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Naseer Ahmed Chandio Thursday, July 06, 2006 10:03 AM

Democracy/Monarchy/Dictatorship/Republic
 
[B]Hi every one,[/B]

[I]Enjoy the Democracy![/I]

[B][FONT=Times New Roman]Democracy[/FONT][/B]

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[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]Democracy[/B] is, literally, rule by the people (from the Greek [I]demos[/I], "people," and [I]kratos[/I], "rule"). The methods by which this rule is exercised, and indeed the composition of "the people" are central to various definitions of democracy, but useful contrasts can be made with [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oligarchy"][COLOR=windowtext]oligarchies[/COLOR][/URL] and [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autocracy"][COLOR=windowtext]autocracies[/COLOR][/URL], where political authority is highly concentrated and not subject to meaningful control by the people. While the term democracy is often used in the context of a political [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State"][COLOR=windowtext]state[/COLOR][/URL], the principles are also applicable to other areas of governance.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The word "democracy" has acquired a highly positive connotation in much of the world over the second half of the 20th century, to such an extent that even many dictatorships claim to be democratic and often hold [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illiberal_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]illiberal[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] elections to garner legitimacy, both internally and internationally. Most contemporary political ideologies include at least some form of democracy at some levels of society.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[B][FONT=Times New Roman]Contents[/FONT][/B]
[LIST][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#Kinds_of_democracy#Kinds_of_democracy"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]1[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] Kinds of democracy[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][LIST][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#Liberal_democracy#Liberal_democracy"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]1.1[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] Liberal democracy[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][/LIST][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#History_of_democracy#History_of_democracy"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]2[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] History of democracy[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][LIST][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#20th_century_waves_of_democracy#20th_century_waves_of_democracy"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]2.1[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] 20th century waves of democracy[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][/LIST][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#Major_theories_of_democracy#Major_theories_of_democracy"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]3[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] Major theories of democracy[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][LIST][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#Conceptions_of_democracy#Conceptions_of_democracy"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]3.1[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] Conceptions of democracy[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#.22Democracy.22_vs._.22Republic.22#.22Democracy.22_vs._.22Republic.22"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]3.2[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] "Democracy" vs. "Republic"[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#The_democratic_state#The_democratic_state"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]3.3[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] The democratic state[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][/LIST][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#Dissent#Dissent"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]4[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] Dissent[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#Democracy_beyond_the_state_level#Democracy_beyond_the_state_level"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]5[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] Democracy beyond the state level[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#See_also#See_also"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]6[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] See also[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#References#References"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]7[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] References[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#External_links#External_links"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][COLOR=windowtext]8[/COLOR][COLOR=windowtext] External links[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][/LIST][B][FONT=Times New Roman]Kinds of democracy[/FONT][/B]

[URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Direct democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], classically termed [I]pure democracy[/I][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#_note-0#_note-0"][COLOR=windowtext][1][/COLOR][/URL], is a political system where the people vote on government decisions, such as questions of whether to approve or reject various laws. It is called [I]direct[/I] because the power of making decisions is exercised by the people directly, without intermediaries or representatives. Historically, this form of government has been rare, due to the difficulties of getting all the people of a certain territory in one place for the purpose of voting. All direct democracies to date have been relatively small communities; usually [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City-state"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]city-states[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. The most notable was the ancient [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athenian_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Athenian democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman].[/FONT][/SIZE]
[URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representative_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Representative democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] is so named because the people do not vote on most government decisions directly, but select representatives to a governing body or assembly. Representatives may be chosen by the electorate as a whole (as in many [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proportional_representation"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]proportional[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] systems) or represent a particular subset (usually a geographic district or [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constituency"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]constituency[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]), with some systems using a combination of the two. Many representative democracies incorporate some elements of direct democracy, such as [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Referenda"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]referenda[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman].[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One_party"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]one party[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_states"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Communist states[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] describe or described themselves as democratic, like the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Democratic_Republic"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]German Democratic Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. They explicitly gave the political power to the members, or to some of the members, of the ruling [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_Party"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Communist Party[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], following the principles of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_centralism"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]democratic centralism[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanguard_party"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]vanguard party[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman].[/FONT][/SIZE]
[B][FONT=Times New Roman]Liberal democracy[/FONT][/B]

[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Today, democracy is often assumed to be liberal democracy, a form of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representative_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]representative democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] where the ability of elected representatives and the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majoritarianism"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]will of the majority[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] to exercise [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision_making"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]decision-making[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_power"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]power[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] is subject to the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_law"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]rule of law[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], and usually moderated by a [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]constitution[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] which emphasizes the protection of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberties"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]liberties[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_%28political%29"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]freedoms[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]rights[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] of individuals and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minority"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]minorities[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. This form of government has become increasingly common in recent times, so that almost half of the world's population now lives under liberal democratic regimes.[/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://65.110.85.181/uploads/pdf/essay2006.pdf"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3][1][/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Conversely, an [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illiberal_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]illiberal democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] is one where the protections that form a liberal democracy are either nonexistant, or not enforced. The experience in some [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-Soviet"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]post-Soviet[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] states drew attention to the phenomenon, although it is not of recent origin.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[B][FONT=Times New Roman]History of democracy[/FONT][/B]

