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Old Tuesday, July 24, 2012
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Goal of ML
• “To protect religious and cultural identity of the Muslims of India”
• The founding session chaired by  Nawab Waqar ul Malik
• Seconded by  Maulana Zaffar Ali Khan and Hakeem Ajmal Khan

Change in Strategy 1913

Causes
1. Annulment of Bengal partition
2. Balkan war (Italy-Turkey)
3. Libya Italy war
4. Demolition of a Mosque at Khanpur
5. Realization by both parties to achieve their same goal
6. Role of Quaid

Updated Strategy
1. Self-government under the crown
2. Good relations and cooperation with any organization working for same

With thanks to CSS e Guide
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KHILAFAT MOVEMENT


Background:

The Lucknow pact showed that it was possible for middle-class, English-educated Muslims and Hindus to arrive at an amicable settlement on Hindu-Muslim constitutional and political problems. This unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movements.


Introduction:

• Religio-political movement
• Extra territorial attachments based on Islam
• First movement which involved common man
• Showed Islam is mobilization force

Goals:
1. Ottuman empire should be kept intact
2. Territorial solidarity
3. Control of holy places

Muslim Media:

1. Zamindar – Zafar Ali Khan
2. Comrade & Hamdard – Maulana M Ali Johar
3. Al-Hilal – Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

Urging Force

1. Concept of Muslim Ummah
2. Emotional attachments with institution of Khilafat

Why Cooperation

1. To be one force against British
2. Rowlett Act 1919
3. Jawalianwala Garden Tragedy Apr 1919

Triggering factors

1. Rowlett Act April 1919
a. Report by Sydney Rowlatt to counter terrorists
b. Features
i. Accused have to prove himself not guilty
ii. No legal assistance to accused
iii. No right to appeal
iv. Prosecution can produce witness of a dead person
c. Quaid resigned from Central Legislative Assembly

2. Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy
a. Gandhi entrance in Punjab banned
b. Protest on April 13, 1919 in Amritsar
c. Gen. Dyre ordered fire  killed 379, injured 1200 in 10 minutes
d. Britian imposed Martial Law in Amritsar, Lahore, Gujrat
e. Hunter committee recommended forcibly retirement of Gen. Dyr


Events:

1. Khilafat Day  Oct 27, 1919
2. Khilafat Committee formed by Hakim Ajmal Khan & Dr. M A Ansari  July 1919
a. I. Khilafat Conference Delhi – Gandi & Nehru participated  Nov 1919
i. No participation in victory celebrations
ii. Boycott of British goods
iii. Non cooperation (on later stage)
b. II. Khilafat Conference Amritsar  Dec 1919
i. Ali brothers came directly after being released.
ii. M A Ansari delegation to Viceroy  Jan 1920
iii. Maulana M Ali Johar delegation to Lord George
1. Non-Cooperation Movement  May 1920 (Dec 1920 by Congress) by Mahatama Gandi
a. 3 Hindu groups
i. Cooperation on condition of “No Cow Slaughter”
ii. Muslims would seek help from Afghanistan
iii. Unconditional help to Muslims
b. Program of Movement announced – 4 stages
i. Titles awarded given up & Educational institutes boycotted
ii. Resignations of civil government’s servants
iii. Police and military to be quitted (later on )
iv. Refusal to pay taxes & Civil disobedience
2. Treaty of Sevres  Aug 1920
3. III. Khilafat Conference Karachi  July 1920
a. Loyality to Turksih Sultan emphasized
b. Welcomed Attaturk’s efforts for expulsion of foreign forces
4. Nagpur Session of Congress  Dec 1920
a. Working Committee approved Non-Cooperation movement
b. Jinnah opposed and left the congress
5. Hijrat Movement 1920 – 1921
a. Abul Kalam Azad and other Ulema declared India “Darul Herb”
b. 18,000 Muslims migrated
c. Initially Afghan welcomed but later on closed the borders
d. Huge casualties of migrants occurred, some went to Russia
6. End of Movement
a. Moplah revolt  Aug 1921
i. Muslim tribe revolted against Hindu landlords
b. Chora Chori (UP)  Feb 1922
i. 21 constables and 1 sub inspector were set on fire
ii. Gandhi called of the movement on Feb 05, 1922
c. Developments in Turkey
i. Mustafa Kamal appointed as Chief of the state by Grand National Assembly
ii. Kamal Pasha won back Symarna from Greeks
iii. Goarge gov’t collapsed
iv. Treaty of Laussane singed
v. Khilafat Abolished  Mar 1924

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ALLAMA IQBAL’S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS AT ALLAHABAD

Important points:

1. Decline of Muslim Ummah in general and Muslims of India in particular
2. Islam is a complete code of life. And Muslims are a nation.
3. There is no harmony between Muslims and Hindus in India.
4. A separate homeland for the Muslims of India comprising of Punjab, sindh, Balochistan and NWFP.
a. He Said “I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Provinces, Sindh and Balochistan into a single State. Self-Government within the British Empireor without the British Empire. The formation of the consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of the North-West India.”
b. Two Nation Theory
4. Suggestions for the constitution. (He was against the central legislative assembly and wanted assembly of representative of federal States).
5. Muslim Representation in the British Indian Assembly shall be 1/3rd.

Hindu Reaction:

• An editorial in daily Partab, Lahore wrote about Allama Muhammad Iqbal that he is a dangerous Muslim of North Western India.
• In Daily Inqalab, Lahore a Hindu Columnist wrote “Iqbal Wanted to snatch the country of Hindus from them and to give it to the Muslims.

Muslims supported his ideas. News papers like Daily Hindu and Daily hamdam supported him and propagated his message and ideas through the Subcontinent.

Iqbal earned the title of “Dreamer of Pakistan” for Himself.
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ROUND TABLE CONFERENCES [1930-33]

Introduction:

Lord Irwin invited the leaders of political parties of India.
Objective: To formulate future constitution of India in the light of suggestions given by the Indian Leaders.
Civil Disobedience Movement (April 1930):
• It was launched by Gandhi because at that point he demanded implementation of Nehru report in Toto.
• The civil disobedience movement was declared illegal and Gandhi was arrested.

