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Old Sunday, November 08, 2009
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Wink Art and Architecture Under Delhi Sultanate

Just trying to write it, to retain it and hope will benefit you guys.

Art & Architecture Under Delhi Sultanate


Delhi sultanate was not behind in any category to ameliorates the conditions of indo-pak. They build numerous mosques and tombs, bath and gardens, bridges and canals; in Syrian, Egyptian and Iranian styles. The mixture of this style is well known as Indo-Islamic architecture.

Delhi sultanate ruled by different dynasties and they performed numerous work which can be recognized and evaluate under the following dynasties.

Slave Dynasty:

Qutbuddin Aibek was patron of art and architecture, But unfortunately he could survive long to show the wonders of world, but still some of them still remaining, One of the most prominent is "Qutib Minar" started by Qutbudin Aibek but completed by his successor Shamsuddin Iltutmish. Aibek also erected Qubbat-Ul-Islam mosque at delhi, which is wonder in itself.

However, His successor was also not left behind in this race of architecture, he build wonderful Jama-i-Masjid at Delhi in 1223.

Khalji Dynasty:

Muhammad Bin Tujluq and Feroz Shah Tughlaq both erected the mountains of architecture during their regime under Delhi sultanate. Jamaat Khanah Masjid at Dargah of Shiekh Nizamuddin Aulia and Alai Darwaza at Qutib Minar are the most precious jewel of Delhi sultanate. Begumpuri Masjid build by Muhammad bin Tughlaq. furthermore Feroz shah built stunning more than 300 cities under his sultanate i.e ferozabad, fatehabad etc. His cheif architect was Ghazi Malik who put his khaliji and turkish style in his architecture.

Syed and Lodhi Dynasty:

Syed and Lodhi was also not left in the race of architecture. They also erected many beautiful and eye catching mosques, mausoleums and tombs.
The sath gumbaj mosque is wonder of wonders, its name defines the it is masjid of 60 domes, but it contains total 77 domes in Sath Gumbaj Masjid,It is built in bengal. Jam-i-Masjid at Ahmedabad in 1311 is also a eye catching building. which is supported on 200 pillars.

Hushand Shah's Tomb is the most prominent work of loddhies dynasty, it is tomb which is built on by only white marbles. furthermore, Lal darwaza mosque and jam-i-mashid was build bt Hussian shah at Malwa.

In pakistan they also erected some wonders like Sat Gumbaj Mosque and the tomb of Khan Jehan Ali at "Khulna" by Skindar Shah. Chota Sona and Bara Sona Masjid build at Bengal, that further enhances the beauty of bengal.

Conclusion:

In brief, the rulers of Delhi sultanate were serious architecture their invested they talent to erect buildings, mosque, tombs and mausoleums to remain for ever. they showed their love to architecture by applying different styles and calligraphy.




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Is this enough for 20 Marks ?
What else we can write !! Buhh Nothing left in K.K Ali
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Old Monday, November 09, 2009
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SULTANATE PAINTING