[I][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Main article: [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]History of democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][/I][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The history of democracy is made complex by the varied concepts and definitions used in different contexts and discussions. Democracy can range from the very broadly based institutions in which adult [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_suffrage"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]universal suffrage[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] is used to elect representative, to very informal assemblies in which the people voice their opinions, and leader act upon those feelings, to elected representatives who have limited power under an unelected [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarch"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]monarch[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman].[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Since World War II, democracy has gained widespread acceptance. This map shows the official claims made by world governments with regard to democracy, as of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/June_2006"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]June 2006[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. [/SIZE][/FONT][FONT=Times New Roman]Governments that claim to be democratic and allow the existence of opposition groups, at least in theory. Governments that claim to be democratic but do not allow the existence of opposition groups. Governments that do not claim to be democratic.[/FONT]
[URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athenian_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Athenian democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] is the earliest well-documented democratic system, and the word democracy was coined in [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Ancient Greece[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] in the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5th_century_BC"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]5th century BC[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. Records are intermittent from the time before this era, although there is contemporary documentation from [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chios"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Chios[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], probably from 575- 550 BC, of a council and assembly. It appears that voting rights were gradually expanded from a small group of landed aristocracy to eventually all eligible males who had completed mandatory military training, usually at the age of 20. [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Women[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slaves"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]slaves[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metics"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]metics[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] were excluded from this citizenship, which leads to estimates that around one tenth or less of the population of Athens was eligible to vote. All Athenian citizens were free to vote on creation of laws, a segment could vote on when to go to war, and anyone could speak in the Assembly. This type of government is known as a form of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]direct democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. Athens also had representative leaders, most selected by [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allotment"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]allotment[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] rather than elected. Athenian democracy was effectively ended by the city's defeat by the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Macedonians"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Macedonians[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] who abolished it in 323 BC.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The seeds of representative democracy were arguably started in the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Republic"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Roman Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. During the middle ages, there were various shades of democracies varying from very inclusive [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oligarchies"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]oligarchies[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] to attempts at full democracy. Such are the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Althing"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Althing[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], in Iceland, the Italian city-states of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_Italy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]medieval Italy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuatha"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]tuatha[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] system in early medieval Ireland, the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veche"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Veche[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] in Slavic countries, and Scandinavian [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thing_%28assembly%29"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]assemblies[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. And, democratic principles or elements have also been claimed for societies ranging from the early [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahajanapadas"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Indian republics[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] (c. 500 BCE) to the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iroquois_Confederacy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Iroquois Confederacy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] in North America (second millennium CE to the present).[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliament_of_England"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Parliament of England[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] was the first major step towards a fully democratic system during the Middle Ages. It had its roots in the restrictions on the power of kings written into [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Carta"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Magna Carta[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. The first elected parliament was [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Montfort%27s_Parliament"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]De Montfort's Parliament[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] in England in 1265. Parliament was initially elected by only a few percent of the population and the system had problematic features such as [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotten_boroughs"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]rotten boroughs[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. The power to call parliament was at the pleasure of the monarch (usually when he or she needed funds). After the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glorious_Revolution"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Glorious Revolution[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] of 1688, England became a [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]constitutional monarchy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] with regular sittings of parliament, although still subject to the monarch. During this time the two party system of the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Whig_Party"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Whigs[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tories"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Tories[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] also developed. Parliament then gradually gained more decision-making and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legislative"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]legislative[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] powers until the reign of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen_Victoria"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Queen Victoria[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] at which time the monarch essentially became a figurehead.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]United States[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] can be seen as the first liberal democracy, [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://www.oxonianreview.org/issues/2-2/2-2-6.htm"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3][2][/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] with a relatively wide franchise (although initially limited by property and gender restrictions, and the existence of slavery) and the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Constitution"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]United States Constitution[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] protected rights and liberties.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]A few years later, [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revolutionary_France"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Revolutionary France[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] adopted the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_the_Rights_of_Man_and_of_the_Citizen"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] and, although short-lived, the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Convention"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]National Convention[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] was elected by all males.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Liberal democracies were few and often short-lived before the late nineteenth century. Various nations and territories have claimed to be the first with [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_suffrage"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]universal suffrage[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman].[/FONT][/SIZE]
[B][FONT=Times New Roman]20th century waves of democracy[/FONT][/B]

[URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/20th_century"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]20th century[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] transitions to liberal democracy have come in successive "waves of democracy", variously resulting from wars, revolutions, [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decolonization"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]decolonization[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] and economic circumstances. [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]World War I[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] and the dissolution of the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_empire"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Ottoman[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Austro-Hungarian[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] empires resulted in the creation of new nation-states in Europe, most of them nominally democratic. The rise of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]fascist[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] movements, and fascist regimes in [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Nazi Germany[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mussolini"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Mussolini[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] in Italy, [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Franco"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Francisco Franco[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]'s regime in [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spain"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Spain[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant%C3%B3nio_de_Oliveira_Salazar"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]António de Oliveira Salazar[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]'s regime in [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portugal"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Portugal[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], limited the extent of democracy in the 1930s, and gave the impression of an "Age of Dictators". The status of most [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonies"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]colonies[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] remained unaffected.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]World War II[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] brought a definitive reversal of this trend in western Europe. The successful democratization of the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allied_Control_Council"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]occupied Germany[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] and the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupied_Japan"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]occupied Japan[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] served as a model for the later theory of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regime_change"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]regime change[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. However, most of Eastern Europe was forced into the non-democratic [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_bloc"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Soviet bloc[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. The war was followed by [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decolonisation"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]decolonisation[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman], and again most of the new independent states had nominally democratic constitutions.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]In the decades following World War II, most western democratic nations had a predominantly [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free-market_economy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]free-market economy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] and developed a [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welfare_state"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]welfare state[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman], reflecting a general consensus among their electorates and political parties. In the 1950s and 1960s, economic growth was high in both the western and communist countries, later it declined in the state-controlled economies. By 1960, the vast majority of nation-states were nominally democracies, although the majority of the world's populations lived in nations that experienced sham elections, and other forms of subterfuge (particularly in Communist nations and the former colonies.)[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]A subsequent wave of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratization"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]democratization[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] brought substantial gains toward true liberal democracy for many nations. Several of the military dictatorships in South America become democratic in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This was followed by nations in East and South Asia by the mid- to late 1980s. Economic malaise in the 1980s, along with resentment of communist oppression, contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union, the associated end of the Cold War, and the democratisation and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberalisation"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]liberalisation[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] of the former Soviet bloc countries. The most successful of the new democracies were those geographically and culturally closest to western Europe, and they are now members or candidate members of the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]European Union[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]. The democratic trend spread to some nations in Africa in the 1990s, most prominently in South Africa.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The number of liberal democracies currently stands at an all-time high, and has been growing without interruption for some time. As such, it has been speculated that this trend may continue in the future to the point where liberal democratic nation-states become the universal standard form of human [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Society"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]society[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. This prediction forms the core of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Fukayama"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Francis Fukayama[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]'s "[/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_End_of_History_and_the_Last_Man"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]End of History[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]" theory.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[B][FONT=Times New Roman]Major theories of democracy[/FONT][/B]

[B][FONT=Times New Roman]Conceptions of democracy[/FONT][/B]

[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]Among political theorists, there are many contending conceptions of democracy.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]On one account, called minimalism, democracy is a system of government in which citizens give teams of political leaders the right to rule in periodic elections. According to this minimalist conception, citizens cannot and should not “rule” because on most issues, most of the time, they have no clear views or their views are not very intelligent. [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Schumpeter"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Joseph Schumpeter[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] articulated this view most famously in his book [I]Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy[/I] [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#_note-1#_note-1"][COLOR=windowtext][2][/COLOR][/URL]. Contemporary proponents of minimalism include [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_H._Riker"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]William Riker[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adam_Przeworksi&action=edit"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Adam Przeworksi[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Posner"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Richard Posner[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman].[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]A second view is called the aggregative conception of democracy. It holds that government should produce laws and policies are close to the views of the median voter — with half to his left and the other half to his right. [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Downs"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Anthony Downs[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] laid out this view in his 1957 book [I]An Economic Theory of Democracy[/I]. [/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]A third conception, [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deliberative_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]deliberative democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman], is based on the notion that democracy is government by discussion. Deliberative democrats contend that laws and policies should be based upon reasons that all citizens can accept. The political arena should be one in which leaders and citizens make arguments, listen, and change their minds.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The three conceptions above assume a representative democracy. [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Direct democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman], a fourth conception, holds that citizens should participate directly, not through their representatives, in making laws and policies. Proponents of direct democracy offer varied reasons to support this view. Political activity can be valuable in itself, it socializes and educates citizens, and popular participation can check powerful elites. Most importantly, citizens do not really rule themselves unless they directly decide laws and policies.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Another conception of democracy is that it means political equality between all citizens. This can be used as an argument for making political participation mandatory, like compulsory voting, or for limiting the influence of the wealthy, like [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campaign_finance_reform"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Campaign finance reform[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]. [/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]These conceptions of democracy are based on the question of what a democracy [I]ought to be[/I]. A fifth and quite different conception of democracy is based on the assumption that a democracy performs a [I]function[/I] for the members of a collective who create it and that individuals in a democracy play [I]roles.[/I] This conception assumes that the actual people who occupy these roles and perform this function in a real democracy are self-interested. The conception was invented by economists and is sometimes called an economic approach to democracy. It is represented by the field of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_Choice"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Public Choice[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman].[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Another conception of democracy is that it is [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majority_rule"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]majority rule[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] and is justified under [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utilitarian"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]utilitarian[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] reasoning. The advantanges of democracy seen under this conception is that the majority of the population are satisfied with the governance they live under. The disadvantage is that the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minority"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]minority[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] live under the power of the majority sometimes termed the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyranny_of_the_majority"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]tyranny of the majority[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], or [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mob_rule"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]mob rule[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. This can lead to the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marginalisation"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]marginalisation[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] of large portions of a population if the will of the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majority"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]majority[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] is not restrained by a strong and just [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]constitution[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] and legal system.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[B][FONT=Times New Roman]"Democracy" vs. "Republic"[/FONT][/B]

