1. Internal factors
• Wars of succession
The bloody and bitter war of succession constitutes one of the most important factors that led the decline of Mughal Empire. The mughal had failed to develop the law of succession.
• The incompetent successors of Aurangzeb
The successors of Aurangzeb were not competent enough to administrate the vast Mughal Empire. After the Aurangzeb’s death, laxity had set in and the end of Mughal Empire.
• Internal intrigues
The internal intrigues had become a routine affair during the waning days of Mughal Empire. The court was divided along sectarian and ethnic lines. The mughal were engage, in fighting against the nobles accelerated the demise the once mighty mughal Empire
• Moral decadence of Muslim society
I H qureshi say’s that, the foremost cause of the loss of political power was a crisis in the mughal character itself
• Financial straits
The war of independence, rebellions and luxurious style of living lead the mughals towards financial crisis
• Demoralized and in efficient army
In the mughals army there was some ethnic groups which leads it to demoralized like afghan, Persian, and central Asian
• Absence of Navel power
The mighals have no navy, only maintain small ships
• Rise of independent dynasts vast mughal empire divided into several states like Deccan , Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa
• Rise of Marathas and Sikhs
The Marathas and Skis rise as rebellion
2. External factors
Incursion of nadir shah
• In 1738 the Persian king nadir shah attacked on Delhi and defeated mughal king Muhammad shah. He sacked Delhi slaughtering thousands of people and looting all the wealth of Mughals including the famous peacock, throne and the Kohinoor diamond.
• Attack by Ahmed Shah Abdali
Between 1748 and 1761 he launched five attacks into subcontinent in the final attack, he defeated the Marathas at the third battle of Panipat but it again brought to light the weakness of Mughals. Consequently the British felt emboldened and kick started their own campaigns to capture territory the sub-continent.
• Rise of British
British came into sub continent as traders. But soon their trade activities metamorphosed into political activities. Owing the decline of Mughals, they started to capture territories in the sub-continent. The foundation of the British rule the sub-continent was let after the defeat of Nawb Siraj ud Dula at the battle of Plassey in 1757. After the failed War of independence in 1857, the British became the rulers of the subcontinent.
(The paramount power of the great Mughals was broken by the Mughals viceroys. The power of the viceroys was broken by the Marathas. The power of Marathas was broken by the Afghans and while all were struggling against all the British rushed in and were able to subdue them all)
Karl Marks, New York Tribune, Aug. 8, 1853