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Pakistan Affairs A 100 marks paper divided into mainly two zones: Pre-Partition and Post-Partition


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Old Friday, August 23, 2013
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Default Evaluation of Muslim Society in Sub-Continent

Muslim Society in Subcontinent

* Role of Ulema in Organizing the Muslim Society

* Role of Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi

* Services rendered by Shah Wali-ullah

* Syed Ahmed Shaheed



Q.1. Discuss the role of Ulema in organizing the Muslim Society.
Role of Ulema in Organizing the Muslim Society


The Muslim scholars played a vital role in organizing the Muslim society in India. The period of rulers of Delhi comprises on the ruling period of Ghaznavids, Ghoris, Ghayasuddin Balban, Alauddin Khilji and Sadaat period. When the Muslim Society was established, the scholars from the Muslim states of Central Asia entered India in a large number. These scholars of Islam played a decisive role in making Lahore and Multan in Punjab, Deebal and Mansoora in Sindh and Ajmer and Delhi in Northern India the centers of Islamic culture and civilization in India. Qazi Abu Mohammad Mansoori, Abu Mashir Sindhi and Rija Sindhi, rendering the Islamic services, became very famous in this regard.

Sheikh Ismail, initiating preaching of Islam firs time in Punjab, played a crucial part in stabilizing Muslim society in India. Abu Hassan Lahori stressed upon the teaching of Hadiths but the history-maker was Ali Hajveri Data Ganj Buksh who was born in 1009 and died in 1070. Raziuddin Hassan Sifani was the expert of knowledge of Hadiths and his famous work Mashariqul-Anwar remained as an authority on knowledge of Hadiths for a long time. He appointed Qazi Minhajuddin Siraj as the court justice who showed absolute realism and established ever lasting examples of Islamic mode of justice. His book Tabqat-e-Nasri is also a source of fame for Minhajuddin.

The greatest literary personality of Ghayasuddin Balban period was Maulana Burhanuddin alki who wrote Mashariqul Anwar and Fiqah-e-Hidaya which became an important base for Islamic instructions in India.

Maulana Mugheesuddin Bayanvi was not only the court man of King Alauddin Khilji but was also the court justice. He defended Hindus by saying that receiving Jazia (tribute) from Hindus is not just.

The academic works were performed by Sheikh Ali Mahaimi; a follower of the Philosophy of Wahdat-ul-Wajood (i.e. God is one) include Tabseer-ur-Rehman (i.e. the interpretation of Holy Quran in Arabic) and the interpretations of famous books by Shahabuddin and Sheikh Ibn-e-Arabi. These books were included in the syllabus of religious institution.


Services of Ulema During Mughal Period

The scholars of Islam, during Mughal period, were divided into two groups, First the Scholars of Haq (rectitude) who kept themselves busy in worshiping God and the second Scholars of Soo (opportunities who interpreted religious teaching according to likings of the Kings. Emperor Akbar, for Hindus-Muslim merger, did not hesitate to marry a Hindu princess Jodha Bai who did not accept Islam to her last breath. He introduced a new religion Deen-e-Elahi in 1581. Under this new religion he declared himself the messenger of Allah on earth (i.e. Kufr)

Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Sani (1564-1624) opposed Kufr severly. Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi, who was popularly known as Mujaddid (Renovator of Islam) had traced his descent from Caliph Umar, rejected the heterodoxies of the great Mughal Emperor Akbar. He tried to influence the courtiers of Akbar and continued his tirade against the Hindus. Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi wrote a Risala (Magazine) Asbat-e-Nauwwat to oppose Deen-e-Elahi. During the period of Emperor Jahangir (1605-1627) the respect of Scholars of Islam was restored and Deen-e-Elahi was abondoned. The period of Aurangzeb Alamgir (1659-1760) was a glorious period for the establishment of and stability of Muslim society in South India. Islam nourished successfully because Aurangzeb himself was the strict follower of Shariyah. He teamed up with Sheikh Nizamuddin Burhanpuri and other scholars and produced an authentic book Fatwa-e-Alamgir compiled on Islamic Laws.