[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]The definition of the word "democracy" from the time of ancient Greece up to now has not been constant. In contemporary usage, the term "democracy" refers to a government chosen by the people, whether it is direct or representative.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]In constitutional theory and in historical usages and especially when considering the works of the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Founding_Fathers_of_the_United_States"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Founding Fathers of the United States[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], the word "democracy" refers solely to [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]direct democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], whilst a [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representative_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]representative democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] where representatives of the people govern in accordance with a constitution is referred to as a [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. Using the term "democracy" to refer solely to direct democracy retains some popularity in United States [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_conservatism"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]conservative[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libertarian_Party_%28United_States%29"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]libertarian[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] circles.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The original framers of the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Constitution"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]United States Constitution[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] were notably cognizant of what they perceived as a danger of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majority_rule"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]majority rule[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] in oppressing freedom of the individual. For example, [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Madison"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]James Madison[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], in [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalist_Papers"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Federalist Paper No. 10[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] advocates a constitutional republic over a democracy precisely to protect the individual from the majority. [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#_note-3#_note-3"][COLOR=windowtext][4][/COLOR][/URL] However, at the same time, the framers carefully created democratic institutions and major [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_society"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]open society[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] reforms within the United States Constitution and the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Bill_of_Rights"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]United States Bill of Rights[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]. They kept what they believed were the best elements of democracy, but mitigated by a constitution with protections for individual liberty, a balance of power, and a layered federal structure.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Modern definitions of the term "republic", however, refer to any [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]state[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] with an elective [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Head_of_state"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]head of state[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] serving for a limited term, in contrast to most contemporary [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hereditary_monarchy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]hereditary monarchies[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] which are representative democracies and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]constitutional monarchies[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] adhering to [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliamentarism"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]parliamentarism[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. Older [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elective_monarchy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]elective monarchies[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] are also not considered to be republics.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[B][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/B]

[B][FONT=Times New Roman]The democratic state[/FONT][/B]

[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Though there remains some philosophical debate as to the applicability and legitimacy of criteria in defining democracy (see philosopher [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Blattberg"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Charles Blattberg[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], [I]From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics: Putting Practice First[/I], Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, ch. 5. [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Booksources&isbn=0198296886"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]ISBN 0-19-829688-6[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]) what follows may be a minimum of requirements for a state to be considered democratic (note that for example anarchists may support a form of democracy but not a state):[/FONT][/SIZE][LIST][*][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]That there is a [I]demos[/I], a group which makes political decisions by some form of collective procedure. Non-members of the demos do not participate. In modern democracies the demos is the adult portion of the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nation"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]nation[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], and adult [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizenship"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]citizenship[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] is usually equivalent to membership. [/FONT][/SIZE][/LIST][LIST][*][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]That there is a [I]territory[/I] where the decisions apply, and where the demos is resident. In modern democracies, the territory is the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nation-state"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]nation-state[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], and since this corresponds (in theory) with the homeland of the nation, the demos and the reach of the democratic process neatly coincide. Colonies of democracies are not considered democratic by themselves, if they are governed from the colonial [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motherland"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]motherland[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]: demos and territory do not coincide. [/FONT][/SIZE][/LIST][LIST][*][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]That there is a [I]decision-making procedure[/I], which is either direct, in instances such as a [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Referendum"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]referendum[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], or indirect, of which instances include the election of a [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliament"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]parliament[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]. [/FONT][/SIZE][/LIST][LIST][*][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]That the procedure is regarded as [I]legitimate[/I] by the demos, implying that its outcome will be accepted. [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legitimacy_%28political_science%29"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Political legitimacy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] is the willingness of the population to accept decisions of the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]state[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman], its government and courts, which go against personal choices or interests. [/FONT][/SIZE][/LIST][LIST][*][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]That the procedure is [I]effective[/I] in the minimal sense that it can be used to change the government, assuming there is sufficient support for that change. Showcase elections, pre-arranged to re-elect the existing regime, are not democratic. [/FONT][/SIZE][/LIST][LIST][*][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]That, in the case of nation-states, the state must be [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sovereignty"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]sovereign[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]: democratic elections are pointless if an outside authority can overrule the result. [/FONT][/SIZE][/LIST][B][FONT=Times New Roman]Dissent[/FONT][/B]

[URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anarchism"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Anarchists[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] oppose the concept of the state, including democratic ones, as inherently corrupt and coercive. For example, [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Berkman"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Alexander Berkman[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#_note-4#_note-4"][COLOR=windowtext][5][/COLOR][/URL] refused to recognize the Commonwealth of [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pennsylvania"][COLOR=windowtext]Pennsylvania[/COLOR][/URL] enough to defend himself at his trial. Many [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_anarchists"][COLOR=windowtext]social anarchists[/COLOR][/URL] tend to support a non-hierarchical and non-coercive system of [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext]direct democracy[/COLOR][/URL] within free associations. However there is some disagreement between anarchists. Many expect society to operate by consensus, as in [I][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/News_from_Nowhere"][COLOR=windowtext]News from Nowhere[/COLOR][/URL][/I] or [I][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Dispossessed"][COLOR=windowtext]The Dispossessed[/COLOR][/URL][/I].[/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Some [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Individualist_anarchists"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Individualist anarchists[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] are vocal opponents of all or some forms of democracy. [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Tucker"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Benjamin Tucker[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] said, "Rule is evil, and it is none the better for being majority rule....What is the ballot? It is neither more nor less than a paper representative of the bayonet, the billy, and the bullet. It is a labor saving device for ascertaining on which side force lies and bowing to the inevitable. The voice of the majority saves bloodshed, but it is no less the arbitrament of force than is the decree of the most absolute of despots backed by the most powerful of armies."[URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#_note-5#_note-5"][COLOR=windowtext][6][/COLOR][/URL] [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre-Joseph_Proudhon"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Pierre-Joseph Proudhon[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] says, "Democracy is nothing but the Tyranny of Majorities (see [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyranny_of_the_majority"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]tyranny of the majority[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]), the most abominable tyranny of all, for it is not based on the authority of a religion, not upon the nobility of a race, not on the merits of talents and of riches. It merely rests upon numbers and hides behind the name of the people."[URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#_note-6#_note-6"][COLOR=windowtext][7][/COLOR][/URL] According to Robert Graham, "in [I]General Idea of the Revolution[/I] Proudhon ostensibly rejects both unanimous and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majoritarian"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]majoritarian[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] direct democracy. Read more closely, however, his criticisms can be confined to national forms of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]direct democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] designed to replace [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representative_government"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]representative government[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] but which will effectively perform the same political functions." He says, that for Proudhon a "person is only obligated to do that which he has freely undertaken to do" and therefore, the "only form of direct democracy compatible with this conception of obligation is one in which it is recognized that a [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minority"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]minority[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] which has refused to consent to a [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majority"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]majority[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] decision has assumed no obligation to abide by it. Majority decisions are not binding on the minority. Any agreement to the contrary would itself be invalid because it would require the minority to forfeit its autonomy and substantive freedom."[URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy#_note-7#_note-7"][COLOR=windowtext][8][/COLOR][/URL] Central to Proudhon’s notion of contract is the idea of self-assumed obligation. Hence, Proudhon's opposition to Rousseau's [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_contract"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]social contract[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]. He says, "What really is the Social Contract? An agreement of the citizen with the government? No, that would mean but the continuation of [Rousseau’s] idea...The social contract is an agreement of man with man...by which man and man declare themselves essentially producers, and abdicate all pretension to govern each other." [/FONT][/SIZE]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Some [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Far_right"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]far right[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] and [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchism"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]monarchist[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] groups also oppose various forms of democracy.[/FONT][/SIZE]
[B][FONT=Times New Roman]Democracy beyond the state level[/FONT][/B]

[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]While this article deals mainly with democracy as a system to rule countries, voting and representation have been used to govern many other kinds of communities and organisations.[/FONT][/SIZE][LIST][*][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Many [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-governmental_organisations"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]non-governmental organisations[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] decide policy and leadership by voting. [/FONT][/SIZE][*][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Christian [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monachism"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]monachal orders[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] often appointed their [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbot"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]abbots[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] through the votes of the monks. Many [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utopianism"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Utopian[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] reformers ([/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_More"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Thomas More[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] included) have been inspired by monachal communities. [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piracy_in_the_Caribbean"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Caribbean pirate[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] crews elected their captains by voting, contrasting with the ruthless hierarchical system of the navies of their time.[[URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources"][I][COLOR=windowtext]citation needed[/COLOR][/I][/URL]] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]In business, [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Company"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]companies[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] elect their boards by votes weighed by the number of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Share"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]shares[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] held by each owner. [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trade_union"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Trade unions[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] usually choose their leadership through democratic elections. [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Cooperatives[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] give each person (a worker or a consumer) one vote. [/FONT][/SIZE][/LIST][LIST][*][URL="http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_democracy/index.html"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Journal of Democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.mherrera.org/freedom.htm"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Freedom in the World[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Politics/Democracy/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] in the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Directory_Project"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Open Directory Project[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/cgi-local/DHI/dhi.cgi?id=dv1-78"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.democracywatch.org/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Democracy Watch (International)[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] — Worldwide democracy monitoring organization. [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.ifes.org/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]IFES — supporting the building of democratic societies around the world[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.democracyatlarge.org/"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][I][COLOR=windowtext]Democracy at large[/COLOR][/I][COLOR=windowtext] magazine — a quarterly magazine designed for professionals interested in democracy development worldwide[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://topics.developmentgateway.org/governance"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]dgGovernance[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] — Collection of resources on key issues of democracy and nation-building [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.ecoledelademocratie.org/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]the site of the Association for the School of Democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] a university-level research and training pluri- and transdisciplinary school of democracy [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://gsociology.icaap.org/report/polsum.html"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Brief review of trends in political change: freedom and conflict[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]. [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.nytimes.com/cfr/international/20040901facomment_v83n4_siegle-weinstein-halperin.html"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]New York Times argument against the "Development first, democracy later" idea[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.fareedzakaria.com/articles/other/democracy.html"][I][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The Rise of Illiberal Democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/I][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] by Fareed Zakaria [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.idea.int/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.opendemocracy.net/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]openDemocracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] — Global democracy network using information, participation and debate to empower citizens. [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://home.comcast.net/~plutarch/democracy.html"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Information Repository for Pro-Democracy Activism in the USA[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][/LIST][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]Critique[/B][/FONT][/SIZE][LIST][*][URL="http://www.gegenstandpunkt.com/english/state/toc.html"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The Democratic State - A Critique of Bourgeois Sovereignty[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.riff-raff.se/en/7/undemocracy.php"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Riff-Raff[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] — Democracy as the Community of Capital - A Provisional Critique of Democracy [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://web.inter.nl.net/users/Paul.Treanor/democracy.html"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Why democracy is wrong[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.lewrockwell.com/hoppe/hoppe4.html"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][I][COLOR=windowtext]Democracy, The God That Failed[/COLOR][/I][COLOR=windowtext] by Hans-Hermann Hoppe[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.conservativeclassics.com/books/libertybk/BK08.PDF"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][I][COLOR=windowtext]Liberty or Equality[/COLOR][/I][COLOR=windowtext] by Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.enterstageright.com/archive/articles/0105/0105churchilldem.htm"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][I][COLOR=windowtext]Churchill on Democracy Revisited[/COLOR][/I][COLOR=windowtext] by J.K. Baltzersen[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://jeffryfisher.net/Statesman/ElectionLaw/Democracy.htm"][I][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Democracy is More Than Just Voting[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/I][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][/LIST][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]Alternatives and improvements[/B] - see also [URL="http://www.wikocracy.com/"][COLOR=windowtext]Wikocracy[/COLOR][/URL], [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-democracy"][COLOR=windowtext]e-democracy[/COLOR][/URL], [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_democracy"][COLOR=windowtext]Internet democracy[/COLOR][/URL], and [URL="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Futarchy"][COLOR=windowtext]Futarchy[/COLOR][/URL][/FONT][/SIZE][LIST][*][URL="http://www.panarchy.org/anonymous/democracy.1962.html"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Democracy with a small "d"[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.philosophyparadise.com/essays/democraticmanifesto.html"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Democratic Manifesto[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.globalpublic.org/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Conducting new experiments with democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman], [I]Advancing Ethics & Democracy[/I], by Ross King and Karen Vandiver-King [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.greens.org/s-r/36/36-22.html"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Democratic Deficit[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR/lowell2.html"][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][I][COLOR=windowtext]On Democracy[/COLOR][/I][COLOR=windowtext] by James Russell Lowell[/COLOR][/FONT][/SIZE][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://simpol.org/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]simpol.org[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] — Plan to limit global competition and facilitate the emergence of a sustainable, sane global civilization. [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.sfgd.org/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Students for Global Democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] [/FONT][/SIZE][*][URL="http://www.democracy.wiki-law.org/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Wiki Democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman] — "an experiment that asks: if there were no laws in the United States, what laws would you impose on America?" :laughing :laughing :laughing [/FONT][/SIZE][/LIST]

