Glossary International Relations
absolute advantage An actor has an absolute advantage in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service with fewer resources than other actors.
accuracy One of qualities which we can use in evaluating and comparing theories, referring to the probability that the theory will provide the correct answer.
ad valorem tariff A tariff where the duty charged is a proportion of the value of the good (e.g. five percent of the good’s declared value).
adjustable peg A type of exchange rate regime where rates are fixed, but countries retain the right to change rates whenever they see fit. See exchange rate.
assumption The basic starting point for a causal theory. Something assumed to be true; a simplification, used to bring clarity to a complex situation or relationship.
autarky A situation where there are no international economic transactions taking place.
balance of payments A nation’s accounting records, which tracks its international economic transactions.
Balance of payments adjustment This refers to the way in which states settle their bills.
balance of power A term with many meanings, it usually refers to either any distribution of power (it doesn’t matter if power is evenly distributed or not), or a perfectly even distribution of power.
beggar-thy-neighbor policy A policy intended to transfer unemployment problems from one country to another via protectionism.
Behavioralists Those who believe that the proper way to construct and to test theories involves making many observations of variables, aggregating the information, and applying methods of data analysis (statistics) to interpret the evidence. This view is contrasted with that of the Traditionalists.
belief-systems A set of beliefs about how the world works, and/or how it ought to work. See ideology.
bipolar One of several different possible distributions of power; in this case, a distribution where two states or alliances have power concentrated in their control.
bolstering Bolstering occurs when a decision-maker stops engaging in the broad search for information and instead of exploring the full range of policy options, merely searchs for information that supports the choice he or she has already made.
bureaucratic politics One of the commonly used levels of analysis; theories in this group concentrate their explanations for state policy on divisions within the state itself, which pit one bureaucracy against another.
capital account A subset of the balance of payments, which records the borrowing, selling, or purchasing of assets.
Classical Liberalism The earliest form of Liberalism, which promised that national wealth would be increased if individuals were free to compete against each other (pursuing their own narrow self-interest), as opposed to having the state interfere with the market
Classical Marxism The earlist form of Marxism, which emphasized that social classes are the most important actors in domestic or international politics. See Marxism.
Classical Realism The earliest version of Realism, which, in order to counter the arguments of Idealists, assumed human nature to be selfish and driven by a desire for power.
Coase Theorem An argument describing possible situations where problems with externalities can be overcome, even in the absence of government. The Coase Theorem states that if (1) there is a legal framework to establish liabilities, (2) there is perfect information (and also everyone understands their own preferences) and (3) there are zero negotiating costs, actors can resolve problems arising from externalities through deal-making.
Commercial Liberalism An early version of Liberalism, which argued that free trade was not only beneficial to individuals in an economic sense, and therefore economically beneficial to states (since states are merely agglomerations of individuals), but would also provide the basis for a harmony of interests in the international system. See Liberalism.
comparative advantage If two actors have different opportunity costs for producing a good or service, the one with the lower opportunity cost has a comparative advantage in that good or service.
competitive devaluation A reduction in the vcalue of a currency in order to gain a competitive advantage in trade.
Complex Interdependence An approach developed by Keohane and Nye in the 1970s, to open up the realms of theorizing away from the narrow assumptions of Realism.
Concert of the Great Powers The management of the European state system after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, through a conscious coordinated effort by the most powerful states.
confidence A characteristic of a currency, referring the faith people place in it as a store of value.
Constructivism A commonly used paradigm in international relations. It poses questions which come prior to the analysis undertaken in most paradigms. Key concepts such as interests have no meaning without establishing actors’ identities and placing actors and interests in social context, argue the Constructivists.
convertibility The ability to switch from a currency to another currency or asset.
crawling peg A type of exchange rate regime where rates are fixed only for the very short run, with many frequent small changes in rates. The intention is to prevent any large changes. See exchange rate.
crisis Most definitions of an international crisis include (1) a high threat to something valued very highly, (2) surprise, (3) and the need for a quick response.
culture A set of characteristics shared by a group of individuals or a nation; this has been used as a causal factor for explaining international outcomes.
current account A subset of the balance of payments, denoting net changes in a country’s claims on foreigners.