After the death of Auragzeb in 1707 Muslim society began to decline. To reinforce Islamic Society, Shah Wali Ullah (1703-1762) rendered his services and wrote many books on Fiqah and Tasawuf and translated Holy Quran in Persian. Shah Wali Ullah another Islamic mystic of the Sufi tradition of Sunnism who claimed his lineage from Quraish tribe of Prophet Mohammad and of Umar. The famous work of Shah Wali Ullah 'Tafhimaat' (i.e. the understandings) created deep influences on education and syllabus of education. Further, he invited Afghan ruler Ahmed Shah ruler Ahmed Shah Wali Ullah with the help of Ahmed Shah Abdali restored the position of Muslim society. According to Shah Wali Ullah the mark of the perfect implementation of the Sharia was the performance of Jihad. Wali Ullah's son Abdul Aziz (1746-1823) carried forward the legacy of his father and as a result India faced violent communal disorder for decades. Aziz's disciple Saiyid Ahmed of Rai Bareli under the deep influence of the jihadi spirit of the faith propounded by Wali Ullah and Sunni extremism of Maulana Wahab of Saudi Arabia launched jihad against the Non-Islamic power of the Sikh Kingdom of Ranjit Singh with a view to restore Dar-ul-Islam (A land, where Islam is having political power)

Haji Shariat Ullah (1768-1840) started his Faraizi Movement in Bengal because the Muslims started loosing the grip of Islam. Hindus started indulging Muslim towards Shirk (i.e. to claim someone equivalent to Allah). This movement spread the message that all Muslims should keep their acts confine to Shariyah and the Faraiz-e-Islam (i.e. the duties of Islam). Titu Mir (1782-1831) also started his movement in Bengal against the cruel acts of Hindus landlords against Muslim tenants.
Services of Ulema During Colonialism

The movement for Islamic fundamentalism got a severe jolt with the failure of the Sepoy mutiny in 1857, when the Muslim radicals lost all hopes to restore Islamic power in India. The Islamic clerics however, kept the movement alive through institutional Islamic movement and founded Islamic institutions like Darul-Uloom, Deoband (1866), Anjuman Himayat-e-Islam, Lahore (1884), Sind Madressah-tul-Islam, Karachi (1885), Nadwatul-Ulema, Lucknow (1898), Madressah Manzar-ul-Islam, Barely (1904), Islamia College, Peshawar (1913) and Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi (1920.

Muslim Ulemas like Maulana Mohammad Qasim, Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gungohi, Sheikh-ul-Hind Maulana Mehmood Hassan, Maulana Ubaid-ullah Sindhi, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Maulana Shabbir Ahmed Usmani, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Maulvi Charagh Ali, Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Maulvi Mehdi Ali Khan, Waqar-ul-Mulk, Maulvi Mushtaq Hussain, Altaf Hussain Hali, Maulana Shibli Naumani, Syed Suleman Nadwi, Maulana Abd-ul-Islam Nadwi, Maulana Abu-al-Hassan Ali Nadwi, Maulana Ahmed Raza Barelvi and Maulana Hamid Raza Barelvi struggled for the renaissance of Muslim Society during the period of Britain Colonalism. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan while taking inspiration Shah Wali Ullah's concept of tactical moderation of Islam formulated the two-nation theory which formed the basis for the demand for a separate Muslim land of Pakistan

Q.2. Discuss the role of Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi as a pioneer of Islamic renaissance in South Asia.
Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi (1564-1624)


Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi, commonly known as Mujaddid-e-Alf-Sani (the reformer of the second millennium), was born on 26 June, 1564, in Sirhind, a city of East Punjab. He was educated at home and was inducted into mysticism by his father, Sheikh Abdul-al-Ahad, who was himself an eminent Sufi. At the age of 36 he went to Delhi and there he met Khawaja Baqi Billah who introduced him to the Naqshbandi Silsilah. Sheikh Ahmed was not new to Sufi discipline as he had made remarkable progress and soon reached the sublime heights of experience and beatific vision. He died on 15 December, 1624, at the age of 60 years.


