new Act for India. The Committee comprised of 16 members each from the House of Commons and House of Lords, 20 representatives from British India and seven from the princely states. Lord Linlithgow was appointed as the president of the Committee. After a year and a half of deliberations, the Committee finally came out with a draft Bill on February 5, 1935. The Bill was discussed in the House of Commons for 43 days and in the House of Lords for 13 days and finally, after being signed by the King, was enforced as the Government of India Act, 1935, in July 1935.
C. MAIN FEATURES:
1. A Federation of India was promised for, comprising both provinces and states. The provisions of the Act establishing the federal central government were not to go into operation until a specified number of rulers of states had signed Instruments of Accession. Since, this did not happen, the central government continued to function in accordance with the 1919 Act and only the part of the 1935 Act dealing with the provincial governments went into operation.
2. The Governor General remained the head of the central administration and enjoyed wide powers concerning administration, legislation and finance.
3. No finance bill could be placed in the Central Legislature without the consent of the Governor General.
4. The Federal Legislature was to consist of two houses, the Council of State (Upper House) and the Federal Assembly (Lower House).
5. The Council of State was to consist of 260 members, out of whom 156 were to be elected from the British India and 104 to be nominated by the rulers of princely states.
6. The Federal Assembly was to consist of 375 members; out of which 250 were to be elected by the Legislative Assemblies of the British Indian provinces while 125 were to be nominated by the rulers of princely states.
7. The Central Legislature had the right to pass any bill, but the bill required the approval of the Governor General before it became Law. On the other hand Governor General had the power to frame ordinances.
8. The Indian Council was abolished. In its place, few advisers were nominated to help the Secretary of State for India.
9. The Secretary of State was not expected to interfere in matters that the Governor dealt with, with the help of Indian Ministers.
10. The provinces were given autonomy with respect to subjects delegated to them.
11. Diarchy, which had been established in the provinces by the Act of 1919, was to be established at the Center. However it came to an end in the provinces.
12. Two new provinces Sindh and Orissa were created.
13. Reforms were introduced in N. W. F. P. as were in the other provinces.
14. Separate electorates were continued as before.
15. One-third Muslim representation in the Central Legislature was guaranteed.
16. Autonomous provincial governments in 11 provinces, under ministries responsible to legislatures, would be setup.
17. Burma and Aden were separated from India.
18. The Federal Court was established in the Center.
19. The Reserve Bank of India was established.
Both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League opposed the Act, but participated in the provincial elections of winter 1936-37, conducted under stipulations of the Act. At the time of independence, the two dominions of India and Pakistan accepted the Act of 1935, with few amendments, as their provisional constitution.
Waheed-uz-Zaman writes, “The Govt. of India Act was a voluminous document but, speaking broadly, the content of the new constitution was two-fold. Firstly, it set up a federation in India. Secondly, it established in eleven provinces autonomous governments under ministers wholly responsible to elect legislators. The most important provisions of the Act, for the Muslims, were the creation of Sindh as a separate province; the introduction of provincial autonomy; 1/3 Muslim representation in the central legislature; the continuation of the separate electorates and the reservation to the Governor General of authority to assign the residuary powers at his discretion.”
TOPIC # 18
HINDU MINISTRIES (1937-39)
1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:
The Government of India Act of 1935 was practically implemented in 1937. The provincial elections were held in the winter of 1936-37. There were two major political parties in the Sub-continent at that time, the Congress and the Muslim League. Both parties did their best to persuade the masses before these elections and put before them their manifesto.
2. THE POLITICAL MANIFESTO OF MUSLIM LEAGUE & CONGRESS:
The political manifestos of both parties were almost identical, although there were two major differences. Congress stood for joint electorate and the League for separate electorates; Congress wanted Hindi as official language with Deva Nagri script of writing while the League wanted Urdu with Persian script.
3. ELECTION RESULTS: Congress captured 704 out of 1585 seats in lower houses of all the provinces taken together, and in five (Madras, the United Provinces, Bihar, the Central Provinces, and Orissa) it was returned with clear majority. It obtained 19 out of 50 seats in NWFP, in Punjab 18 out of 175, in Sindh 7 out of 60, in Bengal 51 out of 250. Yet it failed to secure even 40 percent of the total number of seats. Out of the 1,771 total seats in the 11 provinces.
Waheed-uz-Zaman writes, “Mr. Gandhi’s assertion at the Round Table Conference that the Congress represented and spoke for 95 per cent of the population of India had by no means been confirmed by the election results.”
4. THE LEAGUE’S FAILURE: In the words of R. Symonds, “In 1937 it was still a middle-class organisation which had made little effort to obtain a mass following.”
The League fared particularly poorly in Punjab, Sindh and NWFP. In Punjab, the Nationalist Unionist Party swept the Muslim seats. The overall results of the League’s achievement were that it won 106 out of total 491 Muslim seats.
Thus directly or indirectly, Congress was in power in nine out of eleven provinces. The Unionist Party of Sir Fazl-i-Hussain and Praja Krishak Party of Maulvi Fazl-i-Haq were able to form governments in Punjab and Bengal respectively, without the interference of Congress. Muslim League failed to form government in any province. Quaid-i-Azam offered Congress to form a coalition government with the League but the Congress rejected his offer.
5. THE HINDU MINISTRIES: The final results of the elections were known in February 1937. Since the governors were unable to give the required undertaking as demanded by Congress, the Congress refused to accept office. The non-Congress majority provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Bengal and Assam) started functioning as autonomous provinces and ministries went into office on April 1. With the deadlock ended, Congress entered its official career in July 1937.
Congress had clear majorities in five provinces, namely, Madras, the United Provinces, Bihar, the Central provinces and Orissa. In other two provinces – Bombay and NWFP – it was also able to form Ministries with the help of small minority groups.
“The Congress showed little or no disposition to cooperate with the League or to work for the removal of the differences which divided the two organisations.
6. QUAID’S REACTION:
“Mr. Jinnah was still ready to seek compromise. Even before the Congress ministries came into power, he expressed his belief that the conflict b/w the two parties was not irreconcilable and his readiness to cooperate with Congress in working for unity and independence.”
7. PARLIAMENTARY SUBCOMMITTEE: A parliamentary subcommittee was established by Congress consisting of three leaders, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Badu Rajendra Prasad. The committee was entrusted with the task of supervising the formation of Ministries in several provinces. The test case was that of the United Provinces which was placed under the charge of Maulana Azad. The Muslims constituted 16% population and got 66 seats in the elections, 26 out of which had been won by Muslim League. The Congress, which had a clear majority over all other groups, was able to form a ministry without regard to the League. Nevertheless, the League members expected a share in the Ministry. The Congress leaders categorically rejected to consider a coalition Ministry with League in the province. With a view to detaching members from the League and drawing them into the fold of Congress, an important statement was issued. Maulana Azad states, “The Moslem League group in the United Provinces Legislature shall cease to function as a separate group. The existing members of the Moslem League Party in the united Provinces Assembly shall become part of the Congress Party, and will fully share with other members of the Congress. Moslem League Parliamentary Board in the United Provinces will be dissolved, and no candidate will thereafter be set up by the said Board at any by-election.”
8. MUSLIM MASS CONTACT MOVEMENT: P. J. Nehru announced in March 1937 that the Congress would soon start a Muslim mass contact movement. “IT was an attempt to weaken and demoralize the League and to discredit its leadership. The problem, in Nehru’s opinion, was economic and not communal.” His suggestion was “to leave top fringe, which is continually talking of percentage of seats in the legislatures and state jobs and reach the masses.”
“Twenty-seven months of the Congress rule were like a nightmare for the Muslims of South Asia. Some of the Congress leaders even stated that they would take revenge from the Muslims for the last 700 years of their slavery. Even before the formation of government, the Congress started a Muslim Mass Contact Movement, with the aim to convince Muslims that there were only two political parties in India, i.e. the British and the Congress. The aim was to decrease the importance of the Muslim League for the Muslims.”
9. LUCKNOW SESSION OF LEAGUE (Oct. 1937): Quaid appealed Muslims to rally around the League. The most significant moment of the session was that Unionist Part joined the League. An agreement to that effect known as the Jinnah-Sikandar Pact (1937) was concluded.
“Within 2 or 3 months after the Lucknow Conference, over 170 new branches of the League had been established, 90 of them in the United Provinces and 40 in the Punjab.”
10. JINNAH-NEHRU CORRESPONDENCE (Jan. 1938- Dec.1939):
11. PIRPUR & SHAREEF REPORTS: the reports were presented at Muslim Leagues Patna Session in December 1938. In order to strengthen its case, the Muslim League Council had appointed a Committee in March, 1938, under the chairmanship of Raja Syed Muhammad Mehdi of Pirpur to inquire into the numerous complaints of hardships, ill treatment and injustice that is meted out to the Muslims in various congress government provinces. The report of this committee was published at the end of 1938 and became known as Pirpur report. This was followed by the Shareef Report, published in March 1939, after an investigation by a special committee of the Provincial Branch of the Muslim League in Bihar. Over and above these two came a lengthy statement in December 1939, by Mr. Fazl-e-Huq, the Premier of Bengal. It was also published as “Muslim Sufferings under Congress Rule”.
12. BISWA MURDER CASE (1939): in Chandur Biswa, a small village in Berar, a Hindu-Muslim riot took place in Mach 1939, in which both Hindus and Muslims were injured. One of the Hindus named Jagdev Patel latter succumbed to his injuries. The local administration took action and Muslims numbering about 150 men, women, and children were collectively accused of murder although only 43 of these were ultimately prosecuted. A penal tax was, however, imposed on the entire Muslim population of the village. When the case went to the Session Court, Nagpur, 6 Muslims were sentenced to death and 24 to transportation for life. On an appeal Nagpur High Court found that the entire evidence was false and acquitted them all.
13. HINDUS’ ATROCITIES AGAINST THE MUSLIMS:
I. Wardha Scheme: it was prepared by a committee headed by a Congressite Muslim, Dr. Zakir hussain, but it was inspired, guided and supervised by Mr. Gandhi himself.
II. Vidya Mandirs (Temples of Learning): the two main objectives of the scheme were to inculcate the spirit of ahimsa (non-violence) and territorial nationalism. The insistence of ahimsa is only meant to root out from the Muslim youths their martial spirit and tradition.