deductive theorizing One method of reasoning, which involves first postulating a logical relationship between cause and effect, then making repeated observations to evaluate and refine the relationship. See inductive theorizing.
defensive procrastination Defensive procrastination occurs when someone refuses to deal with a problem in the hopes that the problem will resolve itself.
deflation A decline in the average level of prices.
dependent variable The variations of the dependent variable depend upon the variations of the independent variables.
description One of the basic tasks of a causal theory; the act of forming a representation.
dirty float On a floating exchange rate, a situation where a state has intervened in the market to set its exchange rate at a level it desires. See exchange rate.
division of labor The breaking up of the stages of production into different tasks. See specialization.
domestic level One of the commonly used levels of analysis; theories in this group concentrate their explanations for state policy on domestic characteristics of countries, or on the politics which takes place within their borders. See societal level.
dumping Selling a good in foreign markets at a price lower than the price charged in the home market.
epistemic communities . An epistemic community is defined as a group of experts whose consensus on what constitutes knowledge creates a shared view of an issue.
Eurodollars U.S. dollars held by banks outside the U.S. government’s jurisdiction.
exchange rate The price of one national currency in terms of another. Systems of exchange rates are either fixed (i.e. the prices are set and not allowed to vary very much) or floating (i.e. the prices fluctuate as in most other markets).
export-oriented industrialization (EOI) A strategy for developing a country’s industrial sector by selling its output abroad, rather than relying on domestic demand. See import-substitution industrialization (ISI).
externality Situations where the market fails to cover the entire set of costs and benefits associated with a particular transaction.
externalization Externalization occurs when a society is becoming unstable, and in order to reconsolidate their control, elite policy-makers instigate an international incident, crisis, or conflict, to divert the population from domestic problems or domestic differences.
extraterritoriality Extraterritoriality is the extension of national jurisdiction beyond a nation’s own borders.
factor mobility The ease with which a factor of production can be moved form one application to another.
factors of production The inputs necessary for producing a good or service. In the most simple models, the factors are capital and labor.
falsifiability One of qualities which we can use in evaluating and comparing theories. It refers to our ability to test a theory; if a theory is falsifiable, there are explicit terms under which the theory could be said to fail.
foreign direct investment (FDI) International investment involving the direct ownership and operation of the venture. See portfolio investment.
generalizability One of qualities which we can use in evaluating and comparing theories, referring to how widely the theory can be applied.
Gresham’s Law The observation that bad money will drive good money out of circulation.
Heartland A geopolitical notion developed by Mackinder to describe the center of the Eurasian landmass, which he considered to be the most important strategic terrain in the world. See Rimland.
Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) model A model intended to explain the content and direction of trade flows. It expects each country to export goods which intensively use the locally most abundant factor(s), and to import goods whose production required intensive use of the locally scarce factor(s) of production.
hegemonic See unipolar.
hegemonic stability theory A realist explanation for the creation and maintenance of international regimes; according to this view, regimes are an outcome of the exercise of power. Therefore regimes are only strong and stable when international power is concentrated in the hands of one state (a hegemonic power) which supports the international regime in question.
horizontal integration One strategy for expansion of a firm; it entails monopolization of one step in the production process.
idea A thought or belief; recently being used as a causal factor in theories in international relations.
Idealism A commonly used paradigm in international relations. It was the first dominant paradigm to emerge (after World War I). Idealism stresses the possibility of perfecting the behavior of man (usually through the creation of institutions or laws), and thus perfecting the actions of states, thereby reaching international peace and harmony.
ideology A set of beliefs about how the world works, and/or how it ought to work. See belief-system.
import-substitution industrialization (ISI) A strategy for developing a country’s industrial sector by blocking imports of industrial goods, forcing domestic demand to support national industries. See export-oriented industrialization (EOI)
independent variable The causal factor in a theory.
indifference curve A diagram showing the possible mix of two goods, which then depicts on a curve all the points between which an actor is indifferent.
individual level One of the commonly used levels of analysis; theories in this group concentrate their explanations for state policy on idiosyncratic characteristics of individuals.
inductive theorizing One method of reasoning, which involves first making repeated observations, then inferring the logical relationship between cause and effect. See deductive theorizing.
inflation A rise in the average level of prices.