Naseer Ahmed Chandio Thursday, July 06, 2006 10:13 AM

Monarchy
 
[I]Hi every one,[/I]




[B][FONT=Times New Roman]MONARCHY[/FONT][/B]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Undivided [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,sovereignty/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]sovereignty[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] or rule by a single person, who is the permanent head of state.

The term is now used to refer to countries with hereditary sovereigns. The monarch was the ideal head of the new nation-states of the 16th and 17th centuries; his powers were nearly unlimited (see [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,absolutism/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]absolutism[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]), though in Britain [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,Parliament/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Parliament[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] was able to restrict the sovereign's freedom of action, particularly through the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,Magna%20Carta/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Magna Carta[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] (1215) and the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,Bill%20of%20Rights/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Bill of Rights[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] (1689). The old idea that the monarch represented (within the limits of his dominions) the rule of God over all things culminated in the 17th century in the doctrine of the divine right of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,king/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]king[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]s (see [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,divine%20kingship/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]divine kingship[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]), exemplified by [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,Louis/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Louis XIV[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]. Monarchical absolutism adapted to the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,Enlightenment/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Enlightenment[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] by evolving into "benevolent despotism," as typified by the rule of [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,Catherine/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Catherine II[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] of Russia. The [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,French%20Revolution/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]French Revolution[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] dealt absolute monarchy a crushing blow, and World War I effectively destroyed what remained of it, the rulers of Russia, Germany, and Austria-Hungary being held responsible for the war and postwar misery. The institution developed into the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,constitutional%20monarchy/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]constitutional monarchy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] in western Europe, though absolute (or near-absolute) monarchies continue to exist in the Middle East. [/SIZE][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT]
[B][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]Constitutional Monarchy[/FONT][/SIZE][/B]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]System of government in which a monarch (see [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,monarchy/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]monarchy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]) shares power with a constitutionally organized government.[/SIZE][/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]The monarch may be the de facto head of state or a purely ceremonial leader. The [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,constitution/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]constitution[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] allocates the rest of the government's power to the legislature and judiciary. Britain became a constitutional monarchy under the [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,Whig/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Whig[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]s; other constitutional monarchies include Belgium, Cambodia, Jordan, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Thailand. [/SIZE][/FONT]

[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]1: [/B]undivided rule or absolute sovereignty by a single person[/FONT][/SIZE]

[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]2: [/B]a nation or state having a monarchical government [/FONT][/SIZE]

[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]3: [/B]a government having a hereditary chief of state with life tenure and powers varying from nominal to absolute [/FONT][/SIZE]

