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Xeric Tuesday, March 10, 2009 12:50 AM

Dear fellows our respected member of the forum [B]azix_zee[/B] has started a thread [URL="http://www.cssforum.com.pk/central-superior-services-examination/topics-notes/political-science/21775-political-philosphy-will-updated.html"]Political Philosophy[/URL]. In this thread he has mentioned the key points for the convenience of aspiransts. It is also usefull for those who have no knowledge about Political Science and they want to opt it as an optional subject. Keeping in view the importance of the subject I have taken another step to collect the key points of principles of Political Science. It will cover the Political Science Paper-I, Part-B whereas earlier thread will cover Political Science Paper-I, Part-A.


[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Political Science[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]


[B]Professor Garner: [/B]

“ Political Science begins and ends with the State.’

[B]Professor Gettle:[/B]

“A historical investigation of what the State has been, an analytical study of what the State is and a politico-ethical discussion of what the State ought to be”.

[B]Paul Ganet:[/B]

“It is a part of social sciences which treats of the foundation of the State and the principles of Government”.


[B]Politics and Political Science[/B]
[LIST][*]Political Science is an academic subject—politics is its practical manifestation.[*]Term politics, used by Aristotle and others as the name for the science of the State.[*]Difference same as between Politician and Political Scientis.[*]Political theory and Political Ideology[/LIST]
[B]Political theory[/B]
[LIST][*]It portrays the point of view of a particular theorist or school of thought [*]Gets benefit from political ideology.[/LIST]
[B]Political Ideology[/B]
[LIST][*]Wide in sense than the former.[*]Depicts the dominant political ideas of a particular region or an age.[/LIST]

[B][U]Political Science and Political Philosophy[/U][/B]

[B]Political Philosophy[/B]
[LIST][*]Professor Gilchrist, “It deals with the fundamental problems of the State and government, questions of duties and rights.”[*]It does not cover the entire field of Sate and government.[/LIST]
[B]Political Science[/B]
[LIST][*]Concerned not only with such problems but also history of political institutions.[*]History has no place in political philosophy.[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Is Political Science really a science?[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]



[B]What is Science?[/B]

A systematic knowledge of things and forces of nature based on observation, experiment or reason.

Systematic method of knowing something.


[B]Kinds of Sciences[/B]

[B]Sciences of Nature:[/B] Natural and exact sciences e.g. Physics, Chemistry etc
[B]Sciences of Society:[/B] Also called social sciences e.g. Political Science, Sociology etc.


[B]Arguments in support of Political Science as a Science[/B]


[B]Aristotle[/B], “regarded Political Science not only a science but declared it to be the supreme or master science.”

[B]Hobbes[/B] also believed the Political Science to be a science.
[LIST][*]Can be a science if enquiry and research based on observation, experimentation and empirical verification of facts are adopted.[*]The whole world appear to be a laboratory.[*]Gilchrist, “Every change in form of government, every new law passed by parliament and every war is an experiment in Political Science”.[*]After systematic study of the revolutions the political thinkers concluded that poverty of masses and power in the hands of small groups—real cause (experiment)[*]Ibn-e-Khaldoon discovered universal laws regulating a cyclic change regarding the origin, rise and fall of dynasties.[/LIST]
[B]Arguments against Political Science as a Science[/B]


[B]Buckle,[/B] “In the present state of knowledge, Political Science so far from being a science, is one of the most backward of all arts.”

[B]Maitland,[/B] “When I see a good set of examination questions headed by the words ‘Political Science’ I regret not he questions, but the title.”