III. Trunga (Tri-colour) flag was adopted as a National Flag.
IV. Bande Mataram was adopted as a national anthem.
V. Cow Slaughter was officially banned.
VI. Economic deterioration:
VII. Extermination of Urdu:
VIII. Communal riots:
14. QUAID’S ATTACK ON CONGRESS:
“The Congress wanted the Mussalmans to be a mere understudy of the Congress, more foot pages of the Congress leaders, to be used, governed and brought under the heels when they had served the purpose of the Congress. The Congress has now killed every hope of Hindu Muslim settlement in the right royal fashion of fascism.”
15. RESIGNATION OF HINDU MINISTRIES: on September 3, 1939, war was declared in Europe, and on the same time the Viceroy of India proclaimed the country to be at war with Germany. On October 22, the Congress Working Committee refused to give any support in the war. The civil Disobedience Campaign was launched by Gandhi and the Congress in the following year did nothing to resolve the deadlock. Acting under the direct orders from the Working Committee, 8 Congress Ministries went out of office b/w October 27 and November 15, 1939.
16. DELIVERANCE DAY (DECEMBER 22):
Waheed-uz-Zaman writes, “soon after their exit Mr. Jinnah a skillful tactician and a hard hitting opponent, with the intention of dramatizing the event, appealed to the Muslims to unite in the observance of a ‘Deliverance Day’ on December 22.”
The Marquees of Lothian in April 1938 termed the Congress rule as a "rising tide of Hindu rule". Sir William Barton writing in the "National Review" in June 1939 also termed the Congress rule as "the rising tide of political Hinduism".
TOPIC # 19
THE PAKISTAN RESOLUTION (1940)
1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:
“The history of the subcontinent show that the Muslim League, an organisation representing the Muslims, had always tried to secure the interests of the Muslim by bringing change in its creed. The Muslim League up to 1937 had been demanding such safeguards as federal form of government with maximum provincial autonomy. Separate electorate to enable the Muslims to elect their own representative, 1/3 representation in the central assembly and executive. The dream of political unity however was so badly shattered during the last few years of the 4th decade of the 20th century that the Muslim League had to adopt radical changes in its creed. Thus by the beginning of 1940, Muslim politics had decidedly taken a new turn regarding the future of the Muslims in the subcontinent. During the period of Congress ministries, the Congress had tried to impose the worst type of fascist autocracy upon the Muslims. The Muslim League had reacted sharply against the Congress ministries; political, social, economic and cultural exploitations of the Muslims. The people were flocking around Jinnah. The League was lightening up its organisation by winning all by – elections. So the political stage of the subcontinent was ready for action by the Muslims.”
2. THE RESOLUTION:
From March 22 to March 24, 1940, the All India Muslim League held its annual session at Minto Park, Lahore. This session proved to be historical.
On the first day of the session, March 22, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah narrated the events of the last few months. In an extempore speech he presented his own solution of the Muslim problem. He declared, “The problem of India is not of an inter-communal nature, but manifestly an international one and must be treated as such.” To him the differences between Hindus and the Muslims were so great and so sharp that their union under one central government was full of serious risks. “They belonged to two separate and distinct nations and therefore the only chance open is to allow them to have separate states.”
In the words of Quaid-I-Azam:
“The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs literatures. They neither inter-marry nor inter-dine together and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their concepts on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other, and likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state”.
He further said,
“Mussalmans are a nation according to any definition of nation. We wish our people to develop to the fullest spiritual, cultural, economic, social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals and according to the genius of our people”.
On the basis of the above mentioned ideas of the Quaid, A. K. Fazl-ul-Haq, the then Chief Minister of Bengal, moved the historical resolution which has since come to be known as Lahore Resolution or Pakistan Resolution.
The Resolution declared: “No constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless geographical contiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary. That the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in majority as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of I should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign”.
It further reads, “That adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall be specifically provided in the constitution for minorities in the units and in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic, political, administrative and other rights of the minorities, with their consultation. Arrangements thus should be made for the security of Muslims where they were in a minority”.
The Resolution repudiated the concept of United India and recommended the creation of an independent Muslim state consisting of Punjab, N. W. F. P., Sindh and Baluchistan in the northwest, and Bengal and Assam in the northeast. The Resolution was seconded by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan from Punjab, Sardar Aurangzeb from the N. W. F. P., Sir Abdullah Haroon from Sindh, and Qazi Esa from Baluchistan, along with many others.
The Resolution was passed on March 24. It laid down only the principles, with the details left to be worked out at a future date. It was made a part of the All I Muslim League’s constitution in 1941. It was on the basis of this resolution that in 1946 the Muslim League decided to go for one state for the Muslims, instead of two.
Having passed the Pakistan Resolution, the Muslims of India changed their ultimate goal. Instead of seeking alliance with the Hindu community, they set out on a path whose destination was a separate homeland for the Muslims of India.
3. REACTION TO THE RESOLUTION:
I. Mr. Gandhi comments, “It is a morally wrong and a sin to which India would never be a party.”
II. Rajgopal Acharia expressed his feelings, “Jinnah’s demand of the partition is just like a quarrel between the two brothers on one cow who want to slaughter it into two pieces to divide amongst them.”
III. According to Nehru, “It would not last for more than 24 hours.”
IV. Tara Singh said, “If the Muslim League want to establish Pakistan, they will have to pass through the ocean of Sikh blood.”
V. Patrick Lacky wrote in his book “Two India”, “This was the least fissiparous of several efforts by different authors to redraw the map.”
VI. Manchester Guardian accusing Jinnah’s role in the Lahore Resolution, “Jinnah was reestablishing the reign of chaos in Indian politics.”
VII. Stanley Wolpert writes in Jinnah of Pakistan, “Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. M. A. Jinnah did all the three.”
VIII. The Hindu-Congress reaction against the resolution came as a two-fold blessing in disguise. “It gave its proper name to it, i.e. the Pakistan Resolution, thus helping to crystallize the cause and channel the Pakistan Movement.”
IX. “The Muslims of India were made thirstier by the drop of liberty that fell on their parched lips.”
TOPIC # 20
CRIPPS MISSION (March, 1942)
“The 2nd WW by the end of the winter of 1941-42 had taken a very dangerous turn, for the GB and I. Japanese advanced in Burma was not only bringing war close to I but also causing a grave threat to the integration of I. The British who were relying on Indian resources and manpower could not bear the subjugation of I by Japan. Thus I had become an absolute necessity for the British. On the contrary, Indian leaders were not only indifferent in their attitude towards the British government but were also expressing openly its hostility towards the British govt. and its war efforts. The Congress was interested in putting the pressures on the British govt. to capture the rule of I for the Hindus. The Muslim League although did not rejoice over the misfortunes of the British but had made it clear that the British govt. should not expect from the Muslim League and its representatives full cooperation without conceding the Muslim demand of a separate homeland. There was a section of opinion, which was not hesitating in expressing its sympathy with Japan against the British. As Gandhi said, “Hitler was a divine chastisement for the evil deeds of the British imperialism.”
“In this context, Sir Stafford Cripps was sent to India to satisfy himself upon the spot by personal consultation that the conclusion upon which the war cabinet had agreed and which it believed represents a just and final solution would achieve their objectives.”
On March 22, 1942, Britain sent Sir Stafford Cripps with constitutional proposals.
B. DRAFT DECLARATION ‘CRIPPS PROPOSALS”:
The Draft Declaration was published on 29th March 1942.
1. Immediately upon the cessation of hostilities, steps shall be taken to set up in I, in the manner described hereafter, an elected body charged with the task of framing a new constitution for I.
2. Provision shall be made for the participation of the Indian states in the constitution making body.
3. His majesty’s government undertake to accept and implement forthwith the constitution so framed subject only to;
I. The right of any province of British I that is not prepared to accept the new constitution to retain its present constitutional position, provision being made for its subsequent accession if it so decides.
II. The signing of a treaty which shall be negotiated b/w His majesty’s government and the constitution making body. This treaty will cover all necessary matters arising out of the complete transfer of responsibility from British to Indian hands; it will make provision, in accordance with the undertakings given by his majesty’s government for the protection of racial and religious minorities.
4. The constitution making body shall be composed as follows, unless the leaders of Indian opinion in the principal communities agree upon some other form before the end of hostilities: Indian states shall be invited to appoint representatives in the same proportion to their total population as in the case of the representatives of British I as a whole, and with the same powers as the British Indian members.
5. During the critical period which now faces I until the new constitution can be framed His Majesty’s Government must inevitably bear the responsibility for and retain control and direction of the defense of India as part of their world war effort, but the task of organizing to the full the military, moral and material resources of India must be the responsibility of the government of India with the cooperation of the people of India.
C. INDIAN REACTION:
I. Muslims were not satisfied by the non-accession clause, granting the provinces right to refuse to join itself with the central govt. In fact, the non-accession clause was not in harmony with the Lahore resolution.
II. Hindus were also hostile to the non-accession clause; they saw in this clause the seeds of Indian disintegration.
III. Gandhi criticizing Cripps scheme said, “Why did you come, if this is what you have to offer. If this is your entire proposals to India.. I would advise you to take the next plan home.”
IV. Quit India Movement: Gandhi said, after the departure of Sir Stafford Cripps on 12th April,: “Cripps contemplated Pakistan and yet not the Pakistan of the Muslim League’s conception.” Congress demanded the immediate withdrawal of the British from India. When British govt. rejected their demand, their started ‘Quit India Movement’ to put pressure upon the British government. Quaid forbade the Muslims to participate in this movement because it was purely for the destruction of Pakistan.
However, both the Congress and the Muslim League rejected these proposals. Jinnah opposed the plan, as it did not concede Pakistan. Thus the plan came to nothing.
TOPIC # 21
GANDHI-JINNAH TALKS (1944)
The Gandhi-Jinnah Talks have eminent significance with regard to the political problems of India and the Pakistan Movement. The talks between the two great leaders of the Sub-continent began in response to the general public's desire for a settlement of Hindu-Muslim differences.
On July 17, 1944, Gandhi wrote a letter to Quaid-e-Azam in which he expressed his desire to meet him. Quaid-e-Azam asked the Muslim League for permission for this meeting. The League readily acquiesced.
2. The Gandhi-Jinnah talks began in Bombay on September 19, 1944, and lasted till the 24th of the month. The talks were held directly and via correspondence. Gandhi told Quaid-i-Azam that he had come in his personal capacity and was representing neither the Hindus nor the Congress.
“Gandhi's real purpose behind these talks was to extract from Jinnah an admission that the whole proposition of Pakistan was absurd.”
