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International Relations Notes on IR

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Default Q.Trace out the establishment of Shanghai five and how it grew in power to be known a

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is one of the Eurasian organizations whose main objectives are to coordinate among the member countries to crack down on terrorism, protecting regional interests, economic uplift, political harmony and stabilizing neighboring countries. In order to understand it in a detailed manner, we are supposed to go into flash back of SCO so that its history could be well traced out up till now and only then we will understand its main areas of interests, structure and significance in the recent summit 2018.

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is a Eurasian Political, Economic and Security alliance that was formed on 15th June, 2001. However, prior to that it was known as “Shanghai Five” included five member countries named Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Russia. After that Uzbekistan became its member. Its initial aim was to protect the borders and any precipitated menace to protect their sovereignty because of the fall of the USSR. However, it grew in the number of members and due to influence on Russia, India became its member. Similarly, due to the influence of China, Pakistan became its member in Ufa. In the 2015 summit in Ufa in Russia, the group had formally adopted a resolution which started the procedure to admit India and Pakistan into the SCO. Hence it accumulated Indo-Pakistan as permanent members in the organization in 2017. At present, it has thus 8 permanent members in number, 4 observer states named Afghanistan, Belarus, Iran and Mongolia .Besides, it has 6 dialogue partners which are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Nepal, Srilanka and Turkey. However, its guest attendances are known as 4 notified members which are the ASEAN, the CIS, the UN and Turkmenistan. Since it is Eurasian organization so that’s why its official languages are two i.e Chinese and Russian. Its current Secretary General is Rashid Alimov.

The SCO is widely regarded as the “alliance of East”, due to its growing centrality in Asia-Pacific, and has been the primary security pillar of the region. Being the world’s forefront regional organization in economic power and political influence, and one of the world’s strongest military alliances, it is also the largest regional organization in the world in terms of geographical coverage and population, covering three-fifths of the Eurasian continent and nearly half of the human population. At present, the SCO is one of the world’s most powerful and influential organizations.

With the growing power and enlargement of the organization, its scope of unity and cooperation has expanded to many other areas, including education, science, technology, health care, environmental protection, tourism, media, sports, humanitarian and culture, while extending its principle to include global governance and fostering of international relationships. It has been a major partner of ASEAN, with both of the organizations establishing a cooperation model for the peace, stability, development and sustainability of the Asian continent, and in the field of security, economy, finance, tourism, culture and environmental protection. Because of its vast influence and power on the global stage, the organization plays a prominent role in shaping international politics, governance and affairs, and maintains diplomatic missions throughout the world.

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