[B]Auguste Concludes[/B]
[LIST][*]i. No common agreement among its writers and thinkers regarding principles and conclusions.[*]ii. Lack of continuity of development[*]iii. Lack of fixed laws and principles to predict future political events and developments[/LIST][LIST][*]Its laws and conclusions are not exact.[*]Writers do not adopt any one method for enquiry and research-differ from one another[*]Political conditions: difficult to apply scientific method[*]Difficult to predict the flow of events due to uncertain political conditions.[*]Direct political changes makes researcher’s task more difficult[*]Political affiliations of a researcher affects his findings in research (impartiality: major essential of scientific research)[/LIST]
[B]Balanced View about Political Science as a Science[/B]
[LIST][*]It is science but not exact and definitely scientific in outlook[*]Its principles may not exact and universal but generally valid and useful in solving the problems of State and government.[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Approaches/Methods of the Study of Political Science[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]



[B]1. Experimental Method:[/B]
[LIST][*]The whole world appears to be a laboratory[*]Every new law and constitution serves the purpose of political experiment.[*]Much caution is required. Political phenomenas are very complex and influenced by economy, religion, races, geography etc[/LIST]
[B]2. Observational Method[/B]
[LIST][*]Lord Bryce and Montesquieu used that method.[*]A researcher tests hypothesis with reference to contemporary realities and gives his conclusions.[*]During the observation of British Political System Montesquieu discovered “Separation of Powers”.[*]Framers US-Constitution fully incorporated the doctrine of Montesquieu.[/LIST]
[B]3. Sociological Method[/B]
[LIST][*]The purpose and mode of State action corresponds to the physical features of individual’s life.[*]Ibn-e-Khaldoon developed this method and explained the nature and functions of the government with reference to the particular stage of human civilization.[/LIST]
[B]4. Historical Method[/B]
[LIST][*]Used by Freeman and Seeley[*]It provides the data and contributed for evolution of political theory and development of political ideas.[*]Most of problems can be solved while placing them in historical setting.[*]Study of evolutionary growth of different institutions—historical method provide clue to understand their content.[/LIST]
[B]5.Philosophical Method[/B]
[LIST][*]By Plato and Rousseau[*]Study of explanation of human behavior and nature is essential for explaining all political phenomena.[*]Ancient Greek constructed the political concept on the basis of philosophy.[/LIST]
[B]6.Comparative Method[/B]
[LIST][*]Used by Aristotle[*]He applied it and studied various political systems, while conclusion and generalization.[/LIST]
[B]7.Psychological Method[/B]
[LIST][*]Political scientists are motivated by psychological factors.[*]The followers prefer to explain nature and functions of political institutions in this set up.[*]Thomas Hobbes used this method.[/LIST]
[B]8.Legal or Juridicial Method[/B]
[LIST][*]Nature, evolution and problems relating to political system can be better appraised and analyzed by legal norms.[*]Muslim scholars appraised political changes of Islam in the light of the law of Islamic Shariah.[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Utility and Scope of the Study of Political Science[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]



[B]1. Success of Democracy[/B]
[LIST][*]Political powers cannot be claimed on hereditary basis.[*]Equip the decision makers and aware citizens politically.[*]Citizens not only to cast vote but to participate indirectly in decision-making process.[/LIST]
[B]2. Political Consciousness[/B]
[LIST][*]Develop understanding of political process and political relations[*]Knowledge regarding governmental affairs.[*]Awareness of right to vote.[/LIST]
[B]3. Protection of Rights[/B]
[LIST][*]Reject autocracy.[*]Effective for enforcement of rights.[*]Solid guarantee for protection of fundamental liberties.[/LIST]
[B]4. Promotion of Knowledge[/B]
[LIST][*]Broadens the intellectual understandings.[*]Enriches knowledge.[*]Analyze the political issues by utilizing research techniques.[/LIST]
[B]5. Political Training[/B]
[LIST][*]Educates the voters, to perceive their responsibilities.[*]Hold political office bearers accountable to the people.[*]Enhance political sagacity, skill, general information and training statecraft.[/LIST]
[B]6. Adjustment of Loyalties[/B]
[LIST][*]Provide higher sense of tolerance among associations and political parties.[*]Create and foster supportive political values in a society.[/LIST]
[B]7. Improvement of Political Behavior[/B]
[LIST][*]Aquaints with peaceful means of techniques for demands and wishes get translated into pubic policy.[*]Clear estimation of far-reaching disastrous consequences of violence.[*]Improvements of political behavior by clear perception of right and wrong.[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Relation of Political Science with other Social Sciences[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]