First Round Table Conference:

(12 November 1930 to 19th January 1931)


Muslim Leaders: following Muslim leaders participated.
• Quaid-e-Azam.
• Sir Agha Khan
• Muhammad Ali Jauhur.
• Maulvi Fazl Haq.
• Sir Muhammad Shafi

Important decision made in conference:

1. Approval of federal system for India (Executive will be responsible to legislature).
2. Fully representative government, responsible to provincial and federal legislature will be made. (Note: In Nehru report Hindu Wanted Strong Central Govt. while Muslims demanded for loose federation in Jinnah’s 14 Points).
3. The princely states will also be supported.
4. Sapru’s proposal of dominion status and abolition of diarchy in the provinces.
Deadlock: Deadlock occurred on the distribution of subjects in the federal system

Gandhi Irwin Pact:

• From 17-19 February 1931 talks were held between Gandhi and Irwin.
• An agreement was signed on 5th March 1931 between Gandhi and Irwin.

Why these Talks were held and Agreement was signed?
• Because of the failure of civil disobedience movement.
• Government’s desire for congress participation in round table as congress was absent in first round table conference.

Salient features of Gandhi Irwin Pact:
1. The congress will call of civil disobedience.
2. The congress will attend second round table conference.
3. The government will withdraw all cases against congress and release prisoners.
The pact shows that the British government was anxious to bring the congress to round table conference. It was triumph of the congress and Indian Nationalism.

Second Round Table Conference
( 7 September 1931to 1st December 1931)


• Gandhi was the sole representative of All India National Congress
• Allama Iqbal participated in 2nd round table conference because of the death of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhur.
• Allama Iqbal in his speech said in 2nd round table conference.
• Two committees were formed i.e.
1. Conference on federal structure.
2. Conference on Minorities.
• Gandhi’s showed stubborn attitude to secure India as one nation. Gandhi claimed that he represented all India and dismissed all other Indian delegates as non-representatives.
• Hindu Muslim relations embittered.
• Communal problems Remained Unsolved

Quaid-e-Azam did not participate in second Round table conference and decided to remain aloof from the Indian politics and to practice as a professional lawyer in England.

Communal Awards, August16, 1932.
• Because of the deadlock over communal issues British government announced communal awards.

Communal representation of Muslims:
o Jinnah’s demand for 1/3rd of the British seats in central legislature was accepted.
o Sindh was awarded the status of separate province.
o Principle of Wieghtage was applied (Muslim lost majority in Punjab, Sikh got advantage in Punjab, Europeans got advantage in Bengal because of principle of Wieghtage).

Communal Scheme for Non Muslim:
o Award declared untouchables as a minority and thus the Hindus depressed classes were given a number of special seats. And as result
o Separate electorates for scheduled class Hindus were approved.
Hindu Reaction:
Gandhi took fast until death on account of accepting scheduled class Hindus as separate nation and giving them right of separate electorate. Dr. Ambedkar, leader of untouchable made an agreement to withdraw from the right of separate electorate under Poona Pact. Gandhi ended his fast.

Third Round Table Conference/ Joint Select committee
(17th November to 25th December 1932)


• Quaid-e-Azam did not participate.
• Sir Agha khan participated.
• In third round table conference reports of various communities were scrutinized.
• It was decided to setup a federal legislature in India consisting of elected representatives of the British India and of the representatives of the state to be nominated by respective ruler.

The report of three round table conferences was published in a white paper in 1933 and later on it was discussed in the British parliament. As a resulted a bill was drafted which was approved and became Indian Act of 1935.
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CONGRESS RULE IN THE PROVINCES


Elections 1937

Muslim League manifesto (i) 1935 Act is unworkable; (ii) ML would get maximum benefit out of it. The manifesto was same but two things; Urdu Language and separate electorates.
“The manifestos show that there was not unbridgeable gape. Yet, there was no such a will.”

“The League manifesto was clearly an offer for cooperation. Had the congress accepted the offer, the whole constitutional scene would have been different.” IH Qureshi

Provincial elections:

• Congress  706 out of 1771 seats (26/58 Muslim seats, so only 5% of Muslims)
• Muslim League  102 out of 482 Muslim seats (26% Muslim votes)

CONGRESS RULE

Congress refused to formed ministries till July 1937 on the basis of GG’s discretionary powers – in Muslims favor.
The period of less than two and a half years, from July 1939 to October 1939, when congress ministries ruled eight of the eleven Indian provinces was extremely crucial in the history of Hindu Muslim relations.

A. Refusal to Form Coalition Government

The Election results had strengthened this hope, for congress had not bothered to contest more than a small number fraction of Muslim seats and not won even a majority of that. Therefore, everyone looked forward to the formation of congress league coalition in all Hindu Majority provinces. The refusal of the Congress to cooperate belied all such hopes.

In July 1937, Congress formed governments in 6 provinces. In NWFP, Khudai Khidmatgar and Congress formed a coalition government. In the Muslim majority provinces, the Muslim League could not form the governments. The Muslim League desired to be in government in the U.P. but the Congress consented to a conditional support:

1. Dissolve AIML Parliamentary Board
2. AIML members not to function as a separate group
3. AIML members to express allegiance to the Congress

Definitely the above-mentioned terms were a device to subvert the existence of the Muslim League. Therefore, no agreement was possible on this issue.
Nehru told Chaudhary Khaliq uz Zaman in May 1937, “The Hindu Muslim question is confined to a few Muslim intellectuals, landlords and capitalists who were cooking up a problem which did not in fact exist in the mind of the masses.”

“Nehru’s mistake lay in his attempt at killing Muslim nationalism with ridicule. Later events were to show the folly of his attitude, for it created nothing but bitterness and bad blood.” IH Qureshi

B. The Muslim Mass Contact Movement:

Along with its refusal to share power with the Muslim League the Congress pursued anti-Muslim League policy in another direction as well. Its power among masses should be weakened and finally broken. Thus began the ambitious but short lived campaign.