Institutionalism A recently developed paradigm which was developed originally to explain the persistence of regimes, outside of hegemonic stability theory. Institutionalists argue that if regimes deliver benefits to the participants, the participants would have reasons to maintain or even create international regimes. (Also referred to as Rationalist Institutionalism.)
Instrumental Marxism A version of Marxism, made popular by Lenin, which focuses on explaining the actions of states, but views states as instruments of the interests of each country’s capitalists. See Marxism.
Interdependence Interdependence can be defined as a situation where changes or events in any single part produce some reaction or have a significant consequence in other parts of the system, or more simply, as the mutual contingency of policies.
international political economy The analysis of the interaction of power and the processes of wealth creation at the international level.
international regime According to Krasner, an international regime is a set of “principles, rules, norms and decision-making procedures around which actors’ expectations converge.”
international relations The study of politics involving an international dimension; relations between states and external actors (states and non-state actors), as well as between non-state actors and other external actors (states and non-state actors), or involving the formulation of a policy which has repercussions for actors outside the country.
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key currency A national currency which plays the role of international money.
Keynsianism A view of macroeconomics which prescribes an active, positive role of government in managing the economy through manipulation of fiscal and monetary policy.
law Laws are connections between variables of which we have repeated observations, of such strength and number that we can safely expect the relations to continue into the future.
Leontief Paradox The paradoxical results produced in empirical analysis of the imports and exports of U.S. , which seem to disconfirm the Heckscher-Ohlin model.
levels of analysis A method for grouping theories together, based on the types of assumptions made about the most important actors.
leverage One of qualities which we can use in evaluating and comparing theories. The ability to explain as much as possible with as little as possible.
Liberalism A commonly used paradigm in international relations, which bases its arguments on the actions of rational utility-maximizing individuals.
liquidity A characteristic of a currency, referring to its availability, which in turn determines how well it can serve as a medium of exchange.
Marxism A commonly used paradigm in international relations, which bases its explanations of politics on the relationships between social classes.
mercantilism A practice in foreign economic policies of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries that entailed a set of policies designed to maintain an inward flow of money, but these policies were barriers to trade and international investment.
Modern World-Systems A set of works which blend history, sociology and political science to develop a deeper understanding of the historical development of the international political economy. It is rooted within Marxist traditions, and looks at actors at several levels of analysis.
monopoly A market in which there is only one seller.
most-favored-nation (MFN) clause A clause in a trade treaty which commits a country to impose no greater barriers to imports of the signatory than it imposes on imports from any other country.
multinational corporation (MNC) A corporation which carries on business operations in several countries.
multipolar One of several different possible distributions of power; in this case, a distribution where more than three states or alliances have power concentrated in their control.
national level One of the commonly used levels of analysis; theories in this group concentrate their explanations for state policy on characteristics of the country, or on internal political economic activities. See societal level.
Neo-Realism A recent version of Realism, which recognizes the importance of other goals which states might have by modifying the assumption that states seek to maximize power.
non-tariff barrier (NTB) A broad concept, used to denote impediments to trade (excepting tariffs).
normative goal One of the basic tasks of a causal theory. A vision of the way things ought to be.
oligopoly A market in which there are only a few sellers.
opportunity cost The amount that an input could earn in its next best possible application; the alternative foregone when something is produced.
organizational processes Here, the argument is that bureaucratic organizations are entirely flexible, and thus may affect the implementation of policy; policy may be rationally formulated, but then bureaucracies and organizations may not be able to carry them out as originally intended, making policy appear irrational.
paradigm An example which others copy and employ as well, or a set of core assumptions (often established in a single example which theorists drawn on) which are shared by many similar theories. The set of core assumptions define a grouping of theories, and separates one paradigm from another.
parsimony One of the qualities we can use in evaluating and comparing theories. It refers to the degree of simplicity; it reflects the ability to explain much of the variation in the dependent variable with as little information or theory as possible
Phillips Curve A diagram used to portray the relationship between inflation and unemployment.
policy paradigm A concept developed by P. Hall, which he defines as an overarching set of ideas that specify how the problems facing them are to be perceived, which goals might be attained through policy and what sorts of techniques can be used to reach those goals.
portfolio investment An indirect investment -- one where ownership or investment does not entail direct management of the economic activity resulting from their investment.