Quaid-e-Azam painstakingly explained the basis of the demand of Pakistan.
"We maintain", he wrote to Gandhi, "that Muslims and Hindus are two major nations by any definition or test of a nation. We are a nation of a 100 million. We have our distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all the cannons of international law, we are a nation". He added that he was "convinced that the true welfare not only of the Muslims but of the rest of India lies in the division of India as proposed in the Lahore Resolution".
Gandhi on the other hand maintained that India was one nation and saw in the Pakistan Resolution "Nothing but ruin for the whole of India". "If, however, Pakistan had to be conceded, the areas in which the Muslims are in an absolute majority should be demarcated by a commission approved by both the Congress and the Muslim League. The wishes of the people of these areas will be obtained through referendum. These areas shall form a separate state as soon as possible after India is free from foreign domination. There shall be a treaty of separation which should also provide for the efficient and satisfactory administration of foreign affairs, defense, internal communication, custom and the like which must necessarily continue to be the matters of common interest between the contracting countries".
This meant, in effect, that power over the whole of India should first be transferred to Congress, which thereafter would allow Muslim majority areas that voted for separation to be constituted, not as independent sovereign state but as part of an Indian federation.
Gandhi contended that his offer gave the substance of the Lahore Resolution. Quaid-e-Azam did not agree to the proposal and the talks ended.
Desai Liaquat Pact was formed in 1945)
TOPIC # 22
WAVELL PLAN (JUNE 1945)
Or SIMLA CONFERENCE
Ever since the failure of the so called Liaquat Desai Pact, Lord Wavell had been insisting that he be allowed to vsit England in order to personally discuss matters with the Secretary of State. In May, he went to London, finally, the talks resulted in the formulation of the plan of action that was made public in June 1945.
1) The executive council shall be constituted to have a proportionate and balanced representation of the main communities including equal proportions for the Muslims and the high caste Hindus. The council would have 14 seats of ministers.
2) The viceroy would appoint members to the council after having consulted the leading political figures.
3) All the members of the executive council shall be the Indians except the viceroy and C-I-C of army.
4) The relation b/w the Crown and the Indian states shall not be affected by these proposals.
5) If this plan succeeds at the centre, it would definitely be introduced at the provincial level as well.
6) The foreign affairs of India would be placed in the charge of an Indian member.
In order to place his plan before the Indian leaders, the Viceroy called a conference at Simla on 25th June 1945. among the 21 representatives that attended the conference, the Muslims leaders were; Jinnah as President of Muslim League, Liaquat Ali Khan as Deputy leader of League, Khawaja Nazimudin,; and the Congress representatives include Maulana Azad, Khizar Hayat Tiwana, Dr. Khan Sahib and others.
FAILURE OF SIMLA CONFERENCE:
The Muslim league was pledged to the formation of separate homeland for the Indian Muslims, whereas ‘Wavell Plan’ envisaged a united India. On 14th July 1945, Lord Wavell announced that Wavell Plan had failed. After that elections were held in subcontinent.
TOPIC # 23
ELECTIONS OF 1945-46
With the failure of the Simla Conference, Lord Wavell announced that the Central and Provincial Legislature elections would be held in the winter of 1945, after which a constitution-making body would be set up. He also announced that after the elections, the Viceroy would set an Executive Council that would have the support of the main Indian political parties. Both the Muslim League and the Congress opposed the proposal.
2. REACTION OF THE MUSLIMS:
Quaid-I-Azam declared that Muslims were not ready to accept any settlement less than a separate homeland for them and the All India Congress Committee characterized the proposal as vague, inadequate and unsatisfactory because it had not addressed the issue of independence. Despite this, the two parties launched huge election campaigns. They knew that the elections would be crucial for the future of I, as the results were to play an important role in determining their standing. The League wanted to sweep the Muslim constituencies so as to prove that they were the sole representatives of the Muslims of Sub-continent, while Congress wanted to prove that, irrespective of religion, they represent all the Indians.
3. ELECTION CAMPAIGN:
I. Both the Muslim League and the Congress promulgated opposite slogans during their campaigns. The Muslim League presented a one-point manifesto “if you want Pakistan, vote for the Muslim League”. Quaid-I-Azam himself toured the length and breadth of India and tried to unite the Muslim community under the banner of the Muslim League. Ian Talbot writes in “Provincial Politics and the Pakistan Movement”, “The Press was an important weapon in the Muslim League’s struggle for Pakistan.”
II. The Congress on the other hand stood for United India. To counter the Muslim League, the Congress press abused the Quaid and termed his demand for Pakistan as the “vivisection of Mother India”, “reactionary primitivism” and “religious barbarism”. Congress tried to brand Muslim League as an ultra-conservative clique of knights, Khan Bahadurs, toadies and government pensioners. The Congress also tried to get the support of all the provincial and central Muslim parties who had some differences with the League, and backed them in the elections.
4. RESULT OF THE ELECTIONS OF THE CENTRAL LEGISLATURE:
Elections for the Central Legislature were held in December 1945. Though the franchise was limited, the turnover was extraordinary.
The Congress was able to sweep the polls for the non-Muslim seats. They managed to win more then 80 percent of the general seats and about 91.3 percent of the total general votes. The Leagues performance, however, was even more impressive: it managed to win all the 30 seats reserved for the Muslims.
5. RESULTS OF THE PROVINCIAL ELECTION:
The results of the provincial election held in early 1946 were not different. Congress won most of the non-Muslim seats while Muslim League captured approximately 95 percent of the Muslim seats.
6. OVERALL PERFORMANCE OF LEAGUE & CONGRESS:
In a bulletin issued on January 6, 1946, the Central Election Board of the Congress claimed that the election results had vindicated the party as the biggest, strongest and the most representative organization in the country. On the other hand, the League celebrated January 11, 1946, as the Day of Victory and declared that the election results were enough to prove that Muslim League, under the leadership of Quaid-I-Azam, was the sole representative of the Muslims of the region.
TOPIC # 24
CABINET MISSION PLAN (1946)
“The first half of the 4th decade of the 20th century witnessed the several efforts made by the Britsh, Hindus, congressmen and Muslim Leaguers to find a solution of the constitutional problem of India besides bridging the gulf b/w Hindus and Muslims. All these efforts proved too insignificant to change the complexion of the Indian politics. The failure of Simla Conference and the election results had not only illustrated the strength of the Muslim League and Congress but also forced the British govt. to take such concrete steps which would be acceptable to the major communities of India; Hindus and Muslims. Realizing the critical situation in India, the Secretary of State for India, Lord Pethic Lawrence announced on 19th of Feb. 1946 in the HOL stating that the British govt. had decided to send a special mission, consisting of war cabinet members. It would include Lord Pethic, Sir Stafford Cripps, the President of board of trade and A. V. Alexander, and the first lord of the Admirally. The mission was entrusted with the following tasks:
I. To pursue the Indians by discussion and consultation regarding the method of framing the future constitution of India.
II. Setting up a constitution making body.
III. Establishment of the executive council with the support and participation of major political parties.
The announcement of the Cabinet Mission had injected a new enthusiasm in Indian politics. Congress and the Muslim League were ready to propagate their viewpoints, and to convince the mission about their proposals regarding the constitutional development in India. At this moment Quaid said, “I want to reiterate that the Muslims of India are not a minority bat a nation and self-determination is their right.”
The mission arrived on March 24, 1946.
2. CONGRESS MEETINGS:
On the behalf of Congress, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad met the mission on 3rd April 1946. He told them that Congress wanted a federal form of government and it could not accept the Muslim demand of the partition of India. Mr. Gandhi too urged the holding of the negotiation on the basis of C R formula but rejected the idea of partition.
3. JINNAH MISSION TALKS:
Quaid met with Viceroy on 4th April. In this meeting, Quaid adopted a straightforward viewpoint and tried to convince the mission about the desirability and practicability of the Muslims’ demand of a separate homeland.
Jinnah Mission meeting was followed by the exchange of view by the mission with various political parties. On 16th April Jinnah was again approached by the cabinet mission. In this meeting, the Viceroy insisted that Pakistan as demanded by the Muslim League was neither acceptable nor practicable. Then Mission gave Jinnah offer to accept a smaller sovereign Pakistan or larger non-sovereign Pakistan. Quaid rejected the Mission’s offer.
One final effort for the reconciliation b/w Congress and Muslim League was made at Simla Conference on 5th to 12th May. A Scheme was offered in order to settle down the Hindu-Muslim differences:
I. There would be a union govt. to deal with foreign affairs, defense and communication.
II. Provinces would be divided into two groups; one consisting of the Muslims’ majority provinces and the other Hindu majority provinces.
III. The provincial govt. would deal not only with the provincial matters but also would be entrusted with the residuary powers.
4. CABINET MISSION PLAN:
After extensive discussions with Congress and the Muslim League, the Cabinet Mission put forward its own proposals on May 16, 1946.
The main points of the plan were:
1) There would be a union of India comprising both British India and the Indian States that would deal with foreign affairs, defense and communications. The union would have an Executive and a Legislature.
2) All residuary powers would belong to the provinces.
3) All provinces would be divided into three sections. Provinces could opt out of any group after the first general elections.
4) There would also be an interim government having the support of the major political parties.
5. INDIAN REACTION:
I. The National Herald triumphly wrote, “Pakistan, Pakistan of Mr. Jinnah conception receive a state burial in a document submitted by the Cabinet Mission.”
II. Quaid said, “A separate homeland we still hold is the only solution of the constitutional problem of India.”
III. The Council of Muslim League met in Delhi on 6th June to consider the Cabinet Mission Plan. Finally, Muslim League declared its consent for the Cabinet Mission Plan.
IV. The Muslim League accepted the plan on June 6 1946. Earlier, the Congress had accepted the plan on May 24, 1946, though it rejected the interim setup.
I. The Viceroy should now have invited the Muslim League to form Government as it had accepted the interim setup; but he did not do so.
II. Meanwhile Jawaharlal Nehru, addressing a press conference on July 10, said that the Congress had agreed to join the constituent assembly, but saying it would be free to make changes in the Cabinet Mission Plan. Under these circumstances, the Muslim League disassociated itself from the Cabinet Plan and resorted to "Direct Action" to achieve Pakistan. As a result, Viceroy Wavell invited the Congress to join the interim government, although it had practically rejected the plan.
III. However, the Viceroy soon realized the futility of the scheme without the participation of the League. Therefore, on October 14, 1946, he extended an invitation to them as well.