[B]1. Political Science and History:[/B]
[LIST][*]History provides necessary data for research, conclusions—past events.[*]Political Science furnishes conceptual and ideological foundation to history without it, history is mere chronology.[*]History provides data regarding birth, growth and death of political institutions.
[*][B]Professor Seeley,[/B] “[I]Political Science without history has no root while history without Political Science bears no fruit[/I]”.
[*]Democracy is the best form of government: substantiated by history.[/LIST]

[B]Difference between Political Science and History[/B]

[LIST][*]Research and study of Politic restricted to political events.[*]Political Science concern the present and future course of action while history deals pasts events only.[*]History—chronological order and Political Science: generalization of conclusions.[*]History does not evolve new idea or hypothesis.[*]Political is speculative while history is narrative.[/LIST]

[B]2. Political Science and Economics:[/B]

[LIST][*][B]Aristotle:[/B] Economic disparities is cause of revolutions.[*]Economic factors play crucial role in prosperity and survival of State.[*]Organized socio-political life guarantees satisfaction of economic wants.[*]Political thinkers of eighteenth century regarded Economics a branch of Political Science (Not accepted at present)[*]At presented Economics emerged as distinct and full-fledged science.[*]Economics deals with mode of production, source of wealth and the patren of its distribution.[/LIST]

[B]Impact of Economics on Political Science[/B]


Economic conditions have deep imprints on political ideas
Particular type of class determines nature of political structure
Most of the problems are economic.
Political parties draw manifesto while projecting economic problems.
Major cause of political instability in third world countries is economic.


[B]Impact of Political Science on Economics[/B]


Economic concepts and activities affect political conditions and political decision making.
Different type of governments enact distinct economic policies e.g. Socials government—nationalism. Liberal Democratic State—welfare economic system.


[B]3. Political Science and Sociology:[/B]

[LIST][*]Sociology is basic social science deal with all aspects of social existence.[*]Political aspect is only a part of Sociology.[*]Political Science is study of human political behavior and working of political institutions. Sociology help us to understand political problems.[*]Sociology provides information regarding evolution of the Sate and social legislation.[*]Political issues can be better solved, appraised and analyzed with reference to their sociological setting. [*]Political Science borrowed techniques of research from Sociology.[*]Difference between Political Science and Sociology[*]Political Science is study of Sate. Sociology is study of society and agencies of social control.[*]Sociology explains both conscious and unconscious activities of social life. Political Science concern, actions consciously performed.[*]Sociology is study of organized and unorganized groups while Political Science deals politically organized society.[*]Sociology has no concepts and guideline for future course of action where as Political Science analyzes and explains past events for shaping a good political life in future.[/LIST]
[B]4. Political Science and Ethics:[/B]

[LIST][*][B]Ethics:[/B] Refinement of conscience, aims at character building. It sets principles of right and wrong.[*]What is wrong in Ethics cannot be considered right in politics.[/LIST]

[B]Impact of Ethics on Political Science[/B]

[LIST][*]Moral values are deeply rooted and held in esteem in societies even autocratic governments try to justify their policies.[*]Prevailing cannons of morality are given full weight age in legislation.[*]Law is enforced most effectively when it has sanction of public morality at their back.[*]Law and policies of government can bring revolutionary changes in the ethical concepts. [*]Media and educational system are the best tools to effectively indoctrinate moral values through State’s machinery.[*]Revivalism of Islamic ethical order can be implemented by an Islamic Sate.[/LIST]

[B]5. Political Science and Psychology:[/B]
[LIST][*]Political attitudes of individual are better understood by psychology.[*]Patern of government: mental attitude of people e.g. people living in desserts are more freedom loving than city (Ibn-e-Khaldoon) they always foster democratic governmental structure.[*]Revolutionary changes in attitude and thinking of citizens: through effective political power and Sate resources.[*]Psychological techniques of propaganda are employed by political parties to mould pubic opinion in favour.[*]Psychological test (for civil and military services) to judge their aptitude and bent of mind.[/LIST]

Xeric Tuesday, March 10, 2009 02:20 AM

[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]The State[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]


[B]Aristotle[/B]

“An aggregation of different families and villages organized for the purpose of providing facilities for the promotion of a happy and prosperous life.”