The term “Sultanate painting” should refer to manuscript illustrations or murals commissioned by Muslim patrons in the regions of India ruled by sultans before the founding of the imperial Mughal atelier in 1556. Though the so-called Sultanate period began in 1206, manuscript painting cannot be traced back much earlier than about 1450. Thus, most Sultanate painting dates between about 1450 and 1550, and the centers of production seem to be primarily Mandu in central India and Jaunpur in eastern India, with some work being done in the Delhi region and in Gujarat in western India. The succession of Muslim sultans ruling from Delhi in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were more concerned with public building projects, and many of them were opposed to figural painting for religious reasons. Several examples of the Quran with calligraphy and ornamentation distinctive to India have survived from this period, but they include no figural illumination. Several passages in literature refer to the existence of wall paintings during the time of theearly Delhi sultanates, but little survives.
In 1398 Timur, the Turkic warrior from Central Asia (known in the West as Tamerlane), sacked Delhi and defeated the ruling sultan, Firuz Shah Tughluq. The ensuing decentralization of political power led to changes in the history of Indian art. Provincial governors in outlying regions gained greater independence and became self-proclaimed sultans. Over the course of the fifteenth century, these provincial sultans strove to take on the trappings of kingship, following the Persian model.
These trappings included the building of fortifications,palaces, mosques, schools for the study of the Quran (madrasa), and libraries. The libraries were for the use of scholars of the court and for the personal enjoyment of the patrons. They required books, and the rulers and wealthy Muslims on the eastern fringes of the Islamic world began to commission illustrated versions of the classics of Persian literature.
As a rule the works commissioned during the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries were epics and lyric romances. Most popular were the Shah NaŻma, a historyof the kings of the Islamic world; the Hamza NaŻma, which relates the fantastic adventures of Hamza, uncle of the prophet Muhammad; and the Khamsa of NizaŻmıŻ, orits retelling by the Indian author Amıir Khusrau DihlavıŻ, which contains five distinct books of poetry, including the Sikandar NaŻma, which recounts the exploits of Alexander the Great. The ChandaŻyana (also called the Laur ChandaŻ) was evidently the most popular among the lyric romances; five fully illustrated editions survive in more or less fragmentary condition, painted in different styles.

STYLES OF SULTANATE PAINTING
The manuscripts made for Muslim patrons between 1450 and 1550 vary considerably in style, as there was no unifying force in the production of these works. Some of the early works were heavily reliant on Turkman prototypes, namely paintings made in Shiraz in eastern Iran, or in Herat in Central Asia. It appears that the painters themselves were typically Indian, trained in the stylized and highly conservative indigenous styles exemplified by illuminations of devotional manuscripts commissioned especially by Jains in western India, but also by Buddhists in eastern India, and by Hindus. These Indian artists were apparently charged with adopting theTurkman style, and different artists produced works with greater or lesser fidelity to their foreign sources. Most of the surviving examples of fifteenth-century Sultanate painting are significant more for historical than aesthetic reasons. Among the more visually engaging works is a Shah NaŻma of about 1450, now dispersed primarily among museum and private collections in Europe. The manuscript is arranged in a vertical format with horizontal illustrations and four columns of Persian text. The paintings are closely related to the indigenous western or central Indian styles of paintings in non-Muslim sacred texts of the time.
A remarkable manuscript called the Ni’mat NaŻma, painted in Mandu in central India around 1500, is a book of recipes, which shows the sultan surrounded by attendants preparing foods, medicines, and aphrodisiacs. The painters of the pictures were Indian, but they drew heavily from Shirazi models, with much use of thick green swards, pastel background colors, and provincial Persian figural types. Indian elements are especially noticeable in the renditions of the Indian ladies, who were part of his extensive, multicultural harem.
By the mid-sixteenth century a harmonious fusion of Persian and Indian styles was achieved, seen especially in the paintings illustrating the adventures of the lovers ChandaŻ and Laurak in the ChandaŻyana of about 1540. The text was composed by a Muslim poet in India, written in the northeastern dialect of Hindi known as Avadhi, in Persian script, and the paintings were painted by a Hindu artist. Artists working in this unique hybrid style, characterized by bright pastel colors, repeated ground patterns, delicate line drawing, and exquisite arabesques, were particularly influential in the early decades of the imperial Mughal atelier.