power In political science, power is usually defined as control over actors, especially their actions (i.e. the ability to get an actor to do something which he/she otherwise wouldn’t do).
power transition A term originated by Organski to identify a period when internally driven changes rapidly alter a country’s strength, thereby altering the systemic distribution of power.
prediction One of the basic tasks of a causal theory, referring to the act of foretelling an event.
prescription One of the basic tasks of a causal theory, referring to the act of providing advice or direction.
prisoners’ dilemma An example from game theory, which illustrates a situation where two egoistic actors interact yet fail to attain their harmony of interests.
product cycle An argument developed by Vernon to explain when FDI takes place; it is based on the notion that products go through a characteristic life-cycle, reflecting the varying ability of firms to produce the good over time.
Production Possibility Frontier A curve illustrating the limits of output which can be produced with various combinations of inputs.
public good A good characterized by both nonexcludibility and non-rival consumption.
quota A typical barrier to trade, which limits the volume of goods coming into a country.
rally-round-the-flag effect A concept used to identify the tendency for domestic differences to be set aside in a foreign policy crisis.
rate of transformation The rate at which production can be shifted from one product to another.
rationality A common assumption made about actors in our theories, which states that actors will try to attain their highest preferences at the least cost. The assumption of rationality contains three conditions: first, the actor is assumed to have perfect information -- it is assumed the actor knows all its options, and to know all the costs and benefits (the ramifications) associated with each option; second, the actor must understand the causal effect of each possible choice; third, the actor must be able to rank its choices, which requires that it be able to relate what it values into some sort of schedule of preferences.
Rationalist Institutionalism See Institutionalism.
Realism A commonly used paradigm in international relations. Realism emerged as the dominant paradigm in the 1940s until recent years. It has stressed the importance of power in international relations, and the continuity in states’ behavior. It also emphasizes the anarchic nature of the international system, which allows states to use power to resolve differences.
Reflectivist Institutionalism A very recent version of Institutionalism, which argues that existing institutions and norms shape the ways in which actors’ preferences are defined. The Institutionalists using a reflectivist approach stress that international regimes are rarely the product of purely rational design, but instead are shaped by existing norms and institutions.
Republican Liberalism A version of Liberalism which emphasizes the political aspects of Liberalism by arguing that republics behave differently; where individuals have a say in the formulation of national policy, national policy will be peaceful and pursue the creation of wealth. See Liberalism.
reserves Commodities or assets held as backing for a currency.
Rimland A geopolitical notion developed by Spykman to describe the outer edge of the Eurasian landmass, which he considered to be the most important strategic terrain in the world, due to the concentration of economic and industrial power in these regions. See Heartland.
role level See bureaucratic politics.
sector specificity An assumption made in some trade models concerning the ability of an input to be deployed into different industries. If there is high sector-specificity for a factor of production, it means that factor is best suited for use in that industry. This shapes its preferences on trade policy – tying its interests to that sector. See the competing ideas of the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem.
security dilemma A concept used to describe relations between sovereign states in the context of international anarchy, where each state treats its neighbors as the potential source of threats; as each increases its power, it makes the other insecure. The overall result is competition for power and insecurity.
specialization The act of concentrating production on one type of good, or even one stage in the production of a good, to exploit comparative advantage.
societal level One of the commonly used levels of analysis; theories in this group concentrate their explanations for state policy on characteristics of the country’s society, or on internal political economic activities. See national level.
sovereignty Sovereignty refers to the ability to exercise the ultimate legitimate political authority.
stagflation A situation where an economy suffers both high inflation and high unemployment.
standard operating procedures In order to function smoothly, large organizations such as government bureaucracies must practice routine operations; the range of maneuvers a bureaucracy can perform may constrain policy choice, or affect the way policy is actually implemented. See organizational processes.
state level One of the commonly used levels of analysis; theories in this group concentrate their explanations for state policy on characteristics of the country overall, such as the type of governing institutions it has.
status inconsistency A concept borrowed from sociology, which denotes differences in the status an actor is accorded in the various facets of interactions with other actors. Inconsistency in the levels of status may be the root of frustrations and aggressive behavior.