[B]Bluntschli[/B]

“The politically organized people of a definite territory”.

[B]To sum up[/B]

“A society politically organized within a definite territory, having its own government with coercive power to enforce obedience and which is free from external control”.


[B]Essential Elements of the State[/B]

[B]1. Population[/B]
[LIST][*]Its absence: no human organization[*]Include all citizens whose rights and duties are legally recognized.[*]In ancient Greek Sates slaves and metics were not regarded as citizens, deprived of civil and political rights.[*]Modern Sates: no discrimination of class, creed or religion.[/LIST]
[B]Size[/B]
[LIST][*]Early Greeks preferred limiter number.[*]Plate restricted it to 5040.[*]Aristotle: neither so small to distinguish between rulers and ruled, nor so vast inconvenience in administration.[*]At present no hard and fast rule: Israel 60 lac, India and China over 1 billion.[*]It should be proportional to the size and resources of territory.[*]Not to small—not be able to defend or to develop its resources to the fullest extent.[/LIST]
[B]2. Territory[/B]
[LIST][*]Nomads: well organized, three elements are found, mere absence of a demarcated territory disqualifies them to be treated as body politic.[*]Scattered Jews did not form a State till they settled down in Israel.[*]Membership of Sate confine to people living in its territory.[/LIST]
[B]Vastness[/B]
[LIST][*]Greeks preferred limited territory.[*]Ancient Romans believed expansion to the global level.[*]Territory of the Sate includes, land natural resources, lakes and rivers, the marginal sea, air space etc.[*]Like population not possible to prescribe territorial limits.[*]USA and Russia are most powerful States, they possess huge territory and natural resources.[*]Scientific inventions: possible to govern large territories.[*]Not only vastness but also geographical position, climate and character of the people contribute to power and prosperity e.g. the Great Britain.[/LIST]
[B]3. Government[/B]
[LIST][*]Through it, will of State is formulated and expressed or through it, States sovereignty is exercised.[*]Number of people having a portion of territory with no any established organization to formulate or express their will is not called a State. [*]Governmental organization may be simple, few functions and restricted but must be there to form a State.[*]Government is temporary and State is permanent.[*]Change is government has no affect on the existence of State.[*]Parliamentary—Presidential, Unitary and Federal System, Democracy are most popular form of governments where as autocratic and totalitarian are disliked.[*]Government consists f Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.[*]“If the people are the limbs and the territory the body, the government is the head or brain of the State.”[/LIST]
[B]4. Sovereignty[/B]
[LIST][*]Paramount position to command unconditional obedience form its citizens and the groups.[*]Sovereignty discriminate the State from other type of human associations and establish it supremacy over all.[*]Sovereignty has two aspects.[*]Internal Sovereignty: Supremacy of the State over all individuals within its jurisdiction.[*]External Sovereignty: Independence of State from external control.[/LIST]
[B]1. State and Government[/B]
[LIST][*]Government is an element of State, so important that State is dependent on it for the formulation and expression of its will.
[*]Government has deep imprints on the working of political system.
[*]Hobbes regards defiance of government to treason against State.
[*]Democratic system signifies the difference: criticism against government’s policies is not treason rather it is indispensable for the preservation of a democratic life.[/LIST]

[B]Difference between State and Government[/B]

[LIST][*]Territory is essential element of government while government can be formed without its own territory e.g. defacto government of Afghanistan in Islamabad.
[*]All citizens are members of State whereas government consists of few of them.
[*]Physical characteristics of State are same everywhere while forms of government differ from place to place e.g. Presidential in USA, Parliamentary in UK etc.
[*]Sovereignty is attribute of State not of government. Government has power because State grants, government exercises only delegated powers.
[*]State is permanent, sovereignty remain till the existence of State while government change e.g. French Revolution: a big change in form of government but State continue.
[*]State is abstract while government is concrete. People may against government but never against the State.[/LIST]