IV. Jinnah nominated Liaquat Ali Khan, I. I. Chundrigar, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar, Ghazanfar Ali Khan and Jogandra Nath Mandal to the cabinet.
V. Congress allocated the Finance Ministry to the League. This in effect placed the whole governmental setup under the Muslim League. As Minister of Finance, the budget Liaquat Ali Khan presented was called a "poor man's budget" as it adversely affected the Hindu capitalists.
VI. The deadlock between the Congress and the League further worsened in this setup.
VII. On March 22, 1947, Lord Mountbatten arrived as the last Viceroy. It was announced that power would be transferred from British to Indian hands by June 1948.
VIII. Lord Mountbatten entered into a series of talks with the Congress and the Muslim League leaders. Quaid-i-Azam made it clear that the demand for Pakistan had the support of all the Muslims of India and that he could not withdraw from it. With staunch extremists as Patel agreeing to the Muslim demand for a separate homeland, Mountbatten now prepared for the partition of the Sub-continent and announced it on June 3, 1947.
TOPIC # 25
3RD JUNE PLAN
Announcement of His Majesty’s government based on the following statement:
I. On Feb 20th, 1947, His Majesty’s govt. announced their attention of transferring power in British India to Indian hands by June 1948. His Majesty’s govt. hoped that it would be possible for the major parties to cooperate in the working out of the Cabinet Mission’s Plan of May 16th, 1946, and evolve for India a constitution acceptable for all concerned. This hope has not been fulfilled.
II. The majority of the representatives of the provinces of Madras, Bombay, the United Provinces, Bihar, Central Provinces and Berar, Assam, Orissa and the NWFP, and the representative of Delhi, Ajmer-Merwara and Coorg had already made progress in the task of evolving a new constitution. On the other hand, the Muslim League Party, including in it a majority of the representatives of Bengal, the Punjab and Sindh as also the representative of British Balochistan, had decided not to participate in the Constituent assembly.
III. “As it had always been the desire of His Majesty’s government that power should be transferred in accordance with the wishes of the Indian people themselves, therefore, it decided to make it clear that they have no intention of attempting to frame any ultimate constitution for India; this is a matter for the Indians themselves.”
2. THE ISSUES TO BE DECIDED:
“His Majesty’s govt. are satisfied that the procedure outlined below embodies the best practical method of ascertaining the wishes of the people of such areas on the issue whether their constitution is to be framed:
a) In the existing Constituent Assembly; or
b) In a new and separate Constituent Assembly consisting of the representatives of those areas which decide not to participate in the existing Constituent Assembly.”
3. BENGAL & PUNJAB:
I. The provincial legislative assemblies of Bengal and Punjab will each be asked to meet in two parts, one representing the Muslim majority and the other the rest of the province.
II. The members of the two parts of each legislative assembly sitting separately will empowered to vote whether or not the province should be partitioned.
III. For the immediate purpose of deciding on the issue of partitin, the members of the legislative assemblies of Bengal and Punjab will sit in two parts according to Muslim majority districts [(In the Punjab Province: Gujranwala, Gurdaspur, Lahore, Sheikhupura, Sialkot in the Province of Punjab, and Attock, Gujrat, Jhelum, Mianwali, Rawalpindia and Shahpur in Rawalpindia division, and DG Khan, Jhang, Lyallpur, Montgomery, Multan and Muzaffargarh in Multan division) and (In the Bengal Province: Chittagong, Noakhali, Tippera in Chittagong division, Bakerganj, Dacca, Faridpur, Mymensingh in Dacca division, and Bogra, Dinajpur, Malda, Pabna, Rajshahi, Rangpur in Rajshahi division)] and non-Muslim majority districts.
The legislative Assembly of Sindh will at a special meeting also take its own decision.
The position of NWFP is exceptional. 2 of the 3 representatives of this province are already participating in the existing Constituent Assembly. In view of its geographical position, and other considerations, that if the whole or any part of the Punjab decides not to join the existing Constituent Assembly, it will be necessary to give NWFP an opportunity to reconsider its position. In such an event, a referendum will be made to the electors of the present legislative assembly in NWFP.
6. BRITISH BALOCHISTAN:
British Balochistan has elected a member but he has not taken his seat in the existing Constituent Assembly. In view of its geographical situation, this province will also be given an opportunity to reconsider its position.
Though Assam is predominantly a non-Muslim province, the district of Sylhet which is contiguous to Bengal is predominantly Muslim. There has been a demand that, in the event of partition of Bengal, Sylhet should be amalgamated with the Muslim part of Bengal. Accordingly, if it is decided that Bengal should be partitioned, a referendum will be held in Sylhet district.
8. REPRESENTATION IN CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLIES:
If it is decided that Bengal and Punjab should choose their representatives on the scale of every million of population according to the principle contained in the Cabinet Mission’s Plan of May 16th, 1946, similar elections will also have be held for Sylhet in the event of it being decided that this district should form part of East Bengal. The number or representatives to which each area would be entitled is as follows:
Province General Muslims Sikhs Total
Sylhet Dist. 1 2 nil 3
West Bengal 15 4 nil 19
East Bengal 12 29 nil 41
East Punjab 6 4 2 12
West Punjab 3 12 2 17
QUAID-E-AZAM’S TALK ON 3RD JUNE PLAN BROADCAST FROM ALL-INDIA RADIO, NEW DELHI: (G. Allana Pakistan Movement: Historic Documents)
“Grave responsibility lies particularly on the shoulders of India leaders. Therefore, we must galvanize and concentrate all our energy to see that the transfer of power is effected in a peaceful and orderly manner. I most earnestly appeal to every community and particularly to Muslim India to maintain peace and order. We must examine the plan, in its letter and in its spirit, and come to our conclusions and take our decisions.”
“It is clear that the Plan does not meet in some important respects our points of view and we cannot say or feel that we are satisfied or that we agree with some of the matters dealt with by the Plan it is for us now to consider whether the Plan as presented to us by His Majesty’s Government should be accepted by us as a compromise or settlement.”
TOPIC # 26
RADCLIFFE AWARD (12th August 1947)
1) “India’s territorial division is significant on multiple levels. As an episode in imperial history, it marked the beginning of a global trend towards decolonialization. For South Asian history, it meant independence of India and Pakistan. Unfortunately, it also inaugurated Indo-Pak tensions.”
2) As there was a serious disagreement b/w the leaders of Congress and Muslim League in regard to areas of Bengal and Punjab, a boundary commission was set up to demarcate the boundary in these area to take into account contiguity of Muslim and non-Muslim areas with Pakistan or India.
2. FORMATION OF BOUNDARY COMMISSIONS:
The members of the Punjab Boundary Commission were following:
Cyril Radcliffe as Chairman
Mr. Justice Din Mohammad from Pakistan.
Mr. Justice Mohammad Munir also from Pakistan.
Mr. Justice Mehr Chand Mahajan from India.
Mr. Justice Teja Singh from India.
Cyril Radcliffe, “The boundary commission is instructed to demarcate the boundaries of the two parts of the Punjab on the basis of ascertaining the contiguous majority areas of Muslims and non-Muslims.”
The members of the Bengal Boundary Commission were following:
Mr. Justice Abu Saleh on behalf of Pakistan.
Mr. Justice S. A. Rahman from Pakistan.
Mr. Justice C. C. Biswas from India.
Mr. Justice B. K. Muherji on behalf of India.
The commission was set up by the end of June 1947, before the arrival of Radcliffe to India on July 8 1947.
3. CONTROVERSY OF PUNJAB & BENGAL DIVISION:
Punjab: Punjab’s population division was such that there was no line that could neatly divide Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs. Radcliffe’s line was far from perfect.
Bengal: For Bengal controversy came on the question of Calcutta city to make it a part of Pakistan or India. Calcutta, who was the capital city, the major port and the center of industry, commerce and education sucked the entire wealth of the countryside.
4. RADCLIFFE REPORT OF INJUSTICE:
1) “Radcliffe although was given the responsibility for boundary commission yet he had never visited India before not did he possess the basic understanding of Indian demography or culture. Radcliffe Award delimited the boundaries of the provinces further, crippled Pakistan physically.”
2) The boundary commission appointed under the Indian Independence Act 1947, submitted its report on 12th August.
3) The boundary ran from the border of Kashmir state south along the Ujh River, leaving one Tehsil of Gurdaspur District of Pakistan and allotting the remainder to India. Where the Ujh met the Ravi River, the boundary followed the Ravi southwest, until it met the existing administrative line dividing Amritsar District from Lahore District. Radcliffe was careful to specify that the relevant administrative boundaries, not the course of the Ujh or Ravi, constituted the new international boundary. The boundary then ran through Lahore District, along Tehsil and village boundaries, leaving the district’s easternmost corner in India. When the Radcliffe boundary met the Ferozpur District line, it turned to follow the River Sutlej along the administrative boundary b/w Ferozpur and Montgomery Districts. The Radcliffe line ended where it met the border of bhawalpur, a princely state ruler he the choice of acceding to Pakistan or India.
4) The primary feature of this line was that it divided Amritsar, now in India, from Lahore, which went to Pakistan. By and large it followed major administrative divisions, although it did meander b/w villages in the Kasur region near Lahore. The two most controversial elements of this line involved Gurdaspur and Ferozpur.
5) Pakistan lost many districts, and areas of Punjab and Bengal as well, which had Muslim majorities: Gurdaspur, Anjala, Hoshiarpur, Dasuya, Nakodar, Jullundur, Ferozpur, Bira and a part of Kasur.
6) Radcliffe assigned Calcutta to India in spite of the string claims of Muslim League.
1) “Jinnah became aware of the Radcliffe decisions just few days before the formal transfer of power. He could do nothing because he as a disciplined leader of the honourable state abided by the Award.”
2) “Many historians are convinced that the commissions were a sham and that Mountbatten himself had simply dictated the new divisions.”
3) “Radcliffe was a barrister following a brief – and Mountbatten was his client.”
TOPIC # 27
ROLE OF PROVINCES IN FREEDOM MOVEMENT
7. THE UNITED PROVINCES:
9. THE CENTRAL PROVINCES:
TOPIC # 28
ROLE OF STUDENTS IN FREEDOM MOVEMENT
“The role played by the Muslim students in the freedom movement is of momentous significance in view of the invaluable services which they rendered to the cause of Pakistan.”