[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]The undivided sovereignty or rule of a single person. The term is applied to states in which the supreme authority is vested in a single person, the monarch, who is the permanent head of the state. The word has, however, outlived this original meaning and is now used, when used at all, somewhat loosely of states ruled by hereditary sovereigns[B]...[/B][/FONT][/SIZE]


:ohmy: :ohmy: :ohmy:

Naseer Ahmed Chandio Thursday, July 06, 2006 10:17 AM

Dictatorship
 
:thinking

Hi guys,




[B][I][FONT=Times New Roman]Dictatorship[/FONT][/I][/B]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Form of government in which one person or an [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,oligarchy/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]oligarchy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] possesses absolute power without effective constitutional checks.[/SIZE][/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]With constitutional [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://!!09HMK27M2P,democracy/"][COLOR=windowtext][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], it is one of the two chief forms of government in use today. Modern dictators usually use force or fraud to gain power and then keep it through intimidation, terror, suppression of civil liberties, and control of the mass media. In 20th-century Latin America, nationalist leaders often achieved power through the military and attempted either to maintain the privileged elite or to institute far-reaching social reform, depending on their class sympathies. In Europe's communist and fascist dictatorships, a charismatic leader of a mass party used an official ideology to maintain his regime, and terror and propaganda to suppress opposition. In postcolonial Africa and Asia, dictators have often retained power by establishing one-party rule after a military takeover. [/SIZE][/FONT]

[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]1: [/B]the office of dictator[/FONT][/SIZE]
[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]2: [/B]autocratic rule, control, or leadership[/FONT][/SIZE]
[B][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]3 [/FONT][/SIZE][/B]
[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]a: [/B]a form of government in which absolute power is concentrated in a dictator or a small clique [/FONT][/SIZE]
[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]b: [/B]a government organization or group in which absolute power is so concentrated [/FONT][/SIZE]
[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]c: [/B]a despotic state [/FONT][/SIZE]
[B][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][/B]
[B][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT][/B]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT]

[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT]
[B][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]Dictatorship[/FONT][/SIZE][/B]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3] [/SIZE][/FONT]
[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Form of government in which one person or a small group possesses absolute power without effective constitutional limitations. The term dictatorship comes from the Latin title dictator, which in the Roman Republic designated a temporary magistrate who was granted extraordinary powers in order to deal with state crises. [/SIZE][/FONT]
:ninja: :sad

Naseer Ahmed Chandio Thursday, July 06, 2006 10:24 AM

Republic
 
Hi dear pals,







[B][FONT=Times New Roman]REPUBLIC[/FONT][/B]

[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Form of government in which a state is ruled by representatives elected by its populace.

The term was originally applied to a form of government in which the leader is periodically appointed under a constitution; it was contrasted with governments in which leadership is hereditary. A republic may also be distinguished from direct [/SIZE][/FONT][URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,democracy/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]democracy[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3], though modern representative democracies are by and large republics. [/SIZE][/FONT]

[B][SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman]Expressions Used:[/FONT][/SIZE][/B]