This philosophy was followed by Nehru’s statement that, “power was now crystallized in only two opposing ranks – Congress for Indian nationalism and British for imperialism. Other parties do not count.”

Comment:
Maulvi Abdul Hakeem, Punjab Moderate Muslims Association, warned Muslims against this and called it “conversion of Muslims”.

C. Dictatorship of the Congress

The outstanding constitutional feature of the congress provincial government of the 1937-39 was that they did not conform to the kind of parliamentary gov’t envisaged in the Act. The congress provinces were not autonomous.
Congress ministers were not allowed to act independently
Sir Banirjee says, “Gandhi was a dictator by proxy, he did not rule directly but he was accepted as religious obligation.”

D. Policies of the Congress Governments: (July 1937-Nov. 1939)

First all Congress governments in the provinces launched anti-Muslim drive basicaly to exclude the ML and other Muslim organizations from the government making process. The Congress leaders had come to know that the ML had got roots in the masses. They started ‘Muslim Mass Contact’ movement to defame the ML in their favour. They were making cultural and educational policies that promoted the Hindu culture and symbols in the name of Indian culture. They introduced Banda-Mataram anthem from Annandmath in the institutions and offices etc. The Hindi language was given top most importance in their policies. Wardha Educational Scheme was to convert Muslims into Hindus through primary educational literature. Projection of Hindu heroes like Gandhi and distortion of Muslim history became their moral creed. They folowed the policy of discrimination in services or new recruitment for jobs.

In the UP, the provincial government had directed the local administration to consult the local congress leaders.

The Congress ministries adopted overal negative and cruel atitude, especialy towards the Muslim activists. This unjust treatment compeled the Muslims to be disciplined in every sphere of life.

Muslim Response:

The Muslims were well aware of the theocratic inclination of the Hindu people. They arranged a close monitoring of the government. They publicized their policies and raised the issues. The mobilization of Muslims on these matters required keen probe to colect the original facts of the Hindu atrocities.

1. The Pirpur Report:
On March 28, 1938, the Council of ML appointed an eight-member commitee under the presidentship of Raja Syed Muhammad Mehdi of Pirpur that presented its report on, November 15, 1938. It tried to dig out the cruelties of the Congress ministries in seven provinces. The report took up the Congress support to the rival Muslim organizations, intimidation and threats to the pro-Muslim League people.

2. The Sharif Report, March 1939

The ML deputed Mr. Shareef with members to investigate the injustices under the dictatorial rule of the Hindus. This report mainly colected the facts, concentrating on il treatment of the government with the Muslims in Bihar.

3. The Fazl-ul- Haq Report: (December 1939)

A. K. Fazl-ul-Haq published a pamphlet entitled Muslim Sufferings Under the Rule of Congress and made many alarming revelations e.g. forbidding of Azan, atacks in mosques, noisy processions of the Hindu scoundrels, forbidding of the cow-slaughter etc. This pamphlet responded the indictments by the Congress on the Muslims.

All the reports described the Congress government as an atempt to create ‘Hindu Raj’ that wanted to overwhelm the Muslim culture and their identity. It was a rigorous threat to the Muslims’ interests.

Muslim League Activism:

The Muslim League highlighted the issues and mobilized the Muslims to counter them adequately. It reorganized the Muslim community to cope with the situation. The ML arranged its session at Lucknow in October 1937. Many prominent leaders like Fazlul Haq participated in the session while Sikander Hayat and Saadulah announced their support to the ML.

The Muslim leaders shed a sharp criticism on the Congress policies. They protested against the reduction of status of Urdu and other Muslim related issues. They created realization, amongst the Muslims, of what can happen under the Congress rule and urged for serious thinking about the future political and constitutional arrangements. They unearthed the real objectives of the Congress and urged the need of unity among the Muslims under the banner of Muslim League.

The Second World War (September 1939) proved blessing for the Muslims in a sense that the Congress Ministries resigned in November 1939. The Muslims observed Day of Deliverance on December 22, 1939.

Reorganization of Muslim League:


The ML redefined its position during the World War II. They expressed their enthusiasm that no constitution to be enforced without the consent of the Muslims. They eradicated their organizational weaknesses and refined their objectives keeping the experiences of the Congress ministries.
Intellectual Commentary on Congress Rule and its impact

Short term effect of these policies:


1. It weakened the capacity of responsible government. In democracy it is public opinion which rules but in congress ministries it was vice versa.
2. Provincial autonomy was nullified by the rule of the High command
3. Totalitarian policies of congress made it impossible to negotiate. Totalitarianism produced arrogance which is opposed to give and take spirit.

Long term effects:


1. More awareness to minorities
“The rise of congress, to power made the Muslims feel for the first time what it was to be in a minority. They had become acutely aware of the rising tide of Hindu rule, and that produced a consolidation of political opinion and organization in India.” Lothian in Asiatic Review
“The Congress was the Indian counterpart of Nazi party in Germany.” Bonarjee, A Christian


2. Constitutional safeguards: a non-entity
“The congress rule taught the minorities that administrative or even constitutional safeguards are no effective protection against an attitude of mind in the numerically dominant party which treats all other sections of opinion as politically-defeated antagonists.” I H Qureshi

3. Strengthened Muslim League’s power among masses
The more aggressive became the tone of congress the greater grew the confidence of Muslim League. ML countered every argument of the congress;
• To the congress argument of communalism  narrating the hardships under congress “secular” rule
• Congress’s pledge to protect minorities  ML pointed to futility of constitutional safeguards
• Democracy and freedom  greater Muslim apprehension about Hindu domination

4. Paved the way towards separation
Slowly but relentlessly the congress was forcing the Muslim of India into separation.” IH Qureshi

5. Communal Tensions
“I foresaw that the result of the present congress party policy will be class bitterness, communal war and strengthening of the imperialistic hold as a consequence.” Quaid
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INITIAL PROBLEMS FACED AFTER THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN
INTRODUCTION:

Nehru told General Sir Frank Messervy in 1945, “his deliberate plan would be to allow Jinnah to have his Pakistan, end gradually makes things so impossible economically and otherwise for Pakistan that they have to come on their banded knees and asked to be allowed back to India.