Mukhtar Zaman writes in “Students Role in the Pakistan Movement”, “When Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari organized a medical mission to help the Turks in 1912, four students of Aligarh, Ch. Khaliq-uz-Zaman, Abdur Rehman Siddiqui, Shoab Qureshi and Abdul Rehman Peshawari joined it as volunteers.”
ROLE OF INSTITUTIONS: Islamia college Peshawar, Deoband, Ali garh etc.
TOPIC # 29
EARLY PROBLEMS OF PAKISTAN
1) “A freedom movement initiated by people gained momentum and the small were about to rise when the big lost their head. The big did not want to pent up forces of hatred against them to be unleashed. They took strict measures to curb the freedom of the Muslims. This inhuman action proved the last nail in their own coffin and the stars favoured the Muslim freedom fighters.”
2) “Pakistan was carved out in desperate urgency. It came into existence with horrible loss of life and property, and the migration of millions of dazed and destitute men, women, and children. The cost was heavy in terms of human suffering. But what the Muslims wanted and what they achieved was a homeland of their own. They now had the freedom to worship, practice their religious faith and develop their culture. Moreover, independence had opened up a bright future for the Muslims, who hoped for a better standard of living, economic development, prosperity and a fuller life.”
3) In the words of Quaid, “We have been the victims of a deep-paid and well planned conspiracy, executed with utter disregard of the elementary principles of honesty, chivalry and honour.”
The main problems were:
2. Indus Water:
3. Accession of Princely States:
4. Kashmir issue:
5. Demarcation of boundaries:
6. Division of military and financial assets:
7. Constitutional problems:
8. Controversy of language:
9. Economic challenges:
10. Challenges on International sphere:
It had been agreed between Jinnah and Nehru that a Boundary Commission should be setup to define the borders between India and Pakistan. The British Government immediately appointed a Boundary Commission under Sir Cyril Radcliffe to demarcate permanent borders.
The boundaries had to be defined as such that provinces, districts, and villages that were predominantly Muslim went to Pakistan, while Hindu majority areas went to India. Provinces like Baluchistan, Sindh, N. W. F. P. and East Bengal provided little difficulty. But deep problems arose when boundaries in Punjab had to be fixed; there were also a substantial number of Hindus and Sikhs residing in this region, other than the Muslims. However, the province was partitioned.
When the boundaries were drawn between India and Pakistan, it resulted in many tragic events. In an almost frantic, cruel rush, the commission divided districts, villages, farmlands, water and property. Thousands of innocent men, women and children were caught unaware. The result was that many hastened across the border, leaving their homes, land and personal property to seek refuge. Panic, fear, revenge and reprisals followed. Both India and Pakistan were soaked in blood. It left on Pakistan's doorstep, seven million refugees who had to be rehabilitated, clothed, fed and sheltered.
At the time of partition, the cash balances of undivided India stood at about Rupees 4,000 million. At the beginning of December 1947, India and Pakistan mutually came to an agreement that Pakistan would get Rupees 750 million as her share. Rupees 200 million had been already paid to Pakistan while Rupees 550 million were to be paid immediately. But this amount was withheld on the plea that Pakistan would use it in the war going on in Kashmir. However, as this stand was morally untenable, the remaining amount was later on released after Gandhi's fast and under world pressure on January 15, 1948.
Soon afterwards, Sardar Patel threatened that the implementation of the agreement would depend upon the settlement of the Kashmir issue. But, it was upon Gandhi's request that the Reserved Bank of India paid Pakistan Rupees 500 million, retaining the balance of Rupees 50 million to adjust some trumped up claim against Pakistan
“Pakistan has come to stay and it shall stay.”
2. THE ACCESSION OF PRINCELY STATES
KASHMIR PROBLEM VIS-À-VIS JUNAGARH STATES
The Indian princely states, numbering 562 comprised of 1/3 of the Indian Territory and quarter of population. These states were not the part of the administrative setup of British India. They were ruled by the Indian princes, who had agreed to come under the paramountcy of the British Empire.
“The story of Kashmir since the day of 3rd June Plan was announced forms an important and vital chapter in understanding causes that gave rise to estrangement b/w the two dominions, Pakistan and India ever since its birth.”
Kashmir, the last of the defiant states, was the reverse of Hyderabad. It had a Hindu ruler, Maharaja Hari Singh, but his subjects were mostly Muslims, accounting to 78 percent of the total population. The Maharaja was reluctant to join either India or Pakistan. But Lord Mountbatten urged him to take a decision to join either of the states before August 15, 1947.
The Maharaja asked for more time to consider his decision. In the meantime he asked the Indian and the Pakistani government to sign a "standstill agreement" with him. Pakistan consented but India refused.
The local population of Poonch began to press the Maharaja to accede to Pakistan. In August 1947, they held a massive demonstration to protest against the Maharaja's indecisiveness. The Maharaja panicked. He asked his Hindu paratroopers to open fire, and within a matter of seconds, several hundred Muslims were killed. Rising up against this brutal action, a local barrister called Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim immediately set up the Azad Kashmir government and began to wage guerrilla warfare against the Maharaja. By October 1947, the war of Kashmir had begun in earnest. The Pathan tribesmen from the North West Frontier Province, wanting to avenge the deaths of their brothers, invaded the valley. On reaching the valley of Kashmir, they defeated the Maharaja's troops and reached the gates of Srinagar, the capital.
The Maharaja sensing his defeat took refuge in Jammu whence he appealed to India to send troops to halt the onslaught of the tribesmen. India agreed on the condition that Kashmir would accede to India. On October 26, 1947, the Maharaja acceded to India. Lord Mountbatten accepted the accession on behalf of India.
On October 27, 1947, India began to airlift her troops to Srinagar, and launched a full-scale attack on the tribesmen. Pakistan was stunned. Despite her scant military resources, Pakistan was prepared to send in her troops but the British General Gracey, Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army, was against it. Jinnah proposed an immediate ceasefire and later on a fair and free plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir.
In January 1948, India took the dispute to the Security Council. There it accused Pakistan of aggression and demanded that Pakistan withdraw her tribesmen. But Pakistan held that the accession of Kashmir had been brought about by force. The government requested the Security Council to arrange a cease-fire and asked both the tribesmen and the Indian troops to withdraw so that a free and impartial plebiscite could be held to ascertain the wishes of the people of Kashmir.
While the Kashmir issue was still on the table, the Indian troops launched a full-scale attack and drove the tribesmen right back to the Pakistani border.
Pakistan rushed her regular troops into Kashmir and a full-scale war with India ensued. She took control of the Azad Kashmir Army. But the Security Council on August 13, 1948, called for an immediate ceasefire, the withdrawal of all Pakistani and Indian troops and holding of plebiscite under United Nations' supervision. Both the Indian and Pakistani governments accepted the resolution.
In January 1949, the resolution began to be implemented. In July 1949, the ceasefire line was demarcated. Pakistan's side of Kashmir consisted of some parts of Jammu, Poonch, some areas of Western Kashmir, Gilgit, and a great chunk of Ladakh territory near the Chinese border in the North. India kept the valley of Kashmir, Jammu and the remainder of Ladakh territory near the Tibet border.
The cease-fire has remained in existence since 1949. No plebiscite has been held and thus the Kashmir issue still remains disputed and unresolved.
“The brave Kashmiri Muslim continue to groan under the heels of the Indian army, oppressed by a government which is not prepared to give them their right of self-determination. The Indian atrocities and persecutions cannot intimidate or dishearten them to fight for their goal.”
B. HYDERABAD AFFAIRS:
It had an area of 82,000 sq. miles, and a population of 16,000,000. Its annual revenues were Rs. 260 million, and it had its own army, police force, custom, postal service, currency and railway. Majority of 85% were Hindus, but its ruler, Nizam, named as Usman was a Muslim. He was reluctant to accede either for India or Pakistan but was dismissed by Mountbatten by adopting this course. Lord Mountbatten left India on June 21, 1948 without having achieved his ambition of securing Hyderabad accession to India. On the other hand, the Hindu subjects were incited to revolt against the Nizam’s desire to be independent. The whole province suffered turmoil and violence. Hyderabad filed a complaint with SC of the UN. Before the hearing could be started, Indian troops entered Hyderabad to ‘restore order’, and under the pretext of ‘police action’ Hyderabad was forced to join India. On 9th September, India committed naked and unabashed armed aggression when its troops marched into Hyderabad and shocked the Muslims and the world. The Hyderabad army surrendered on September 17, 1948, and finally Hyderabad was annexed into the Indian union forcibly and ruthlessly.
C. JUNAGADH, MANAWADAR & JODHPUR STATES:
It had an area of 3,337 sq. miles with a population of 7,00,000. The majority of its population was Hindu but the ruler was a Muslim named as Muhabat Khan. On September 15, 1947, all the states acceded to Pakistan. “Nothing was wrong in the accession.”, but India refused to acknowledge it and claimed the state by inheritance. In the mid of September, Indian cabinet persuaded Nawab to withdrew their accession to Pakistan. In November 7, 1947, an Azad Fauj or liberation army of 20,000 men with armoured cars and other modern weapons entered into state – fully supported by the Indian troops. Then Nawab left his state by plane for Karachi towards the end of October. All the resistance having collapsed, Indian troops and representatives of Provincial Government headed by Samaldas Gandhi and Dehbar entered Junagadh and took over the administration of the state. Two days later; control over the entire state was assumed by India. Militants paraded – all Hindus – the streets but the Muslim population remained indoors, terrorized and fearful for its future.
TOPIC # 30
IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN (TWO NATION THEORY)
+ AIMS & OBJECTIVES OF INDEPENDENCE
1) In the words of Allama Iqbal, “The vision of common nationhood for India is a beautiful ideal and has a poetic appeal, but looking to the present conditions and the unconscious trends of the two commodities, appears incapable of fulfillment.”
2) “The ideology of Pakistan stems from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it.”
3) Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but also two social orders that have given birth to two distinct cultures with no similarities. A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and Muslims were not confined to the struggle for political supremacy, but were also manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than a thousand years, they continued to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, are all poles apart. Even the language they speak and the dresses they wear are entirely different.
4) The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan began the period of Muslim self-awakening; Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction.
5) As early as in the beginning of the 11th century, Al-Biruni observed that Hindus differed from the Muslims in all matters and habits. He further elaborated his argument by writing that the Hindus considered Muslims "Mlachha", or impure. And they forbid having any connection with them, be it intermarriage or any other bond of relationship. They even avoid sitting, eating and drinking with them, because they feel "polluted".