Mujaddid's Reforms

1. Successful Jihad against Deen-e-Elahi


During his period the Muslims in India had become so deficient in the knowledge of true Islam that they had more belief in Karamat or miracles of the saints than Islamic teachings. The Ulema and theologians of the time had ceased to refer to the Quran and Hadith in their commentaries, and considered jurispredence the only religious knowledge. Akbar, the Mughal King had started a series of experiments with Islam, propagating his own religion Deen-e-Elahi, an amalgamation of Hindu and Muslim beliefs. In these circumstances, Sheikh Ahmed set upon himself the task of purifying the Muslim society. His aim was to rid Islam of the accretions of Hindu Pantheism. However the Mujaddid succeeded in his efforts at last and Jahangir cancelled all those orders of his father which were against the spirit of Islam and thus Deen-e-Elahi came to an ignoble end.


2. Refusal to prostrate before Jahangir

As soon as Akbar died and Jahangir ascended the throne, Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi came out to reform and to do away with all Un-Islamic practices and beliefs initiated by Akbar among the Muslims. Sheikh Ahmed Sarhindi never entered into any political conflict directly. He wrote letters to all the nobles' of Jahangir's court. Most of them were the same who were present in Akbar's court. The opponents of Sheikh also came out and he was dubbed as an atheist by them. So Sheikh was summoned to the court of Jahangir ans was asked to bend down. He was so rigid in his approach towards Islam that he did not bend before the emperor as per the prevalent custom. His plea that bending down before anyone except Allah was un-Islamic annoyed Jahangir, who ordered for his imprisonment in the Fort of Gawaliar for two years due to his discourteous behaviour.


3. Preaching of Islam during the Imprisonment in Gawaliar's Fort

Hazrat Mujaddid continued preaching of Islam during the imprisonment in the Fort of Gawaliar. Due to his efforts thousands Non-Muslims accepted Islam. After a year however, Jahangir under the influence of his Islamic writings released him from jail and offered huge gifts to him. The king befriended and respected the Sheikh. He listened to his advices. After Maghrib prayers the king would grant him special audience where Sheikh would talk about religious affairs to Jahangir. He asked his son Shah Jahan to become a spiritual disciple of the Sheikh.


4. Wahdat-al-Shuhud

The philosophy of Wahdat-al-wujud was presented by some Sufis of Akbar's time. They believed that the entire universe is the symbol of Almighty God and a source of revelation of God's sovereignty. He vehemently opposed the Sufi doctrine of Wahdat-al-Wujud which maintained, that real Being is Allah and we are all His manifestations. This approach resulted in bringing about greater unity among people of different religion, race and tribe.

He was highly critical of the philosophy of Wahdat-al-Wujud, against which he gave his philosophy of Wahdat-al-Shuhud. Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi preached the doctrine of what he called Wahdat-al-Shuhud i.e. unity of witnessing. Thus he maintained that we are not manifestation of One Being but it is only an appearance, not reality. The implications of the doctrine of Wahdat-al-Shuhud were quite grave as it emphasizes superiority of people of one religion on the other and for that reason that religion should be kept pure and divested of all other influences.


5. Maktubat-e-Imam Rabbani

Shiekh Ahmed adopted an effective method of persuasion by writing letters to the leading nobles of the royal court. His letters are known as Maktubat-e-Imam Rabbani. Through preaching, discussions and his maktubat addressed to important nobles and leaders of religious thought, he spread his message amongst the elite in particular. Letters and messages were sent to them exhorting to serve the cause of Islam. He also requested the scholars to show the right path to the people, and the King. He asked the saints to give up their Un-Islamic practices and beliefs.


6. Books and Magazines (Risala)

Rejecting the heterodoxies of the great Mughal Emperior Akbar, this eminent Islamic mystic of this time and a hardcore Sunni Muslim strongly refuted the shia point of view in his writing entitled Risala Tahliliyya and made a major contribution towards rehabilitation of orthodox Islam in India.

He wrote many books, including his famous works, Isbat-ul-Nabat and Risal-i-Nabuwat. In these works the need and importance of prophethood was described. His greatest work on Islamic philosophy was the Tauheed-i-Shuhudi. Sheikh Ahmed continued preaching Islam till the end of his days. He urged peopled to adhere to the accepted and clearly laid down path of Islam.


7. Two Nation Theory

Mujaddid Alif Sani cleared on the Muslims that they were the separate nation from Hindus and nothing was common in them. Therefore, the Muslim should keep themselves distinct from Hindus with reference to food, dress, social custom and way of life. With this declaration, he founded the first stone of Two Nation Theory in Indo-Pak subcontinent which led to the success of Pakistan Movement and establishment of Pakistan. That's why Hazrat Mujaddid was rightly called First Founder of Pakistan.