1. RADCLIFF AWARD (AUGUST 16, 1947):


Background

Representatives of Punjab Boundary Commission
Pakistan India
Justice Din Muhammad Justice Maher Chand Muhajan
Justice Muhammad Munir Justice Tej Singh ¬
Representatives Bengal Boundary Commission
Pakistan India
Justice Abu Saleh Justice C. C. Biswas
Muhammad Ikram Justice B.K Mukarjee
Justice S.A Rehman

Sir Cyril Radcliff was appointed as the chairman of both the boundary commissions. Both India and Pakistan were agreed to accept the decision of Radcliff in case of deadlock. As expected the representatives of India and Pakistan were unable to reach on an agreement and Radcliff announced his own decisions on 16th August 1947.

Analysis of the Boundary Award

The award was partial, unjust and unfair to Pakistan
Radcliff Award Handed over Some of the Muslim Majority Areas that were Contiguous to the Boundary of Pakistan to India: These areas included.
o Sub-district of Ajnala in Amritsar district
o Sub-district of Nakadar and Jullundur in Jullundur district
o Sub-district of Ferozepur and Zira in Ferozepur district
o Sub-district of Batala and Gurdaspur in Gurdaspur district
Radcliff award, allotted sixty-two percent of the area of undivided Punjab to India, with fifty-five percent of the population.

• Radcliff Award Paved the Way for the Accession of Kashmir with India: Gurdaspur was a district contiguous to Pakistan. Out of its four Sub-District Gurdaspur, Batala and shakergarh were the Muslim majority and Pathankot was a non-Muslim majority sub-district. At the time of partition the only rail and road communication between India and Kashmir was possible through the district of Gurdaspur, if Radcliff had only awarded the Hindu majority sub-district of Pathankot to India still it would not have had access to the state of Kashmir; by assigning two Muslim majority sub-district of Baal and Gurdaspur Radcliff provided India a link with Kashmir. In 1948 India entered its forces in Kashmir through Gurdaspur and annexed the state to India.

• The Decision of the Punjab Boundary Commission Caused the Canal Water Dispute between India and Pakistan: Three rivers namely Indus, Jhelum and Chenab enter in Punjab from Kashmir whereas two rivers Ravi and Sutlej enter from Indian held Punjab. Radcliff drew the boundary line in such a way that it cut across the river and canals; making India and Pakistan upper and lower beneficiaries. Radcliff also handed over the Ferozepur (Sutlij) and Madupur (Ravi) head works to India.By giving the control over the river Ravi and Sutlej to India, Radcliff put the economical life of Pakistan in danger. It was not merely a theoretical possibility; it was proved by Indic by cutting off the water supply on 31st March 1948.

• City of Calcutta Handed Over to India: Firstly large population of Calcutta consisted of schedule east Hindus that were with Muslim League. Secondly East Pakistan was separate from West Pakistan by more than one thousand miles and for the communication point of view the port of Calcutta was very important for Pakistan. Thirdly East Bengal produced the bulk of raw jute but mostly the jute factories were situated in Calcutta.

• Boundary Award and Mountbatten's influence? On August 8, Mountbatten's private secretary sent a letter with a preliminary description of the Punjab boundary to Evan Jenkins, the governor of Punjab. This draft showed the Ferozepur area and its headworks going to Pakistan. When the final award was released, Ferozepur was assigned to India. Infuriated Pakistanis were sure that Nehru and Mountbatten had pressured Radcliff to change his line

• Announcement of the Award was Delayed: The Award was to be announced on August 12, 1947 but it was mysteriously delayed till August 16, 1947.

Repercussion!
• India and Pakistan had no boundaries for the first two days of their existence.
• In some places both -Indian and Pakistani flags were raised.
• In some border regions whose destiny was uncertain Indian and Pakistani citizens were in the dilemma of not knowing which country they were in even on August 15.
• In some cases officials sent to work in territories that later became port of India or Pakistani. Many administrators joined the last-minute flow of refugees themselves, disrupting administrative system by leaving their posts empty.

Why?
 To avoid spoiling the joyous celebration of independence by announcing news that would undoubtedly distress' both India and Pakistan.
 To overlook the British responsibility for the disorder that inevitably would follow the announcement.

2. ACCESSION OF THE PRINCELY STATES:


Kashmir :


Area of 84,471 square miles, 77% muslims, 4 million population in 1944. The most important state was Kashmir naturally connected with Pakistan. Its ruler was Hindu while population was Muslim. The population inclined towards Pakistan but the Hindu ruler declared to join India. The Kashmiri people revolt against the ruler in Poonch area and soon it became widespread. The ruler sought Indian support. India demanded accession. On October 27, 1947 Indian troops landed in Srinagar. The people continued their struggle for independence and India promised to finally settle the matter with reference to the people under the UN Resolutions.

Hyderabad :

Hyderabad was one of the richest Hindu Majority state covering 82000 sq miles of area, 260 million Revenue. Surrounded by Indian Territory. The state was situated in the south of India. Their rulers were Muslim who were called Nizam. Nizam wanted to maintain independent status for his state but as being Muslim he had desire to accede with Pakistan if ever need arose. Due to the important position of the state, Mountbatten the first governor general of India put pressure on Nizam to accede with India but Nizam refused to do so. On September 13, 1948 just two days after the death of Quaid-e-Azam Indian forces entered in Hyderabad and occupied it forcibly. Pakistan submitted a complaint in UNO against the illegal action of India which is still pending.

Junagadh:

Junagadh was a small Hindu majority state covering 3337 sq miles of the area. It situated 300 miles down to the coast of Karachi Indian coast of Kathiawar. The Muslim rulers ruled the state. After independence the request for the accession with Pakistan by its rulers was accepted by the Quaid-e-Azam. Indian government reacted sharply and an economic blockade of the state of Junagardh was imposed that resulted in food shortage. By the end of October 1947 the rulers of the state of Junagadh were forced to leave the state. On 9th November 1947 the Indian army occupied the state. Pakistan took that matter in UNO where it is still pending.