Stolper-Samuelson Theorem A Theorem developed to understand the distribution of gains and losses from international trade. The relatively scarce factor of production in the will lose real earnings when trade levels rose, while the relatively abundant factor of production will gain real earnings.
strategic trade policy A policy intended to change the benefits from trade, either by altering the position of particular firms, or by changing the position of their economies in the international division of labor
Structural Marxism A version of Marxism which explains the actions of states by arguing that states act politically to maintain the overall political economic structure of capitalism.
Structural Realism A version of Realism laid out by Waltz in Theory of International Politics (1979). It stresses the characteristics of the structure of the international system in its explanations of state behavior.
structure Structure is a way of depicting the relations of the units, or the composition of a system.
systemic level One of the commonly used levels of analysis; theories in this group concentrate their explanations for state policy on characteristics of the international system.
tariff A typical barrier to trade, which is a tax on goods as they cross a border.
theory A speculative process for explaining observed relationships between variables.
Traditionalist Those who believe that the best way to construct theories is to make detailed observations of a few cases, relying more on historical analysis and seeing the uniqueness of each event. This view is contrasted with that of the Behavioralists.
tripolar One of several different possible distributions of power; in this case, a distribution where three states or alliances have power concentrated in their control.
unipolar One of several different possible distributions of power; in this case, a distribution where one state or alliance has power concentrated in its control. Also possibly described as hegemonic.
Utopianism See Idealism.
value-complexity A term created by George to describe situtations where policies may entail trade-offs in values which a decision-maker would rather not face.
variable A term used in our construction of theories, which can refer to the forces or factors of both cause and effect.
vertical integration One strategy for forming a large firm; it entails capturing the various stages of production within one firm.
wealth A central concept in economics, referring to affluence and/or abundance.
Action - A physical act, a concrete step in a given situation. An action is the practical expression of a policy.
Actor - A Participant or player.
AER - Assembly of European Regions was created in 1985 and it is the political organization of the regions of Europe. It represents the interests of the regions at the European and international level. The AER has 250 member regions from 25 states and 12 member interregional organizations.
Andean Community/ Andean Integration System - A political and economic regional organization made up of Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. The Andean Pact was signed in 1969, with the aim of creating a customs union, which is since 1995 operational. The Andean Group pledged to establish a Common Market in 2005. The Andean Community started operating in 1997.
ANZCERTA - Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement (CER Agreement) entered into force in 1983 with the aim to create a Free Trade Area between Australia and New Zealand.
ASEAN - Association of Southeast Asian Nations is an international organisation, which was established in 1967 and currently brings together ten Southeast Asian states: Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
APT (ASEAN Plus Three) - A regional forum, which brings together the 10 ASEAN states plus China, Japan and Korea.
ARF - ASEAN Regional Forum was established in 1994 and links together 22 countries plus the EU, which have an impact on are involved in the security of the Asia Pacific Region. These countries are Australia, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Canada, China, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, the EU, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam.
Bipolarity - When the power is distributed between two poles, for instance the international political system under the Cold War was considered to have a bipolar structure: the United States and the former Soviet Union.
CACM - Central American Common Market was established in 1961 and currently encompasses, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua
CARICOM - Caribbean Community and Common Market is a customs union established in 1973 among Antigua and Bermuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.
Customs Union - An agreement whereby the members implement a common external tariff of customs duties. The aim is to facilitate goods to move freely throughout the union.
Common External Tariff - A common level of duty on goods entering the Customs Union from without.
Common Market - An arrangement whereby the members pledge to remove all obstacles to the free movement of labour, capital, services and persons.
Cross-border region - A special case of a micro-region, one that spreads across different states.
Decision-making - Refers to the making of a choice among often competing alternatives; a rational decision-making process is the process whereby the different alternatives are evaluated in function of the objectives to achieve and whereby the most suitable option is chosen.
Dependence - A system is dependent upon another, if the other is capable of affecting its power.
Disintegration - A decrease of the capacity of a system.
Equilibrium - A situation wherein the several forces working on or in a system keep each other in check, thus producing no net effect.
Economic Union - This is a common market in which there is a complete unification of monetary and fiscal policy.
European Communities - Refers to the European international organisation in several issue areas the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (EurAtom).
European Union - In November 1993 the official name of the European Community was changed to European Union as a result of the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty by the parliaments of the member states. The EU is the most comprehensive example of regional economic and political integration.
