Suicide (French: Le Suicide) was one of the groundbreaking books in the field of sociology. Written by French sociologist Émile Durkheim and published in 1897
Egoistic suicide reflects a prolonged sense of not belonging, of not being integrated in a community
Altruistic suicide: is characterized by a sense of being overwhelmed by a group's goals and beliefs. 
Anomic suicide: reflects an individual's moral confusion and lack of social direction, which is related to dramatic social and economic upheaval. 
Fatalistic suicide: the opposite of anomic suicide, when a person is excessively regulated, when their futures are pitilessly blocked and passions violently choked by oppressive discipline
Functionalism addresses society as a whole in terms of the function of its constituent elements; namely norms, customs, traditions and institutions.
functionalism reached its crescendo in the 1940s and 1950s, and by the 1960s was in rapid decline. By the 1980s, its place was taken in Europe by more conflict-oriented approaches, and more recently by 'structuralism'.
Conflict theories are perspectives in social science which emphasize the social, political or material inequality of a social group, which critique the broad socio-political system, or which otherwise detract from structural functionalism and ideological conservativism.
C. Wright Mills has been called the founder of modern conflict theory.
Middle range theory, developed by Robert K. Merton
Structuralism is an intellectual movement that developed in France in the 1950s and 1960s, in which human culture is analysed semiotically (i.e., as a system of signs).
Book “Principles of Sociology” (1874-96) by Herbert Spencer
social mobility refers to the degree to which an individual or group's status is able to change in terms of position in the social hierarchy.
Ibn Khaldun (ĭ`bən khäld n`), 1332–1406, Arab historian, b. Tunis.
Paul Lazarsfeld has been called the "founder of modern empirical sociology".
“Class and class conflict” is written by German, Ralf Dahrendorf.