3. REFUGEES AND ACCOMMODATION PROBLEM:

Hindus were angry over the division of the Subcontinent whereas Sikhs were unhappy over the loss of their religious places. Sikhs and Hindu armed with deadly weapons slaughter the man woman and even the small children. Condition in East Punjab was worse than anywhere else where rulers of the states of Alwar, Kapurthala, Patiala and Bharatpure played the most inhuman role in that human tragedy.

Due to the communal violence millions of Indian Muslims leaving there property started migrating towards Pakistan. Apart from communal violence another reason for the migration of Muslims was their desire to live in a newly established Islamic state.

The arrival of refugees created problem for both the countries but the issue was more serious in the nascent state of Pakistan that was already facing no of problems. It was estimated that only West Pakistani received 5.5 million refugees and one sixth of the entire population of West Pakistan consisted of refugees. It caused economic and administrative problems, as Pakistan did not have sufficient resources to provide food, shelter and medical aid to the growing no of refugees.

Quaid-e-Azam moved his headquarter to Lahore to give special attention to this problem. Quaid-e-Azam relief fund was also created in which rich people were asked to donate. Temporary relief camps were also established.

4. CANAL WATER DISPUTE:


It had its origin in Radcliff Award which drew the boundary India and Pakistan in way that it cut across the rivers and canal making India the upper beneficiary and Pakistan the lower beneficiary, It also handed over the control over two important head works over river Ravi (Madhupure Head works) and Sutlej (Ferozpure Head works) to India. India proved it by stopping the flow of water in March 1948.

Dispute was finally settled when an agreement called Indus Basin treaty. The treaty was signed between Ayub Khan the president of Pakistan and Nehru the Indian Prime Minister on September 19, 1962. According to that agreement India was allocated the use of two Eastern Rivers namely Ravi and Sutlej whereas three western Rivers Indus, Jehlum and Canab were given to Pakistan. To overcome the shortage of water World Bank, India and other friendly countries provided Pakistan financial assistance to construct two dams, five barrages and seven link canals.

5. DIVISION OF ASSETS:

Military Assets:

It was announced on July I, 1947 that Indian army assets would also be divided in ratio 65 to 35 in India's favour it was with reference of the communal balance present in the British Indian Army. Field Martial Auchinleck was appointed as incharge of the distribution of military assets. Whatever Pakistan received was nothing but scrap and out of order machines, broken weapons, unserviceable artillery and aircraft. There were 16 ordnance factories and all were located in India. Pakistan was given 60 million rupees towards its share in the ordnance factories. Later an ordnance factory was established in Wah. Pakistan received six Armour divisions to India's fourteen, eight artillery divisions to India's forty and eight infantry divisions to India's twenty one. Pakistan also received Staff College in Quetta and Service Corps College at Kakul, which latter became the Pakistan military Academy.

Division of financial assets:

At the time of division there was cash balance of 4 billion rupees in the reserve Bank of India Pakistan was to get 750 million however after the protest of Pakistan, India agreed to pay 200 million rupees. As the war between India and Pakistan had started on the issue of Kashmir India again stopped the rest of the amount by saying that Pakistan could use it to buy arms. After the protest from Pakistan and the threat of hunger strike by Gandhi, Nehru was forced to pay another 500 million rupees. However the remaining 50 million rupees are still not paid.

6. ISSUE OF NATIONAL LANGUAGE:


Immediately after the establishment of Pakistan language controversy was started between East and West Pakistan when the members of the Constituent Assembly belonged to East Pakistan demanded that instead of Urdu, Bengali should be made national language of Pakistan. Liaqat Ali Khan then the Prime Minister of Pakistan refused to accept the demand, which created resentment among East Pakistan. Refusal of the demand ultimately transformed into a political movement. In March 1948 while addressing at Dhaka, Quaid-e-Azam declared, “Urdu and Urdu alone would be the national language of Pakistan". Advice of Quaid-e-Azam temporarily took the heart out of language movement but the issue was not settled. It exploded latter after the death of Quaid-e-Azam.

7. ISSUE OF PAKHTOONISTAN:

At the time of partition N.W.F.P was controlled by the "red shirts" the ally of Congress. The Khan Brothers, Dr Khan Sahib and Abdul Ghaffar Khan, were their leaders. Despite the 1947 referendum in which the people of the region voted to join Pakistan, the leaders of the" red shirts" demanded union with Afghanistan or complete regional autonomy. The Afghan Government also supported the issue by saying that the "Pakhtoons" or pathans living in both Afghanistan and Pakistan belong to the same race and the "Pakhtoons" of Pakistan wanted to be the part of the union with Afghanistan called "Pakhtoonistan".

8. DEATH OF QUAID-E-AZAM:


Despite of all the problems, Pakistan continued to march under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. Nobody can deny that in the early year predominant leadership of Quaid-e-Azam was a source of strength for Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam died on 11th September 1948. After the death of Quaid-e-Azam though there were great leaders too, but unfortunately none of them was of the caliber of Quaid-e-Azam.
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THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE QUAID-E-AZAM

Jinnah played an important role in establishing the new country in the world community. He lived only for a year after the creation of Pakistan but even then he did what an ordinary man can not achieve in whole life. In August 1947 few people expected Pakistan to survive as an independent nation and many Indian Politicians actually worked to make that survival even more difficult. Yet Thanks to his unflagging efforts Pakistan not only survived, but prospered.

JINNAH AS A LEADER:

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah Held the post of Governor General. This Was intended to be a ceremonial position with few duties. The Governor-General was to be a figurehead acting as an inspiration to nation. The Quaid-e-Azam, however, took the role of chief executive in the new government. He chaired cabinet meetings and was the president of the constituent assembly. Jinnah struggled hard for establishing Pakistan on sound footing in all respect. He proved to the world that he is a real leader who has shown guidance to million Muslims of subcontinent.