Conclusion

The efforts of Sheikh Ahmed to purify the religious and practical life of the Muslims left an indelible impact on the history of Muslim India. Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Sani was the most powerful religious personality in the history of sub-continent who opposed Akbar and thereby invited his wrath. He was a widely read scholar and a magnetic orator. He got an opportunity in a liberal atmosphere in Jahangir's reign to use his powerful pen to denounce Akbar's religious innovations. He is considered as a pioneer of Muslim self-assertion by denouncing Un-Islamic practices

Q.3. Enumerate the services rendered by Shah Wali-ullah, to the cause of Muslim community of Indo-Pak subcontinent.
Services rendered by Shah Wali-Ullah (1703-62)


Shah Wali-Ullah was a great Muslim saint of the 18th century. His real name was Qutbud-Din Ahmed. He was born to a noble learned family of Delhi on 21st February 1703. His father Shah Abdur-Rahim was a renowned scholar of that period. Shah Wali-Ullah showed great promise at an early age. By the age of fifteen he had completed the learning of Holy Quran, Hadith and Fiqh. Then after the death of his father in 1719 he started delivering lectures in Madressah Rahimyah at the age of seventeen. Then in 1730 he performed Hajj again. In 1733 he returned to Delhi and took over the charge of Madressah Rahimyah. There he wrote many books and rendered many political, religious and national services. He died in 1762. The contributions of Shah Wali-Ullah can be summarized as under:

1. Religious Services
Shah Wali-Ullah rendered many religious services. He completed the translation of Holy Quran in Persian in 1738. Later on his sons Shah Rafi-ud-Din and Shah Abdul Qadir translated the Holy Quran in Urdu. Moreover Shah Wali-Ullah termed the Hadith collection by Imam Muttah as the most authentic and wrote its commentary in Arabic and Persian. Shah Wali-Ullah also arranged the Hadith in respect of their topics. In addition he worked for the renaissance of Islam. He propagated that Islam was a universal power and thus the Muslims should be the dominant force in the Sub-Continent and elsewhere.
Shah Wali-Ullah trained students in different branches of Islamic knowledge and entrusted them with the teaching of students. He recommended the application of Ijtihad against blind Taqlid in his famous work Aqad-al-jaiyad-fi-Ahkam-al-Ijtihad wa-al-Taqlid.
He studied the writings of each school-of-thought to understand their point of view, and then wrote comprehensive volumes about what is fair and just in light of the teachings of Islam. He adopted an analytical and balanced approach towards four major school-of-thought of mysticism. In order to create a balance betweeen the four schools i.e. Hanafi, Malaki, Shafii, Hambali he wrote Al-Insaf-fi-bayan-sabab-al-Ikhtilaf. He worked out a system of thought, beliefs, and values, on which all but the extremists could agree. He thus provided a spiritual basis or national cohension.

2. Political Services
Shah Wali-Ullah possessed a deep political insight. He tried to trace the causes of the decline of Mughal Empire. In the middle of the 18th century Marathas had become a great political power. They were threatening to occupy the crown of Delhi. At this critical juncture Shah Wali-Ullah in order to check their advance prepared Najid-ullah (Rohilla Chief) and Shuja-ud-Daulah (Nawab of Oudh) for Jihad. Moreover he wrote a letter to Ahmed Shah Abdali. King of Afghanistan requesting him to save the Muslims from the highhanded-less of the Marathas. Consequently in the Third Battle of Panipat, Ahmed Shah Abdali inflicted a crushing defeat on the Marathas. In short, the Muslim Renaissance Movement launched by Shah Wali-Ullah was the forerunner of all the future freedom movements of Indo-Pakistan. Maulana Mohammad Qasim Nanotvi founder of Madressah Deoband and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan were among his followers. Later on his son Shah Abdul Aziz founded the Jihad Movement which was carried forward by Syed Ahmed Shaheed.
In his time Shias and Sunnis were aggressively hostile to each other and their rivalry was damaging the Muslim unity. Shah Sahab wrote Izalat-al-Akhifa and Khilafat-al-Khulafa in order to remove misunderstanding between Shias and Sunnis. He refused to denounce Shias as heretics.
After Mujaddid Alf Sani, Shah Wali-Ullah worked for unity of Muslims and to develop separate National identify. He created separate national identity among Muslims and convinced them to fight for their rights. Shah Sahib rejected Combine Unity and ensured Religion as only identification of Muslims. The religio-political ideology of Waliullah made a permanent crack in Hindu-Muslim relation in this sub-continent, which undermined the self-pride and dignity of integrated Indian society.