6) Quaid said, “You have carved territory, a vast territory, it is all yours, it does not belong to Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Pathan or Bengali.”
2. IDEOLOGY & ITS MEANING:
1) The word ideology has been derived from the French word “Ideologie”. Antoine Destull Tracy first used it during the French Revolution.
2) According to Sharif al Mujahid in ‘Ideology of Pakistan”, “Ideology may be defined as a cluster of beliefs, ideals and concepts that has become deeply ingrained in the social consciousness of a people over time. Ideology touches the hidden springs of emotions of the people.”
3) “An ideology emerges when people feel strongly that they are being mistreated under an existing order, when their status is threatened by fundamental changes occurring in the society, and when the prevailing ideology no longer satisfies them.”
4) In a broad and generic sense, the term ideology can be applied to a great variety of the moving ideas of ‘isms’ such as Nationalism, Unilateralism, Communism, Fascism, Nazism and Marxism etc. democracy in many respects an ideology. The same is true about the religions, notably the most proselytizing ones such as Islam.
5) Morgenthau discusses typical ideologies of foreign policies under three headings:
I. Ideologies of status quo
II. Ideologies of imperialism.
III. Ideologies that appear to be somewhat ambiguous, such as the principle of national self-determination.
3. ISLAMIC IDEOLOGY IN CONTRAST TO WESTERN IDEOLOGY:
Islamic Ideology is a set of immutable principles and pan cultural values given by Islam for the social, moral and spiritual guidance of mankind, and these are enshrined in the all embracing teachings of the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH). Islamic ideology is completely different from western ideology. In a world of Islam “loyalty to national ideal is replaced by spiritual loyalty” i.e. “loyalty to one God.”
4. ISLAM & PAKISTAN IDEOLOGY:
1) In the words of Iqbal, “One lesson I have learnt from the history of the Muslims. At critical moments in their history, it is Islam that has saved Muslims and not vice versa.”
2) Sharf al Mujahid writes in “Ideology of Pakistan”, “Apparently, the ideology of Pakistan seems to be a subject of recent history but, in the words of Quaid-e-Azam ‘Pakistan came into existence when the first Muslim put his feet on the soil of the subcontinent’.”
3) Pakistan ka matlab kia “Lailaha illallah”
5. THE IDEOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF PAKISTAN:
1) Ideals of Islamic system:
2) Muslims as separate nation:
3) Two nation theory:
4) Hindu fanaticism:
6. HISTORY OF TWO NATION THEORY:
1) Advent if Islam and Muhammad Bin Qasim:
2) Bhakti Movement:
3) Role of Aurangzeb:
4) Advent of British rule in India:
7. REASONS BEHIND THE EMERGENCE OF TWO NATION:
1) Hindi-Urdu Controversy (1867):
2) Formation of Congress (1885):
3) Hindus’ antagonism after 1857 rebellion:
4) Role of Sir Syed:
5) Partition of Bengal (1906-11):
6) Khilafat Movement:
7) Nehru Report & Quaid’s 14 points:
8) Iqbal’s Allahabad Address:
9) Round Table Conferences (1930-32):
10) Hindu Ministries (1937-39):
11) The Lahore Resolution (1940):
12) Elections of 1945-46:
13) Miscellaneous events during the period of 1858-1947:
8. TWO NATION THEORY IN THE LIGHTS OF THE SAYINGS OF LEADERS:
1) SIR SYED AHMED KHAN:
I. “After the Urdu Hindi controversy, now I am convinced that these two communities will not join whole heartedly in anything, he who lives will see.”
II. “If the Hindus and Muslims cannot agree even on the choice of a National language, and if Hindus are so narrow minded as to subject to Urdu, which represented a linguistic compromise b/w Hindi and Persian, there is no possibility of a common nationhood in the subcontinent.”
III. “In our right hand will be the Holy Quran and there will be philosophy in our left hand and then there will be Crown of Laelaha on our head.”
IV. He once said, “I don’t agree with those who believe that political discursion would be conducive to our national progress. I regard progress of education as the only means of national progress.”
V. Speech in Lord Ripon’s Council (1881): For socio-politico purposes, the whole of the population of England forms but one community. It is obvious that the same cannot be said of India. The system of representation by election means the representation of the views and interests of the majority of the population and the countries where the population is composed of one race and one creed, it is no doubt that this is the best system that can be adopted.”
VI. “Each time has its own colour, and unless you adapt yourself according to the circumstances of the time, your work cannot prosper.”
2) ALLAMA IQBAL:
I. “To base a constitution on the conception of a homogenous India or to apply to India the principles dictated by British Democratic sentiments is unwittingly to prepare her for a civil war…self-government with the British Empire or in about it, the formation of a consolidated North West Indian Muslim State appears to be the final destiny of Muslims, at least of North West India… I therefore, demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim State in the best interests of India and Islam. For India it means security and peace resulting form an internal balance of power; for Islam an opportunity to rid itself of the stamp that Arabian Imperialism was forced to give it, to mobilize its laws, its education, its culture and to bring them into close contact with its own original spirit and with the spirit of modern times.”
II. He further stated, “I would go further than the demands embodied in it. I would like to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sind, and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state, self-government within the British empire or without the British empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West India.”
III. “The units of Indian society are not territorial as in European countries. India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races, speaking different languages, and professing different religions. Their behavior is not at all determined by a common race consciousness. Even the Hindus do not form a homogenous group. The principle of European democracy cannot be applied to India without recognizing the fact of communal groups. The Muslim demand for the creation of a Muslim India within India is, therefore, perfectly justified.”
I. Stanley Wolpert writes in his book “Jinnah of Pakistan”, “Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation state. Mohammad Ali Jinnah did all three.”
II. M. C. Chagla writes in ‘Roses in December’, “Jinnah was the uncrowned King of Bombay.”
III. “They belonged to two separate and distinct nations and therefore the only chance open is to allow them to have separate states.”
IV. “The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs literatures. They neither inter-marry nor inter-dine together and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their concepts on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other, and likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state”.
V. “Mussalmans are a nation according to any definition of nation. We wish our people to develop to the fullest spiritual, cultural, economic, social and political life in a way that we think best and in consonance with our own ideals and according to the genius of our people”.
VI. Address on March 8, 1944, “hindus and Muslims through living in the same town and villages never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.”
9. AIMS & OBJECTIVES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PAKISTAN:
1) Historical factors:
2) Political factors:
3) Hindu nationalism:
4) Religious factors:
5) Cultural factors:
6) Enforcement of the sovereignty of Allah:
7) Establishment of Islamic democracy:
8) Revival of Muslim Image & Identity:
9) Protection of Muslim culture and society:
10) Emancipation from the prejudice Hindu majority:
11) Establishment of balanced economic system:
(Imp: Ruttie died on 20th February 1929)
TOPIC # 31
FIRST CONSTITUTIONAL ASSEMBLY + OBJECTIVES RESOLUTION
1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:
• “A freedom movement initiated by people gained momentum and the small were about to rise when the big lost their head. The big did not want to pent up forces of hatred against them to be unleashed. They took strict measures to curb the freedom of the Muslims. This inhuman action proved the last nail in their own coffin and the stars favoured the Muslim freedom fighters.”
• The history of formulation of the constitution of Pakistan begins with the Lahore Resolution in 1940. It was here that the idea of Pakistan, a separate homeland for the Muslims of India, was first outlined. It came to be known as the Pakistan Resolution.
• On June 3, 1947, the British Government accepted in principle the partition of India in order to create two independent dominions of Pakistan and India. The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on July 18, 1947. Accordingly, the new state of Pakistan came into being on August 14, 1947. This new state was formed of East Bengal, a part of Assam (Sylhet), West Punjab, Sindh, N. W. F. P. and Balochistan provinces of undivided India.
• Under Section 8 of the Indian Independence Act of 1947, the Government of India Act of 1935 became, with certain adaptations, the working constitution of Pakistan.
• However, the Quaid's aim was the establishment of a truly Islamic society. As a result, a Constituent Assembly was set up under the Independence Act. The Constituent Assembly had a dual purpose; to draft the constitution of Pakistan and to act as a legislative body till the new constitution was passed and enforced
2. OBJECTIVES RESOLUTION:
On March 12, 1949, the Constituent Assembly adopted a resolution moved by Liaquat Ali Khan, the then Prime Minister of Pakistan. It was called the Objectives Resolution. It proclaimed that the future constitution of Pakistan would not be modeled on European pattern, but on the ideology and democratic faith of Islam.
The Objectives Resolution, which is considered to be the "Magna Carta" of Pakistan's constitutional history, proclaimed the following principles:
I. Sovereignty belongs to Allah alone but He has delegated it to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him as a sacred trust.
II. The State shall exercise its powers and authority through the chosen representatives of the people.
III. The principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed.
IV. Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
V. Adequate provision shall be made for the minorities to freely profess and practice their religions and develop their cultures.
VI. Pakistan shall be a federation.
VII. Fundamental rights shall be guaranteed.
VIII. Judiciary shall be independent.
I. Ideals of Islam:
II. People oriented:
III. True Islamic society:
IV. As Magna Carta:
V. As a basis for the future constitutions:
VI. Rights of minorities were safeguarded:
The Objectives Resolution is one of the most important and illuminating documents in the constitutional history of Pakistan. At the time it was passed, Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan called it "the most important occasion in the life of this country, next in importance only to the achievement of independence".
The importance of this document lies in the fact that it combines the good features of Western and Islamic democracy. It is a happy blend of modernism and Islam. The Objectives Resolution became a part of the constitution of Pakistan in 1985 under the Eighth Amendment.
TOPIC # 32
LIAQUAT-NEHRU PACT (1950)
• At the time of independence, many communal riots broke out in different areas of India and Pakistan. These riots had a great impact on the status of minorities in the two nations. Due to brutal killings by the majority community, a huge number of Muslims migrated from India, and Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan. Yet, the mass migration failed to solve the minority problem. Even after the migration, almost half of the Muslims living in the Sub-continent were left in India and a sizable number of Hindus in Pakistan. Those who were left behind were unable to become an integral part of the societies they were living in. The people and government of their countries looked upon them as suspects. They were unable to assure their countrymen of their loyalty.
• This problem escalated during the late 40's and early 50's. It seemed as if India and Pakistan were about to fight their second war in the first three years of their independence. At this critical juncture in the history of South Asia, Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan issued a statement emphasizing the need to reach a solution to the problem. He also proposed a meeting with his Indian counterpart to determine how to put an end to the communal riots and the fear of war.