BUILDING AND STRENGTHENING THE NATION:

The Quaid immediately set about dealing with those problems that Pakistan Faced after partition.

1. He stressed the need for everyone in Pakistan to work together to creat the nation. He said people should not think of themselves as fpr example, Punjabi, or Bengali. Instead they should think, feel and act as Pakistanis and be proud of it. He toured all the areas of Pakistan to get across the message that “Everyone of us should think feel and act as a Pakistani and we should be proud of being Pakistani alone”.

2. Quaid-e-Azam was as opposed to religious intolerance as he was to provincialism and racialism. Even after the movement of refugees Pakistan had millions of non Muslims and India had millions of Muslims. The Quaid called himself the “PROTECTOR GENERAL” of religious minorities and his advice was often sought by the non-Muslims. He was determined that Pakistan should be seen as a land of tolerance and said that Islamic ideas about justice and equality demanded that any non Muslims who chose to remain in Pakistan should be treated fairly, not prosecuted.

3. To help the newly arrived refugees he set up a relief fund to rehabilitate them as quickly as possible. The people were quick to response with donation in cash and kind.

4. To emphasize rule of Pakistan in the world community, the Quaid secured the membership of the country into the United Nations organization (UNO) in September 1947. This helped it gain recognition and support among the other nation of the world.

BUILDING A GOVERNMENT:

The Quaid-e-Azam knew that there was a great deal of work to be done in establishing a governmental and administrative framework for Pakistan. No Problem Could be solved Unless the country had an administration that could take decisions about the problem and make sure that those decisions were carried out.

1. Liaqat Ali Khan was appointed Prime Minister, and a cabinet was formed. A Constituent Assembly was set up. One of its tasks was to begin framing constitution for the new Pakistan.

2. Karachi became the capital of Pakistan and the central secretariat was set up to run the country. Those people with government experience who chose to move from India to Pakistan were brought to Karachi on special trains and airplanes.

3. The civil services were recognized. In order to run the administration smoothly the civil service rules were drafted.

4. The Quaid was determined that government officials should have the right attitude to their work. He informed them that they had to remember that they were the servants of the people, not the rulers of the country. It was therefore essential that they worked with national spirit. This was particularly important because the officials found that they had no office equipment, no furniture, and very little stationery. For many years the Pakistani civil service worked under extremely difficult conditions.

Building an Economy:

1. As Pakistan was denied its full share of the wealth of the old british India and their was much work to do in converting Pakistan from an almost completely agricultural country to one with the degree of industrial development. An important step on this path came 1st July 1948 when the Quaid established the State bank of Pakistan, to help develop the economy.

2. In 1948 Jinnah’s Industrial policy statement made it clear that he, and the government, saw that it was important to set up industries in Pakistan, as quickly as possible.

3. The Quaid also reached a compromise with India in the Canal Water Dispute which ensured that Pakistan’s agriculture would not be denied precious water supplies. He also helped persuade the Indian government to hand over the agreed share of financial asserts from pre-partition India.

ESTABLISHING NATIONAL SECURITY:

Although Pakistan had been given poor military equipment and it lacked senior cadre officer for the army, the Quaid worked to ensure that the new country was able to defend itself.

1. The Pakistan Army needed more officer and the gaps were filled by offering temporary commissions and using British officers. He was determined that the army should know that its role was to be ‘the servant of people’ and warned it that ‘you do not make national policy’. The Quaid did not want to see Pakistan become a military dictatorship.

2. Although Pakistan’s Army was ill equipped, the Quaid was not afraid to use it, and the army saw its first action in Kashmir. Despite being outnumbered and having inferior arms and ammunition, it stood up well and held its own in fighting.

CONCLUSION:

The Quaid died on 11 September 1948. Despite his failing health he had worked tirelessly to establish his new country. By the time of his death a new government and administration had been taken to unite the diverse people into single ‘Pakistani’ nation and the steps made in developing Pakistan’s economy. Equally significant was that by the end of 1948 the first fighting had taken place against troops from Pakistan’s great rival, India. As the English newspaper, the times wrote shortly after his death: ‘No succeeding Governor General can quite fill his place as FATHER OF NATION’ such was the greatness of Quaid.

HAD THERE BEEN NO QUAID, THERE WOULD HAVE BRRN NO PAKISTAN:
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CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES

Constitution is a set of basic principles and framework for governance and exercise of political power and legal authority. It clarifies the scope of power, relationship among various institutions within the government and society. It has precedence over ordinary laws and cannot be changed like ordinary laws. The Government of India Act (1935) was modified and promulgated in the newly state of Pakistan. The elected members in the 1946 elections made the first Constituent Assembly that faced grievous circumstances.

Major Issues

The major issues, the first constituent assembly faced, were about:
1. Federalism
2. Representation
3. Separate or Joint Electorate
4. The National Language Issue
5. Parliamentary or Presidential system
6. The Islamic or Secular State

1. Federalism

There was consensus on federalism but yet there were many issues to be setled. The main was that Pakistan consisted of two territorial parts, East Pakistan (with more population, less territory but administratively one unit) and West Pakistan (administratively 4 units). Federalism is meant to accommodate such kind of diversity maintaining the unity of the state or country.

2. Division of power:

It was the most difficult question that how the power would be divided between Centre and the Provinces. The heritage of British rule gave the tradition of a Strong Centre. But the provinces were demanding more Autonomy and Provincial Rights.
In the Interim Constitution and the 1956 Constitution tradition of strong centre continued.

3. Representation

Representation at the federal level was another conflicting issue because East Pakistan and West Pakistan were different in population and size. On the other hand there was diversity in Western part of Pakistan. The provinces of West Pakistan were also different in population and size. Al of them were sensitive to their representation and provincial autonomy.