SULTANATE-PERIOD ARCHITECTURE OF SUBCONTINENT


Scholars frequently refer to the years 1192–1526 as the Delhi Sultanate period, defined by the establishment and proliferation of a series of Islamic states in South Asia. After the numerous Afghan Ghaznavid raids into the Indus Valley in the late tenth to twelfth centuries, the Afghan Ghurids and their Mamluk deputies, also from Afghanistan, founded the first enduring Islamic dynasty in northern India, spanning 1192–1290. Thereafter, several other Islamic dynasties with varying
territorial holdings appeared in Delhi and in other regions of India. Finally, in 1526, the Timurid prince Babur was victorious at the first Battle of Panipat, launching the great Mughal dynasty with pan-Indi ambitions.
During the Sultanate period, the Islamic dynastic patronage of the many building styles of South Asia—firmly rooted in regionally based traditions— produced a plethora of Islamic architecture.
Muslim communities had settled in Sind before the late twelfth-century rise of a lasting Islamic power. Architectural remains from Banbhore in Sind (c. 711), Gwalior in central India (8th century), and Bhadresvar in Kachh, Gujarat (c. 1160) indicate that Muslim groups settled at these sites probably for mercantile purposes. The Gwalior mihrab and Bhadresvar mosques particularly demonstrate that these communities employed local craftsmen for their religious buildings. Indeed, the high quality of those remains indicate that the craftsmen had worked on Islamic architecture before, thereby pushing the presence of Muslims in central India and Kachh to earlier than the eighth and mid-twelfth centuries, respectively.
The Ghurid annexation of northern India underpinned innovations in the building tradition indigenous to the plains by introducing new architectural practices and forms from the Iranian ambit, the latter of which were executed according to local methods. Delhi’s well known Qutb Mosque (Quwwat al-Islam, 1192–1193) exhibits extensive recycling of materials from earlier buildings, a practice comparatively little documented in Hindu and Buddhist foundations of the first millennium A.D. These older fragments were integrated with others contemporaneous with the complex’s foundation, meaning that Ghurid deputies also patronized local building traditions. Continuity in style and method is underscored by the arched facades, elements imported from eastern Iran-Afghanistan but constructed using corbelled arches, and iconography from the pan-Indic water cosmology.
Ghurid foundations west of the Indus, such as the Ribat of Al-ibn Karmakh, also evince continuity and innovation:
While the fortified grave is a conflation of forms imported from Islamized lands, the iconography shows adirect relationship to the region’s earlier temples.
The architecture of the Delhi-based powers succeeding the Ghurids and Mamluks emphasized a military aesthetic of heavy proportions, battered walls, and overallausterity. Dynastic Khalji (1290–1320) and Tughluq (1320–1401) architectural patronage, seen in the Ala-i Darwaza (1311) and the Hauz Khass Complex (1388), show that brick was the preferred building material and arcuation the favored articulation of interiors. This architectural style originated in these dynasties’ homeland of Multan, where Sufi mausoleums like the Tomb of Shah Rukn-i Din Rukn-i Alam (c. 1300) were abundant. The Lodi sultans (1451–1526) of Delhi continued in a similar aesthetic vein (Tomb of Sikandar Lodi), though these buildings were more decorative, with niches puncturing their surfaces.
Throughout the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, two sultanates neighbored Delhi, the Sharqis (1394–1483) holding sway at Jaunpur to the east, and the Ghuris (1391–1436) and eventually the Khaljis (1436–1531) at Mandu to the west. Both sultanates dedicated much of their financial and labor resources to architectural patronage, studding their urban centers with several large mosque, tomb, and madrassa complexes.
The influence of the Delhi-based architectural style seemed to radiate east and west: Jaunpur’s Atala Mosque (1408) raised what had originally been a military aesthetic to a monumental scale. Mandu’s Congregational Mosque (1454), with its heavy proportions, evokes the earlier Delhi buildings, though their characteristic austerity was relieved here by means of blue-glazed tile decoration applied on selected surfaces. The architecture of the Delhi-based dynasties, derived from traditions originating west of the Indus, was adopted and further developed by the nearby sultanates. However, the architectures of many other Muslim states in South Asia, which were more removed from Delhi than Jaunpur and Mandu, stylistically and technically ensued from, and even rejuvenated, their respective indigenous building practices.
Various sultanates appropriated pockets of territories in the Deccan, and some of them maintained control of their holdings for over three centuries (1347–1686) until Mughal conquest. Indeed, the flourishing of South India’s Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar until 1565 reminds us that the “Sultanate period” is something of a misnomer, since the dynasties of this powerful state were not Muslims but Brahmanical Hindus. Architectural patronage throughout the Deccan can be characterized by the application of old building principles to new purposes, often resulting in unprecedented spatial solutions.
The Bahmanids’ Mosque at Gulbarga (latter half of the 14th century) presents a case in point: The covered prayer area and open courtyard of the archetypal mosque was covered with corbelled domes. The arched facade, known since the late twelfth century, was here transferred to the exterior to create monumental entrances. Ibrahim Adilshahi’s Tomb at Bijapur (c. 1626) relied heavily on indigenous architectural and iconographic traditions, including
South Indian column orders and ornament.
Architectural patronage in the Bengal (1339–1576) and Gujarat (1411–1573) sultanates emerged from and rejuvenated those regions’ local building practices. Bengal had within its borders a well-entrenched tradition of brick construction, including the use of voussoir arches to span short distances. Moreover, the local craftsmen excelled at terra-cotta and molded brick surface decoration.
Thus, Gaur’s Qadm-i Rasul Mosque of about 1525 is decorated with terra-cotta plaques as well as tilework, and the arch here rose to the challenge of spanning considerably larger interior spaces than before.
The religious architecture of Gujarat was primarily of trabeate construction in stone, with exteriors profusely decorated with stone sculpture. Both of these practices were productively adapted to Islamic buildings, as seen at Ahmedabad’s Congregational Mosque of 1424. The monumental entrance facade shows that, rather than the teeming exteriors of the region’s medieval temples, local stone-carving methods were applied toward the creation of a surface well balanced in its proportions of ornament and austerity. The interior demonstrates that trabeation did not produce only low, dark interiors, but could also be successfully employed to create lofty spaces with natural light. The introduction of Islamic ritual and social demands, then, were beneficial for the local styles of building.
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Old Monday, November 09, 2009
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@ bunko good try, but it needs improvement. Firstly you need to improve your grammar and sentence structuring. A number of common grammatical mistakes are visible in your post. Secondly, try to add quotes from different historians, it will be instrumental in fetching good marks.