3. Social Services
Shah Wali-Ullah was strongly opposed to integration of Islamic culture in the cultural cauldron of the sub-continent and wanted the Muslims to ensure their distance from it. Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi writes in The Muslim Community of Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, "Waliullah did not want the Muslims to become part of the general milieu of the sub-continent. He wanted them to keep alive their relation with rest of the Muslim world so that the spring of their inspiration and ideals might ever remain located in Islam and tradition of world community developed by it." In his opinion, the health of Muslim society demanded that doctrines and values inculcated by Islam should be maintained in their pristine purity unsullied by extraneous influences.
Shah Wali-Ullah directed his teachings towards reorienting the Muslim society with the concepts of basic social justice, removing social inequalities, and balancing the iniquitous distribution of wealth. He established several branches of his school at Delhi for effective dissemination of his ideas. In his book "Hujjat-ullah-il-Balighah", he pinpointed the causes of chaos and disintegration of Muslim society. These were
1. Pressure on public treasury, the emoluments given to various people who render no service to the state.
2. Heavy taxation on peasants, merchants and workers, with the result that tax evasion was rampant. According to Shah Wali-Ullah, a state can prosper only if there were light and reasonable taxes.


Conclusion

Shah Wali-Ullah was responsible for awakening in the community the desire to win back its moral fervor and maintain its purity. To rescue a community's conscience, belief and faith from destruction was no small achievement. Even after his death in 1762, his sons and followers carried on his work and noble mission. Many future Islamic leaders and thinkers were inspired by his example.
In short the Muslim Renaissance Movement launched by Shah Wali-Ullah was the forerunner of all the future freedom movements of Indo-Pakistan. Maulana Mohammad Qasim Nanotvi founder of Madressah Deoband and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan were among his followers. Later on his son Shah Abdul Aziz founded the Jihad Movement which was carried forward by Syed Ahmed Shaheed

Syed Ahmed Shaheed (1786-1831)

Syed Ahmed Shaheed was born at Rai Barailly in November 1786. His father Shah Ilm-Ullah was pious religious scholar. He was a well built young man and took interest in manly sports. He was inspired spiritually by Shah Abdul Aziz. In 1810 he joined the army of Nawab Ameer Khan of Tonak in order to take part in Jihad against the British. He fought against the English forces and displayed his skill in the art of fighting. Syed Ahmed Shaheed was an outstanding orator. His religious and political sermons won him many companions which included Shah Ismail and Shah Abdul Haye. In the first half of the nineteenth century Punjab was under the rule of Sikhs who were very cruel to the Muslims. They were showing disregard to the Muslim culture, customs and religious places. On hearing about these brutalities Syed Ahmed Shaheed decided to launch Jihad against the Sikhs. For this purpose he founded Jihad Movement. The Muslims of Indo-Pakistan responded to his call and thousands of Muslims got themselves enrolled in the Jihad Movement. Syed Ahmed Shaheed decided to launch Jihad from North West Frontier region of the country. Thus on 17th January 1826 he started his journey along with thousands of Mujahideens. He reached Sindh via Gwalior, Tonak, Ajmer and Marwar. Then he went to Afghanistan through Balochistan. From Afghanistan he arrived at Nowshera after nine months journey.