2. LIAQUAT-NEHRU PACT:
The two Prime Ministers met in Delhi on April 2, 1950, and discussed the matter in detail. The meeting lasted for six long days. On April 8, the two leaders signed an agreement, which was later entitled as Liaquat-Nehru Pact. This pact provided a 'bill of rights' for the minorities of India and Pakistan. Its aim was to address the following three issues:
I. To alleviate the fears of the religious minorities on both sides.
II. To elevate communal peace.
III. To create an atmosphere in which the two countries could resolve their other differences.
According to the agreement, the governments of India and Pakistan solemnly agreed that each shall ensure, to the minorities throughout its territories, complete equality of citizenship, irrespective of religion; a full sense of security in respect of life, culture, property and personal honor.
“It also guaranteed fundamental human rights of the minorities, such as freedom of movement, speech, occupation and worship. The pact also provided for the minorities to participate in the public life of their country, to hold political or other offices and to serve in their country's civil and armed forces.”
“The Liaquat-Nehru Pact provided for the mechanism to deal with oppressive elements with an iron hand. Both the governments decided to set up minority commissions in their countries with the aim of observing and reporting on the implementation of the pact, to ensure that no one breaches the pact and to make recommendations to guarantee its enforcement. Both Minority Commissions were to be headed by a provincial minister and were to have Hindu and Muslim members among its ranks. India and Pakistan also agreed to include representatives of the minority community in the cabinet of the two Bengals, and decided to depute two central ministers, one from each government, to remain in the affected areas for such period as might be necessary. Both the leaders emphasized that the loyalty of the minorities should be reserved for the state in which they were living and for the solution of their problems they should look forward to the government of the country they were living in.”
“This pact was broadly acknowledged as an optimistic beginning to improve relations between India and Pakistan.”
TOPIC # 33
M. ALI BOGRA FORMULA (Oct. 7 1953)
While taking charge as Prime Minister, Muhammad Ali Bogra declared that formulation of the Constitution was his primary target. He worked hard on this project and within six months of assuming power, came out with a constitutional formula. His constitutional proposal, known as the Bogra Formula, was presented before the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on October 7, 1953. The plan proposed for a Bicameral Legislature with equal representation for all the five provinces of the country in the Upper House. A total of 50 seats were reserved for the Upper House. The 300 seats for the Lower House were to be allocated to the provinces on the basis of proportionate representation. One hundred and sixty five seats were reserved for East Pakistan, 75 for Punjab, 19 for Sindh and Khairpur, 24 for N. W. F. P., tribal areas and the states located in N. W. F. P., and 17 for Baluchistan, Baluchistan States Union, Bhawalpur and Karachi.
In this way East Pakistan was given more seats in the Lower House than the combined number of seats reserved for the federal capital, the four provinces and the princely states of the Western Wing. So in all, both the wings were to have 175 seats each in the two houses of the Legislative Assembly. Both the houses were given equal power, and in case of a conflict between the two houses, the issue was to be presented before a joint session.
In order to prevent permanent domination by any wing, a provision was made that if the head of the state was from West Pakistan, the Prime Minister was to be from East Pakistan, and vice versa. The two houses of the Legislative Assembly formed the Electoral College for the presidential elections and the President was to be elected for a term of 5 years. In place of the Board of Ulema, the Supreme Court was given the power to decide if a law was in accordance with the basic teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah or not.
Unlike the two reports of the Basic Principles Committee, the Bogra Formula was appreciated by different sections of the society. There was great enthusiasm amongst the masses as they considered it as a plan that could bridge the gulf between the two wings of Pakistan and would act as a source of unity for the country. The proposal was discussed in the Constituent Assembly for 13 days, and a committee was set to draft the constitution on November 14, 1953. However, before the constitution could be finalized, the Assembly was dissolved by Ghulam Muhammad, the then Governor General of Pakistan.
TOPIC # 34
• Even after eight years of existence, Pakistan was without a constitution. The main reason was believed to be the fact that there were two unequal wings of Pakistan separated from each other by more than a thousand miles. To diminish the differences between the two regions, the Government of Pakistan decided that all the four provinces and states of West Pakistan should be merged into one unit.
• To this end, Prime Minister Muhammad Ali made the first official announcement on November 22, 1954, enumerating the benefits of having one unit or province. On September 30, 1955, the Assembly passed the bill merging 310,000 square miles into a single province, with Lahore as its provincial capital. West Pakistan had formerly comprised three Governor's provinces, one Chief Commissioner's province, a number of states that had acceded to Pakistan, and the tribal areas. Geographically, they formed a homogenous block with easy communication, but with marked linguistic and ethnic distinctions. The result of the new bill was to unify these various units into one province to be known as West Pakistan.
2. SYSTEM OF ONE UNIT:
The Bill was hailed as a measure of administrative rationalization as it was likely to reduce the administrative expenditure. It was claimed that one unit of West Pakistan would eliminate the curse of provincial prejudices. The problem of representation of various units in the proposed Federal Legislature had been a big hurdle in the way of making a Constitution and it was said that with the removal of this hurdle, the formation of the Constitution would now speed up.
Dr. Khan Sahib was appointed as the first Chief Minister of the One Unit, while Mushtaq Ahmad Gurmani was appointed as the first Governor of West Pakistan. Dr. Khan Sahib's Ministry, however, came to an end when the President himself took over the administration. Subsequently, Sardar Abdur Rashid and Muzzaffar Ali Qazilbash were appointed Chief Ministers of that province in succession.
3. END OF ONE UNIT:
While the One Unit scheme in West Pakistan could be supported on various grounds, the method of its establishment was not free from criticism. The government wanted to introduce the One Unit Scheme by an executive decree, which it could not do. So the Central Government dismissed the Ministry in Punjab, Sindh and N. W. F. P. One Unit continued until General Yahya Khan dissolved it on July 1, 1970.
TOPIC # 35
1962 CONSTITUTION & ITS FAILURE
CAUSES OF FAILURE OF CONSTITUTION:
1. Unpopular Constitution:
2. Dictatorial presidential system:
3. Ignorance of Checks & balances:
4. Lack of provincial autonomy:
5. Indirect mode of election:
6. Ignorance of fundamental rights:
7. Political monopoly of single party:
8. Encouragement of Secularism:
TOPIC # 36
After the abrogation of the Constitution of 1962, Yahya Khan needed a legal framework to hold elections. In April and July 1969, he held discussions with prominent political party leaders to learn their point of view. Most of them asked for the revival of the Constitution of 1956 on the ground that its abrogation had been unlawful, and the country should return to the constitutional position prevailing on the eve of the 1958 coup. Yahya Khan initially agreed with this opinion, but had to change his stance due to opposition from the Awami League.
Not being well versed in constitutional affairs, he appointed a team to draft a new constitutional formula. He voiced his ideas about the constitutional issues in his broadcast address to the nation on November 28, 1969. The formula was officially issued on March 30, 1970, and is known as the Legal Framework Order of 1970. According to this order, One Unit was dissolved in West Pakistan and direct ballot replaced the principle of parity.
The National Assembly was to consist of 313 seats, including 13 seats reserved for women. Women were also allowed to contest the elections from general seats. The distribution of seats was to be as follows:
East Pakistan: 162 general and 7 reserved seats
Punjab: 82 general and 3 reserved seats
Sindh: 27 general and 1 reserved seat
N. W. F. P.: 18 general and 1 reserved seat
Balochistan: 4 general and 1 reserved seat
Centrally Administered Tribal Areas: 7 general seats
The L. F. O. also defined the qualifications of people who would be allowed to contest in the elections. The Constituent Assembly was to stand dissolved if it was unable to frame the Constitution within 120 days. Actually, the Legal Framework Order was to act as an interim Constitution.
III. Draft the future Constitution:
The primary function of the L. F. O. was to provide a setup on which elections could be conducted. It was then the duty of the elected Constituent Assembly to draft the Constitution of Pakistan. However, the L. F. O. defined the directive principles of State policy and made it clear that the future Constitution should not violate these basic principles. The directive principles demanded an Islamic way of life, observation of Islamic moral standards, and teaching of the Quran and Sunnah to the Muslims.
The Legal Framework Order also urged the Constituent Assembly to frame a Constitution in which Pakistan was to be a Federal Republic and should be named Islamic Republic of Pakistan. It also called for the preservation of Islamic Ideology and democratic values. The Constituent Assembly was also supposed to frame a Constitution in which all citizens of Pakistan were to enjoy fundamental human rights. Judiciary should remain independent from the Executive and provincial autonomy is protected.
IV. Power of the President:
The President was given the power to reject any Constitution framed by the Constituent Assembly if the document did not fulfill the above-mentioned requirements. The President also had the power to interpret and amend the Constitution, and his decision could not be challenged in a court of law.
TOPIC # 37
SHEIKH MUJIB’S SIX POINTS
In the 1970 National Assembly elections, the mandate of Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman's Awami League Party was based on a Six-Point Program of regional autonomy in a federal Pakistan. Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman had presented the Six-Point Program as the constitutional solution of East Pakistan's problems, in relation to West Pakistan.
First enunciated on February 12, 1966, the six points are as below:
1. The Constitution should provide for a Federation of Pakistan in the true sense on the basis of the Lahore Resolution and for a parliamentary form of government based on the supremacy of a directly elected legislature on the basis of universal adult franchise.
2. The Federal Government shall deal with only two subjects; Defense and Foreign Affairs. All residuary subjects will be vested in the federating states.
3. There should be either two separate, freely convertible currencies for the two Wings, or one currency with two separate reserve banks to prevent inter-Wing flight of capital.
4. The power of taxation and revenue collection shall be vested in the federating units. The Federal Government will receive a share to meet its financial obligations.
5. Economic disparities between the two Wings shall disappear through a series of economic, fiscal, and legal reforms.
6. A militia or paramilitary force must be created in East Pakistan, which at present has no defense of it own.
After the elections of 1970, differences arose between the Government and Awami League on the transfer of power on the basis of this Six-Point Program.
There ensued a political deadlock with talks ending in failure and postponement of the first session of the National Assembly. The postponement of the National Assembly session triggered a chain of events that eventually led to the separation of East Pakistan.
TOPIC # 38
DEBACLE OF EAST PAKISTAN
I. The separation of East Pakistan was a great setback to Pakistan. By 1970, sentiments for national unity had weakened in East Pakistan to the extent that constant conflict between the two Wings dramatically erupted into mass civil disorder. This tragically resulted in the brutal and violent amputation of Pakistan's Eastern Wing.