To have a Standard Formula for the representation of units and population the Constituent Assembly (CA) formed a Basic Principle Commitee (BPC) on March 12, 1949. The primary task of this commitee was to frame a set of basic principles for the future constitution of Pakistan.

a. First BPC Report:
This commitee presented its first report on 28th September 1950. According to this report two houses of the parliament were proposed. The lower house was to be elected on the basis of POPULATION and the upper house was to be elected on the basis of equal representation for al the provinces of Pakistan namely East Bengal, West Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan. Equal powers were proposed for the both Houses. No mention of National Language was made. East Bengal opposed this report and Liaqat Ali Khan withdrew it.

b. Second BPC Report:
BPC presented its final report on 22nd December 1952. According to this report two Houses of the Parliament wil enjoy the equal status and powers. It proposed equal representation to East and West wing.
This report also faced reaction in both the wings of Pakistan. The principle of parity was not appreciated in both East Pakistan and Punjab.

c. Muhammad Ali Bogra Formula:
Muhammad Ali Bogra immediately after assuming the office of the Prime Minister presented a formula to resolve the deadlock in constitution making. According to this formula Pakistan would have a bicameral legislature. In upper house there would be EQUAL representation to each of five units. In lower house population wil be represented. In this way more representation was given to East Pakistan.

Both wings would have equal strength in joint sessions of the two houses.

:: Reaction to Bogra Formula
It was welcomed in both parts of the country. The principle of parity and representation of the population was appreciated. It also solved the problem of national language by suggesting Urdu and Bengali both as national language.

:: One Unit of West Pakistan October 1955
One Unit of West Pakistan was established on 14th October 1955. The provinces of Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan would be amalgamated in one unit to establish parity between the two parts of the country.
4. Separate or Joint Electorate
Separate electorate was adopted on the demand of Muslims in 1909 by the British Government. But the minorities did not favour this after independence. Religious elements supported this as a part of heritage.
East: decided for Joint Electorate.
West: Separate electorate.
1957: Joint Electorate was adopted for al Pakistan by the National Assembly.

5. The National Language Issue

Pre-independence: Muslim elite al over India adopted Urdu. In 1948 Jinnah declared that Urdu would be the national language but provinces could use their languages.

Opposition against Urdu was there in East Bengal. This became more pronounced after the death of Jinnah as controversies erupted on constitution making. Language Movement started in East Pakistan February, 1952.
There was a complaint about anti Bengali language atitude of the federal government. Two-language formula was adopted in 1954. Since 1973 Urdu was adopted as national language along with the support for development of regional languages.

6. Parliamentary or Presidential

There was a consensus for parliamentary system. But there was a limited demand for presidential system. Supporters of Presidential system became dominant after the 1958 military takeover. The 1962 Constitution was a Presidential constitution.

6: The Islamic or Secular State

From the very beginning of Pakistan Movement there was an agreement that the state wil have close relationship with Islam. Muslims defined their national identity with reference to Islam and its heritage. Some opposition came from the Congress members of the Constituent Assembly, and a few secularists.
There was a BROAD AGREEMENT that the state wil identify itself with Islam. The Constituent Assembly took time to define the precise relationship between the state and Islam.


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CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES

Constitution is a set of basic principles and framework for governance and exercise of political power and legal authority. It clarifies the scope of power, relationship among various institutions within the government and society. It has precedence over ordinary laws and cannot be changed like ordinary laws. The Government of India Act (1935) was modified and promulgated in the newly state of Pakistan. The elected members in the 1946 elections made the first Constituent Assembly that faced grievous circumstances.

Major Issues

The major issues, the first constituent assembly faced, were about:
1. Federalism
2. Representation
3. Separate or Joint Electorate
4. The National Language Issue
5. Parliamentary or Presidential system
6. The Islamic or Secular State

1. Federalism

There was consensus on federalism but yet there were many issues to be setled. The main was that Pakistan consisted of two territorial parts, East Pakistan (with more population, less territory but administratively one unit) and West Pakistan (administratively 4 units). Federalism is meant to accommodate such kind of diversity maintaining the unity of the state or country.

2. Division of power:

It was the most difficult question that how the power would be divided between Centre and the Provinces. The heritage of British rule gave the tradition of a Strong Centre. But the provinces were demanding more Autonomy and Provincial Rights.
In the Interim Constitution and the 1956 Constitution tradition of strong centre continued.

3. Representation

Representation at the federal level was another conflicting issue because East Pakistan and West Pakistan were different in population and size. On the other hand there was diversity in Western part of Pakistan. The provinces of West Pakistan were also different in population and size. Al of them were sensitive to their representation and provincial autonomy.

To have a Standard Formula for the representation of units and population the Constituent Assembly (CA) formed a Basic Principle Commitee (BPC) on March 12, 1949. The primary task of this commitee was to frame a set of basic principles for the future constitution of Pakistan.

a. First BPC Report:
This commitee presented its first report on 28th September 1950. According to this report two houses of the parliament were proposed. The lower house was to be elected on the basis of POPULATION and the upper house was to be elected on the basis of equal representation for al the provinces of Pakistan namely East Bengal, West Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan. Equal powers were proposed for the both Houses. No mention of National Language was made. East Bengal opposed this report and Liaqat Ali Khan withdrew it.

b. Second BPC Report:
BPC presented its final report on 22nd December 1952. According to this report two Houses of the Parliament wil enjoy the equal status and powers. It proposed equal representation to East and West wing.
This report also faced reaction in both the wings of Pakistan. The principle of parity was not appreciated in both East Pakistan and Punjab.

c. Muhammad Ali Bogra Formula:
Muhammad Ali Bogra immediately after assuming the office of the Prime Minister presented a formula to resolve the deadlock in constitution making. According to this formula Pakistan would have a bicameral legislature. In upper house there would be EQUAL representation to each of five units. In lower house population wil be represented. In this way more representation was given to East Pakistan.

Both wings would have equal strength in joint sessions of the two houses.

:: Reaction to Bogra Formula
It was welcomed in both parts of the country. The principle of parity and representation of the population was appreciated. It also solved the problem of national language by suggesting Urdu and Bengali both as national language.

:: One Unit of West Pakistan October 1955
One Unit of West Pakistan was established on 14th October 1955. The provinces of Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan would be amalgamated in one unit to establish parity between the two parts of the country.