Battles Against Sikhs

On his arrival in the Frontier province the warriors of Yousaf Zai tribe, followers of Pir Syed Akbar Shah and the local Muslims joined the Jihad Movement. Syed Ahmed Shaheed declared war against Sikhs. Ranjid Singh the Sikh ruler of Punjab sent Budh Singh at the head of ten thousand soldiers to meet the challenge of the Mujahideens. On 21st December 1826 a strong contingent of Mujahideens attacked the Sikh army at night. As a result thousands of Sikh soldiers were killed and Budh Singh had to retreat with heavy losses. Later on after several skirmishes the sikh army was defeated in the battle of Hazru. After these successes Syed Ahmed Shaheed decided to organize the local administration. He established an Islamic state in the area and announced his caliphate on January 11, 1827. These victories and successes of Mujahideens disturbed Ranjit Sikh very much. He decided to weaken the Mujahideens through diplomacy. He reached Peshawar and won the sympathies of two local chiefs Yar Mohammad Khan and Sultan Mohammad Khan by pointing them the ruler of Peshawar. Thus the Muslims were divided into two camps. However Syed Ahmed Shaheed succeeded in conquering Peshawar in November 1830. Through mistake Syed Ahmed Khan appointed Sultan Mohammad Khan the ruler of Peshawar. Unfortunately Sultan Mohammad turned a trailer and hatched a conspiracy against Syed Ahmed Shaheed. Thousands of Mujahideens were murdered treacherously at Peshawar and other places. In the meantime Sikh army under Sher Singh advanced against the Mujahideen. Syed Ahmed Shaheed gathered ail of his forces and encamped at Balakot which was a very secure place. Sardar Sher Singh too arrived at Balakot at the head of 20 thousands soldiers. The Sikh army besieged the area. The famous battle of Balakot was fought on 6th May 1831. The Sikhs emerged victorious. Almost all the Mujahideens including Syed Ahmed Shaheed were martyred.


Failures of Jihad Movement

The center and aim of life of Syed Ahmed Shaheed was Jihad which due to reasons became a failure. The main causes of the failure can be listed as under:

1. Ranjeet Singh acquired the military services of the Western generals Ventura and Elite who imparted training upon the soldiers of Ranjeet Army and the battle was also fought with the modern war weapons from the side of Ranjeet Singh. Mujahideen on the other side was ignorant of War Strategy.
2. In the combat which took place between Ranjeet Singh and Mujahideen army of Ranjeet Singh used modern Mujahideen depended on out dated and all weapon. The old weapon could not face the modern weapon.
3. They were ample financial sources with Ranjeet Singh but Mujahideen were facing the lack of financial resources.
4. Ranjeet Singh was aware of the fact that so long there unity of thought and action in amongst Mujahideen, it was not possible to defeat them. Therefore, he infiltrated his agents among Mujahideen who created misunderstanding amongst them.
5. Ranjeet Singh exploiting the human weakness, attracted pathans by bribing luring and sometimes pressurizing who committed spying, revolt, dissimulation and slaughtered Mujahideen.
6. According to Islamic System and in the following of Sunnat-e-Rasul (P.B.U.H), Syed Ahmed after establishing Islamic rule collected Zakat (Islamic tax) from the rich Muslims but he could not arrange the proper distribution of Zakat amongst the needy poor people. Consequently, the lower class (majority of the masses) became the victim of pessimism, depravity and the sense of inferiority. The poverty suffering class. In this way refused to accept Islamic system and started the move against this government.
7. Syed Ahmed Shaheed, dominated by feelings of reformation, wanted to implement the Islamic laws even during the period of war. For instance, compulsory marriage of girl and widows. The sentiments of pathans, in the manner, injured and they started to kill the government officials in nights.
8. Jihad Movement failed also due the reasons that the Syed's government punished people severely even on every minor mistake. For instance, lashing punishment to the liar woman and people who were not offering namaz. These were not Islamic punishments.
9. Some points in Jihad Movement resembled with the Wahabi Movement while pathans were against of Wahabi Movement.
Jihad Movement, no doubt failed but this movement played a decisive role in creating and establishing an Islamic State (Pakistan) in future because this movement created unity of thought and act amongst the Muslims of Indo-Pakistan subcontinent.


Conclusion

Although Syed Ahmed Shaheed failed to finish Sikh rule in Punjab yet his Jihad Movement Kindled a flame of freedom in the Sub-Continent. The Pathans of the Frontier province were greatly inspired by the valiant deeds of the Mujahideens, The tribesmen continued the Jihad for freedom against the British. Similarly the Mujahideen spread the spirit of Jihad throughout the length and breadth of Sub-Continent. The spirit of freedom led to the war of independence in 1857. In addition the Jihad Movement imbibed in the Muslims the spirit of Islamic nationalism which ultimately led to the Two Nation Theory and establishment of Pakistan.
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