II. J. Raston writes in The New York Times in an article “Who won in India?” “The Indo-Pak War on Bangladesh on 1971 was not merely a regional conflict b/w the two countries – it was not only another phase in the long religious conflict b/w the Muslims and the Hindus, not merely a moral conflict b/w Pakistan’s vicious suppression of the Bangladeshi rebels and India’s calculated military aggression to dismember the Pakistani state. Back of all this, there was a power struggle b/w China and the USSR, and a strategic struggle b/w Moscow and Washington.”
III. “The physical separation of a thousand miles between the two wings without a common border, and being surrounded by Indian Territory and influences, led to constant political, economic and social conflicts between the two wings; embittering relations bringing the country on the verge of collapse.”
B. CAUSES OF THE FALL OF EAST PAKISTAN:
1. Geographical discontinuity:
2. Lack of desire of union:
3. Negative desire of autonomy:
4. Desire of Federal Capital:
5. Absence of common cultural and other interests:
6. Inequality among the federating units:
7. Selfish and inefficient leadership:
8. Heavy floods in 1970:
9. The animosity of Hindus:
10. The Indian antagonistic attitude:
11. Negative attitude of super powers:
12. Weak diplomacy:
13. Lack of ideological dedication:
14. Role of Awami League & its leaders:
15. Mujib-ur-Rehman’s Non-Cooperation Movement:
16. Mukti Bahini & its terrorist activities:
17. Resistance Day:
Unfortunately, on March 23, the Republic Day of Pakistan, the Awami League declared "Resistance Day" and Bangladesh flags flew all over the Province.
C. DISINTEGRATION OF EAST PAKISTAN:
On December 10, 1971, the first feeler for surrender in East Pakistan was conveyed to the United Nations. On December 17, 1971, a formal surrender was submitted and accepted. Forty five thousand troops and an almost equal number of civilians of West Pakistan were taken as prisoners of war.
"INSTRUMENT OF SURRENDER"
The PAKISTAN Eastern Command agree to surrender all PAKISTAN Armed Forces in BANGLA DESH to Lieutenant-General JAGJIT SINGH AURORA, General Officer Commanding in Chief of the Indian and BANGLA DESH forces in the Eastern Theatre. This surrender includes all PAKISTAN land, air and naval forces as also all para-military forces and civil armed forces. These forces will lay down their arms and surrender at the places where they are currently located to the nearest regular troops under the command of Lieutenant- General JAGJIT SINGH AURORA.
16 December 1971
The surrender led to the disintegration of East and West Pakistan and the establishment of Bangladesh. After 25 years, the East Pakistanis declared themselves independent and renamed their Province as Bangladesh. Pakistan finally recognized Bangladesh at the Islamic Conference in Lahore on February 22, 1974.
TOPIC # 39
ISLAMIZATION IN PAKISTAN
Quaid said, “We want to have a separate homeland where Islamic laws can be enforced. We want a separate homeland to prove that Islamic laws pronounced 1400 years ago are still practicable.”
1. Objectives resolution:
2. The Constitution of 1956:
3. The Constitution of 1962:
4. The Constitution of 1973:
5. Islamization Under General Zia-ul-Haq:
When General Zia-ul-Haq took over as the Chief Martial Law Administrator on July 5, 1977, Islamization was given a new boost. General Zia-ul-Haq was a practicing Muslim who raised the slogan of Islam.
1) Hudood Ordinance: it was promulgated in 1979.
2) Qazf Ordinance:
3) Zakat & Usher Ordinance: it was promulgated on June 20, 1980.
4) Establishment of Federal Shariat Court:
5) Majlis-e-Shoora: in 1980.
8) Ban on Nudity: display of nude scenes and moving films with nudity were also banned on the television.
9) Islamic education:
10) Financial system:
11) Islamic laws for women: theory of “Chadar aur Char devari”.
TOPIC # 40
Natural resources play an important and pivotal role in the economic welfare and betterment of the country. The natural resources play a stable base for erecting the formidable edifice of country’s economy. No one can deny the importance of the availability of natural resources. They are, in fact, the invaluable gift bestowed by the Almighty on His subjects for their happy life on the Earth.
Pakistan is greatly endowed by the nature with vast quantity of natural resources. The govt. is trying hard to explore the hidden resources. Quaid-e-Azam said, “Pakistan has become a reality. It is endowed with natural resources. Now much depends on its people to exploit and make use of them by putting in incessant hard work and honest labour.” Pakistan’s natural resources are given below:
A. MINERAL RESOURCES:
1. Iron core: the total deposit is of 430 metric ton in Kalabagh, Mianwali, Sakesar, Harpur.
2. Chromite: Zhob valley. The mines of Jang Toragarh and Khanozai are the huge source of chromite.
3. Copper: Sanidak and Amuri in Chagi.
4. Rock salt: Besides Khewra, Warcha mines are also producing salt.
5. Gypsum: Jhelum, DG Khan, Mianwali, Quetta, Sibi, Kohat and DI Khan.
6. Sulphur: Koh-e-Saltan in Chagi, Kachi in Balochistan, Mardan and Khairpur.
7. Lime stone: Daudkhel, Wah, Rohri and Karachi.
8. Marble: Malleghori, Maneri, Gundai and Nowshera.
B. POWER/ENERGY RESOURCES:
1. Coal: Khushab, Khewra, Makarwal, Quetta, Sibi, Lakhra, etc.
2. Natural gas & Oil: Dhullian oil field, Joya mir oil field, Balkassar, Karsal, Tut, Meya and Sarang oil fields.
C. NATURAL GAS:
1. Zin, Uch, Khairpur, Khankot, Mehal, Mari, Jacobabad and Dhullian:
2. Sui Gas: It lies in the Sibbi district. It is producing 80% of the production.
1. Chhanga Manga, Chichawatni, Wan bachran:
2. Forests of Northern Areas:
3. The Balochistan Hill forests:
4. Tidal forests: from Karachi to Kutch.
5. Bela Forests: along the banks of the big rivers.
TOPIC # 41
LOCAL GOVERNMENT SETUP
In order to establish democracy at grassroots level, the regime of General Pervez Musharaf, introduced the Local Government System. This was not a new experiment in Pakistan. Ayub Khan had undertaken a similar effort in this direction by introducing the Basic Democracy System.
This new system of Local Government was installed on August 14, 2001, after holding of elections. Direct elections on non-party basis were held in five phases for members of Union Councils, Union Nazims, and Naib Union Nazims during 2000 thru to 2001. On the basis of these direct elections, indirect elections were held in July-August 2001 for Zila Nazims and Naib Zila Nazims and also for Tehsil-Town Nazims and Naib Nazims. In order to attract people towards electoral politics, the minimum age for local government elections was lowered from 21 to 18 years. One-third seats were reserved for women.
The main purpose of introducing the Local Government System was to empower the people at the grassroots level and to transfer power from the elite to the masses. This system of grassroots democracy envisaged yielding new political leaders. It was also anticipated to solve people's problems at local level, allow public participation in decision-making and ensure the provision of speedy justice. The essence of this system was that the Local Governments would be accountable to the citizens for all their decisions. It would enable the proactive elements of society to participate in community work, development related activities and would remove rural-urban divide. The new Local Government plan was an effort on the part of the Military Government to lay the foundations of an authentic and enduring democracy.
3. LOCAL GOVT STRUCTURE:
The new System provided a three-tier Local Government structure:
1) The District Government
2) The Tehsil Government
3) The Union Administration
1) The District Government:
The District Government consisted of the Zila Nazim and District Administration. The District Administration consisted of district offices including sub-offices at Tehsil level, who were to be responsible to the District Nazim assisted by the District Coordination Officer. The District Coordination Officer was appointed by the Provincial Government and was the coordinating head of the District Administration. The Zila Nazim was accountable to the people through the elected members of the Zila Council. A Zila Council consisted of all Union Nazims in the District, which consisted of members elected on the reserved seats. These seats were reserved for women, peasants, workers, and minority community. The Zila Council had its Secretariat under the Naib Zila Nazim and had a separate budget allocation. Adequate checks and balances were introduced in the System.
The new System also efficiently addressed the specific needs and problems of large cities. The District Government was responsible to the people and the Provincial Government for improvement of governance and delivery of services.
2) Tehsil Administration:
The middle tier, the Tehsil, had Tehsil Municipal Administration headed by the Tehsil Nazim. Tehsil Municipal Administration consisted of a Tehsil Nazim, Tehsil Municipal Officer, Tehsil Officers, Chief Officers and other officials of the Local Council Service and officials of the offices entrusted to the Tehsil Municipal Administration. The Tehsil Municipal Administration was entrusted with the functions of administration, finances, and management of the offices of Local Government and Rural Development, and numerous other subjects at the regional, Divisional, District, Tehsil and lower levels.
3) Union Administration:
The lowest tier, the Union Administration was a corporate body covering the rural as well as urban areas across the whole District. It consisted of Union Nazim, Naib Union Nazim and three Union Secretaries and other auxiliary staff. The Union Nazim was the head of the Union Administration and the Naib Union Nazim acted as deputy to the Union Nazim during his temporary absence. The Union Secretaries coordinated and facilitated in community development, functioning of the Union Committees and delivery of municipal services under the supervision of Union Nazim.
The Government allocated Rupees 32 billion to the Local Government in 2002. The funds were deposited in the account of the District Government. The District Government further distributed these funds to Tehsil and Unions. In addition to the fiscal transfers from the Province, the Local Governments were authorized to generate money from their own sources by levying certain taxes, fees, user charges, etc.
It is, however, pertinent to make a special mention that it is only in the absence of elected assemblies that local governments are the popularly elected bodies and play important political and developmental roles. After the election of Senators and members of the provincial and national assemblies, its role has been again substantially marginalized. The elected representatives of National and Provincial Assemblies usually take over some functions, which local governments used to perform and as such in many ways they are prone to intervene in the evolution of proper and improved Local government.
Local governments suffer from the fact that their existence is not constitutionally ordained and they are a mere extension of the provincial government. In the Constitution, the allocations of the functions of the federal and provincial governments are clearly specified whereas the existence of local government is not formally embodied in the Constitution. Moreover, financial, technical, and bureaucratic constraints plus limited revenue (merely 5 per cent of revenue generated by the government) cause the poor and almost non-existent local government for most of the time.