[B][URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Albania/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Albania[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL][/B]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Peoples%20Democratic%20Republic%20of%20Algeria/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Angola/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Angola[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Argentine%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Argentine Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Armenia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Armenia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Austria/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Austria[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Azerbaijan/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Azerbaijan[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,People%27s%20Republic%20of%20Bangladesh/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]People's Republic of Bangladesh[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Benin/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Benin[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Bolivia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Bolivia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Botswana/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Botswana[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Federative%20Republic%20of%20Brazil/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Federative Republic of Brazil[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Bulgaria/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Bulgaria[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Burundi/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Burundi[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Cameroon/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Cameroon[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Chile/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Chile[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,People%27s%20Republic%20of%20China/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]People's Republic of China[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Colombia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Colombia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Federal%20Islamic%20Republic%20of%20the%20Comoros/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Croatia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Croatia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Cuba/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Cuba[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Cyprus/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Cyprus[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Ecuador/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Ecuador[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,United%20Arab%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]United Arab Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Arab%20Republic%20of%20Egypt/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Arab Republic of Egypt[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Estonia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Estonia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Federal%20Democratic%20Republic%20of%20Ethiopia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Fiji/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Fiji[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Finland/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Finland[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,French%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]French Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Gabonese%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Gabonese Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Georgia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Georgia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Federal%20Republic%20of%20Germany/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Federal Republic of Germany[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Ghana/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Ghana[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Hellenic%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Hellenic Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Guatemala/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Guatemala[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Guinea/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Guinea[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Co%20operative%20Republic%20of%20Guyana/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Co operative Republic of Guyana[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Haiti/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Haiti[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Honduras/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Honduras[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Hungary/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Hungary[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Iceland/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Iceland[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20India/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of India[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Indonesia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Indonesia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Islamic%20Republic%20of%20Iran/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Islamic Republic of Iran[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Iraq/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Iraq[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Italian%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Italian Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Kazakhstan/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Kazakhstan[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Kenya/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Kenya[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Kiribati/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Kiribati[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Kyrgyz%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Kyrgyz Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Lao%20People%27s%20Democratic%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Lao People's Democratic Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Latvia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Latvia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Lebanon/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Lebanon[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Liberia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Liberia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Lithuania/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Lithuania[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Macedonia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Macedonia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Madagascar/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Madagascar[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Malawi/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Malawi[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Maldives/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Maldives[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Mali/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Mali[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Islamic%20Republic%20of%20Mauritania/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Islamic Republic of Mauritania[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Mauritius/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Mauritius[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Moldova/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Moldova[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Mozambique/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Mozambique[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Namibia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Namibia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Nauru/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Nauru[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Nicaragua/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Nicaragua[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Niger/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Niger[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Federal%20Republic%20of%20Nigeria/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Federal Republic of Nigeria[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Islamic%20Republic%20of%20Pakistan/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Islamic Republic of Pakistan[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Palau/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Palau[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Panama/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Panama[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Paraguay/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Paraguay[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Peru/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Peru[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20the%20Philippines/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of the Philippines[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Poland/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Poland[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Portuguese%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Portuguese Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Rwanda/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Rwanda[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Senegal/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Senegal[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Seychelles/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Seychelles[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Singapore/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Singapore[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Slovak%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Slovak Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Slovenia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Slovenia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Suriname/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Suriname[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Syrian%20Arab%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Syrian Arab Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Tajikistan/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Tajikistan[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,United%20Republic%20of%20Tanzania/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]United Republic of Tanzania[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Togo/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Togo[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,South%20African%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]South African Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Tunisia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Tunisia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Turkey/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Turkey[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Uganda/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Uganda[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Oriental%20Republic%20of%20Uruguay/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Oriental Republic of Uruguay[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Uzbekistan/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Uzbekistan[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Vanuatu/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Vanuatu[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Bolivarian%20Republic%20of%20Venezuela/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Socialist%20Republic%20of%20Vietnam/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Socialist Republic of Vietnam[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Yemen/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Yemen[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Zambia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Zambia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Zimbabwe/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Zimbabwe[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Batavian%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Batavian Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Bosnia%20and%20Herzegovina/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Cape%20Verde/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Cape Verde[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Cisalpine%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Cisalpine Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Congo%20Republic%20of%20the/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Congo Republic of the[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Costa%20Rica/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Costa Rica[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20C%C3%B4te%20d%27Ivoire/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Côte d'Ivoire[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Czech%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Czech Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Dominican%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Dominican Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Dutch%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Dutch Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20the%20United%20Netherlands/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of the United Netherlands[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Democratic%20Republic%20of%20East%20Timor/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Democratic Republic of East Timor[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20El%20Salvador/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of El Salvador[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Fifth%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Fifth Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Fourth%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Fourth Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20the%20Gambia/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of the Gambia[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,German%20Democratic%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]German Democratic Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Guinea%20Bissau/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Guinea Bissau[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Helvetic%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Helvetic Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Democratic%20People%27s%20Republic%20of%20Korea/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Democratic People's Republic of Korea[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Korea/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Korea[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20the%20Marshall%20Islands/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of the Marshall Islands[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,New%20Republic%20The/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]New Republic The[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Rally%20for%20the%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Rally for the Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Roman%20Republic%20and%20Empire/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Roman Republic and Empire[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Saharan%20Arab%20Democratic%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Saharan Arab Democratic Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20San%20Marino/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of San Marino[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Second%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Second Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Sierra%20Leone/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Sierra Leone[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,South%20Africa%20Republic%20of/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]South Africa Republic of[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Democratic%20Socialist%20Republic%20of%20Sri%20Lanka/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20the%20Sudan/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of the Sudan[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Third%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Third Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Trinidad%20and%20Tobago/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Trinidad and Tobago[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Weimar%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Weimar Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Central%20African%20Republic/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Central African Republic[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Congo%20Democratic%20Republic%20of%20the/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Congo Democratic Republic of the[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Zaire/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Zaire[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Djibouti/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Djibouti[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Republic%20of%20Equatorial%20Guinea/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Republic of Equatorial Guinea[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Democratic%20Republic%20of%20S%C3%A3o%20Tom%C3%A9%20and%20Pr%C3%ADncipe/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]
[URL="bword://%21%2109HMK27M2P,Union%20of%20Soviet%20Socialist%20Republics/"][COLOR=#000000][FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[/SIZE][/FONT][/COLOR][/URL]

[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]1 a (1)[/B] [B]: [/B]a government having a chief of state who is not a monarch and who in modern times is usually a president [B](2)[/B] [B]: [/B]a political unit (as a nation) having such a form of government [B]b (1)[/B] [B]: [/B]a government in which supreme power resides in a body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by elected officers and representatives responsible to them and governing according to law [B](2)[/B] [B]: [/B]a political unit (as a nation) having such a form of government [B]c[/B] [B]: [/B]a usually specified republican government of a political unit <the French Fourth [I]Republic[/I]>
[/FONT][/SIZE]
[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]2[/B] [B]: [/B]a body of persons freely engaged in a specified activity <the [I]republic[/I] of letters>
[/FONT][/SIZE]
[SIZE=3][FONT=Times New Roman][B]3[/B] [B]: [/B]a constituent political and territorial unit of the former nations of Czechoslovakia, the U.S.S.R., or Yugoslavia [/FONT][/SIZE]
[SIZE=3]

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[FONT=Times New Roman][SIZE=3]:pp :sad :ohmy: [/SIZE][/FONT]


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