@ deadlydoctor, please try to give source of your information e.g. book, website etc.
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encyclopedia of india
is source of above answer
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You would definitely score the lowest for this particular question if you go for a similar style and material in your paper.

Here are the additions you can make to it:

1) Improve the writing style. Especially the grammer.
2) Quote other historians. I am sure they must have written a great deal about the art and architecture of the Pre-Mughal era. Infact i do have some pieces of works on this particular subject.
3) make it sound as if you are interested in informing the examiner about the particular topic. Right now you seem sooo DULL!!!!

Try to concentrate on a few examples in particular. i mean there must be a specific piece of architecture or art and write a detailed note about it. Explaining its style, its material, the design etc etc.

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where can one find quotes regarding indo-Pak events/history?
what kind of quotes ?
how many quotes?
references from book how to find it and quote?
because it is difficult to do such an extensive study
quotes regarding Pak affairs or paper 2 of indo-Pak history
i am asking for a source specifically for it,any book ,any website
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well brother as far as indo pak history paper 1 is concerned...i was lucky enough to come across a book that includes quotes from different authors.. i mean it presents the extracts from different books... the author does not present his point of view (for most of the cases)....but i do not know its name....i came across it in lahore in front pages were missing
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@ UmarAbbas,

You are absolutely right ! i did many kiddo grammatical mistake in it, actually i was in extreme hurry at that time, and yes i also forget to write quotes by Minhajjudin Siraj, Stanle Lanepoole, Ibin-Batuta, S.M Zafar, and others.

Quote:
Explaining its style, its material, the design etc etc.
It is not given in K.Ali, I think, over here should i use hypothetic style ?

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Quote:
Originally Posted by bunko View Post
@ UmarAbbas,

You are absolutely right ! i did many kiddo grammatical mistake in it, actually i was in extreme hurry at that time, and yes i also forget to write quotes by Minhajjudin Siraj, Stanle Lanepoole, Ibin-Batuta, S.M Zafar, and others.



It is not given in K.Ali, I think, over here should i use hypothetic style ?

Regards,
bhai internet aik samandar hay Ghota lagaoo kuch na kuch mil hi jayay ga ..atleast mujhey mil gaya tha when i was going through it ...btw K. Ali is for last days studies...i mean when you have done everything and you just need to revise. don't pin your hopes against it as a reference book!!!
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