Free Trade Area - An agreement between a group of countries to remove barriers and quotas to mutual trade. Each country retains its own commercial relations with non-members.
Geographic Realm - The basic spatial unit in the world regionalization scheme. Each realm is defined in terms of a synthesis of its total human geography a composite of its leading cultural, economic, historical, political, and appropriate environmental features.
Integration - An increase of a social systems capacity.
Institution - A system forms an institution when if functions according to definite rules, norms, or standards. It is not necessary that these rules, norms or standards have a legal character, nor that they are formulated.
Institutionalisation - Refers to the process by which institutions are formed.
Interdependence - A relation or the relations between systems in which they are mutual sensitive or vulnerable to the decisions or actions taken by the others.
Interest - That what is important to a system, usually including, its survival. National interest refers to matters of importance to a state. Corporate interest refers to matter of importance to the business.
International - In general, it refers to matters outside a state; in particular, it refers to the relations between states.
International Organisation - An institution composed out of member-states. More general, it refers to patterns of behaviour or structures and actors that cross or move beyond the state.
Macro-region - A large territorial unit comprising different states.
Magreb Countries - Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia.
Mashreq Countries - Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Palestine.
MERCOSUR - The Southern Cone Common Market established in 1991 that calls for free trade among the member-states and common external tariffs for non-member-states. Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay are members; Chile is an associate member.
Micro-region - A territorial area that is smaller than the state to which it belongs.
Multipolarity - When the power is distributed among various poles, for instance Concert of Europe.
NAFTA - North American Free Trade Area. An agreement established in 1994 between Canada, the U.S. and Mexico with the aim to reduce all barriers to trade among the three states within 15 years.
NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization established in 1949 is a mutual defence organization. Currently it encompasses 19 states.
OSCE - The Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe is a regional security organization established in 1994/1995.
Power - Capability of actors to do things and do them efficiently. More abstract, the capacity of a system to efficiently converting energy.
Preferential Trade Agreement - The members of this kind of agreement charge each other lower tariffs than those applicable to non-members.
Policy - A decision or course of action chosen from alternatives.
Regime - In an international context, regimes refer to implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures around which actors expectations converge in a given area of international relations. Principles are beliefs of fact, causation, and rectitude. Norms are standards of behaviour defined in terms of rights and obligations. Rules are specific prescriptions or proscriptions for action. Decision-making procedures are prevailing practices for making and implementing collective choice.
Region - A territorially based subsystem of the international system.
Regionalization - Denotes the (empirical) process that leads to patterns of co-operation, integration, complementarity and convergence within a particular cross-national geographical space.
Regionalism - Concerns the ideas, identities and ideologies related to a regional project.
SAARC - South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation was established in 1985. Member-states are Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
SACU - Southern African Custom Union was established in 1910 and is the oldest regional economic grouping in Africa. It encompasses Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland and South Africa.
SADC - Southern African Development Community was established in 1992. The member-states are: Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Sovereignty - Refers to the right of a state to exercise complete jurisdiction over its own territory. In international relations, states as sovereign units have a right to be independent vis-à-vis other states. As sovereign units, states are legal equals.
Spill-over - Refers to the process whereby successful cooperation between states in a specific sector leads, due to the interconnectedness of social and political issues, to the need to expand the cooperation into related fields.
Structure - The manner in which a systems components are related to each other. Particularly, the array of relationships governing the transformation of systems. The arrangements of parts of a whole, for instance the structure of the international system being defined in terms of the distribution of power among states (bipolar; multipolar; unipolar).
Supranational - Beyond or above the state, having power or authority that is greater than that of single countries.
WTO - World Trade Organization was established in 1995 following the Uruguay Round Negotiations. It is the successor of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). It is the only global international organisation dealing with the rules of trade between states.
Pakistan is ruled by three As - Army, America and Allah.
Last edited by Princess Royal; Saturday, March 15, 2008 at 10:44 AM.
Comintern: association of political parties also called Communist International.
association of national communist parties founded in 1919. Though its stated purpose was the promotion of world revolution.
Then let these shivers go on fire...
And these screams go blind...
And you go sore in the eyes your life is an abyss...
Where your shadow reached before You.
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