4. Separate or Joint Electorate

Separate electorate was adopted on the demand of Muslims in 1909 by the British Government. But the minorities did not favour this after independence. Religious elements supported this as a part of heritage.
East: decided for Joint Electorate.
West: Separate electorate.
1957: Joint Electorate was adopted for al Pakistan by the National Assembly.

5. The National Language Issue

Pre-independence: Muslim elite al over India adopted Urdu. In 1948 Jinnah declared that Urdu would be the national language but provinces could use their languages.

Opposition against Urdu was there in East Bengal. This became more pronounced after the death of Jinnah as controversies erupted on constitution making. Language Movement started in East Pakistan February, 1952.
There was a complaint about anti Bengali language atitude of the federal government. Two-language formula was adopted in 1954. Since 1973 Urdu was adopted as national language along with the support for development of regional languages.

6. Parliamentary or Presidential

There was a consensus for parliamentary system. But there was a limited demand for presidential system. Supporters of Presidential system became dominant after the 1958 military takeover. The 1962 Constitution was a Presidential constitution.

6: The Islamic or Secular State

From the very beginning of Pakistan Movement there was an agreement that the state wil have close relationship with Islam. Muslims defined their national identity with reference to Islam and its heritage. Some opposition came from the Congress members of the Constituent Assembly, and a few secularists.
There was a BROAD AGREEMENT that the state wil identify itself with Islam. The Constituent Assembly took time to define the precise relationship between the state and Islam.


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CONSTITUTION MAKING (1 947-56)


Constitution is a basic document in the handling of domestic affairs. It sets out the framework for governance and exercise of power. It gives guiding lines of relationships among the federating units. Law making is always within its limits.

The modified Government of India Act (1935) became the Interim Constitution of Pakistan in 1947. The Constituent Assembly (CA) was given the task of framing the Constitution. The first meeting of the CA was held on August 11, 1947 at Karachi. In the lecture 17 we have discussed the constitutional issues that the CA had to deal with, mainly 6 major issues. Now we wil discuss the stages of constitution making.

The process began with the passing of the Objectives Resolution (Lecture 16) in which the Islamic and democratic values were adopted as grounds for the future constitution. The Basic Principles Commitee (BPC) consisting of 24 members was made to work for the constitutional powers. The various sub-commitees on Federal and provincial powers, Franchise, Judiciary, and Fundamental Rights started working. Board of Talimat-i-Islamia was also set up to seek advice on the religious maters.

First BPC Report, 1950

1: The Objectives Resolution to be included in the Constitution as the directive principles.

2: Legislature: Two houses of the parliament.
Upper: (House of Units) Equal representation for the units
Lower: (House of People) On the basis of Population. Both the Houses would enjoy the equal powers.

3: The Head of State elected by joint session would be for five years (Two terms only). President had discretionary and emergency, appointment and other powers. President was not answerable to anyone, might be a Muslim or non-Muslim, would be assisted by the Prime Minister (PM) and Cabinet that would be answerable to the CA. Parliament may impeach him by 2/3 majority. He was given the power to abrogate the constitution.

4: Cabinet responsible to both the Houses.

5: No mention of national language

Criticism:

This report was severely criticized throughout the country. It could not satisfy both the wings, East and West. The religious group objected that the report contained nothing about Islamisation. On the question of representation, the East Pakistan (EP) protested that their majority had been denied by the Report. They remarked that they were thrown into a permanent minority. The population of EP was slightly larger than that of the West Pakistan (WP) but it was treated as the smal provinces because both the Houses were given equal powers. So the domination of WP was intolerable for the East wing.

The language issue proved subversive to the national solidarity. The Eastern Pakistanis condemned the proposal that made Urdu as official language.

Second BPC Report, 1952

1. Head of State would be Muslim and no change in powers.

2. Equal representation to East and West wings:
a. UH (Upper House) 60, 60 LH 200, 200

3. More powers were given to Lower House. Cabinet was made responsible to Lower House.

4. It was promised that law making would be in accordance with ISLAM. No law would be made in violation of Islamic principles.

5. Advisory Board of five Islamic scholars was founded.

6. Silent on national language.

Criticism:
The politicians particularly from the Punjab deplored the Report because formation of the UH on the basis of representation was not acceptable. It was declared against the principle of federation. The WP favoured equality only for Upper House. The political crisis removed Prime Minister Nazimuddin and atention diverted from the core issue.

Third Report: Muhammad Ali Formula October 1953

• The proposals were revised in the light of the criticism and decided:
• Upper House: Equal representation to al five units
• Lower House: More representation to Eastern part
• While in joint session, both wings had equal representation:
....................East Pak West Pak
Upper House 10 40
Lower House 165 135
-----------------------------
Joint Session 175 175
• Decision by majority but it must include 30 percent members from each zone.

Criticism:
It suggested some difficult process but mostly it was widely acceptable. Two languages, Urdu and Bengali, were approved as official languages that injured the national unity as Quaid-i-Azam had wished Urdu as national language.
This is important that after the Formula, the work began on constitution drafting because the deadlock was over.

CA Dissolution

In October 1954, GG (Governor General) dissolved the CA that was chalenged in the Sindh court by Maulvi Tamizuddin. The court declared the dissolution ilegal but the Federal Court upheld the GG action but asked for seting up an elected CA.

2nd Constituent Assembly, June-July 1955

Ghulam Muhammad caled a Convention on May 10, 1955. Al its members were to be elected indirectly (by the provincial assemblies). In this way, the 2nd CA came into existence.

One Unit Scheme, October 1955

The presence of different provinces in the WP had complicated the issue of the WP representation in the CA. It was handled by uniting al the WP units into ONE (One Unit, October 30, 1955). Now both the parts had become two units and could be addressed equaly.

Constitution-making

One Unit scheme helped the task of constitution making to accomplish successfuly. The previous commitees report helped the new Assembly that completed its work and presented in the 2nd CA on January 9, 1956. It, with certain amendments, was approved on January 29, 1956 and enforced on March 23. With this Pakistan had become an Islamic Republic.

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