[B]2.State and Society[/B]
[LIST][*]Man compelled to develop many relationships i.e. political, economic, cultural etc, society stands for all these relationships.
[*]Society stands for entire network of social relationships.
[*]If society is good a State will also be good and stable system.
[*]State can play role for better standard of life in a society.[/LIST]
[B]Difference between State and Society[/B]
[LIST][*]Society embraces the whole life of man; State concerned with is political aspect only.
[*]Society has no territorial reference, it belong to man alone not its environment, it may confined to home or extend to the whole world while Stat cannot be thought without territory.
[*]Society lacks sovereign power whereas State has endowed with sovereignty.
[*]Every individual is a member of State; Association; every member is free to opt or leave.
[*]First society than State came into existence.
[*]Violation of law; punishment by State while society depends upon State to control its members.
[*]State has definite government while society has no legal and any prescribed organization.[/LIST]
[B]3.State and Association[/B]
[LIST][*]“An association is a group of persons organized for the pursuit of an interest in common”.
[*]State is also a human association in a sense, though superior enough to regulate the conduct of all other association.
[*]There are many associations in society e.g. family, church, clubs etc[/LIST]
[B]Difference between State and Association[/B]
[LIST][*]Membership of State is necessary/compulsory while association is optional.
[*]Membership of State; one whereas membership of association; as many as depends upon aptitude and convenience of a person.
[*]State; look after interests of all, Association; Only its members
[*]State has wide range of functions while associations have specific interests.
[*]State is a permanent institution whereas association is temporary, it disappear after getting specific objects e.g. Association for Removal of Literacy.
[*]State has sovereignty while Association uses the instrument of moral persuasion or may deprive from membership.
[*]State carries on functions in a definite territory. Associations are not bound to, they may confine to a small village or on international scale e.g. UN, Red Cross etc.
[*]State has the right to dissolve associations, if they indulge in immoral and disruptive activities in society[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Islamic Concept of Welfare State[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]


[LIST][*]State is bound to bring far reaching and multi dimensional changes.
[*]Islam has given just and stable political order, righteous society; fair play and justice.
[*]Islam; neither uncontrolled economic patern (capitalism) nor socialistic solution. It has distinct mode i.e. betterment of whole society.
[*]Enforcement of welfare system though State machinery.
[*]Fostering fraternal feelings, love, brotherhood, charity etc.[/LIST]
[B]Balanced View[/B]
[LIST][*]Islam maintained suitable balance between liberty and equality.
[*]West liberalism is a social myth of equality.
[*]Responsibility of State
[*]Employment of mental and material resources.
[*]Pious Caliphate in Medina was an ideal system and has no parallel in modern world.
[*]Islam portrayed such a system which is based on chain of responsibilities.
[*]Social security system of Hazrat Umar (R.A)[/LIST]
[B]Enforcement of Justice[/B]
[LIST][*]protection of property right.
[*]Close all doors for ill means of getting wealth.
[*]Obligation of Islamic State to implement system of Zakat. Economic Justice
[*]Promote civic virtues, support simplicity, fair of Allah, uprightness, truthfulness etc.
[*]Hoarding and carted are strictly prohibited.
[*]No believe in complete socialization nor rigid type of economic system. Maximum sanctity is attached to human labor.
[*]Government is responsible for provision of work to all people.
[*]Right of property is not indefeasible, it is rather trust. Every Muslim to spend wealth in the way of Allah (SWT).[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Theories of the Origin of the State[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]



[SIZE="5"][B]Concept of State in Historical Perspective or The State in History[/B][/SIZE]

Evolution of State is inconsistent and irregular, resulting in different forms of polities.

[B]1-Tribal Organization[/B]
[LIST][*]Most primitive form, chief of the tribe had to perform variety of functions.[*]Gradually became hereditary and assumed absolute authority.[*]Strong tribes got hold of weak.[*]Gradually tribal organization expanded to vast area.[*]e.g. Euphrate, Dajla, Sindh, Ganga, Yang etc.[/LIST]
[B]2-Oriental Empire[/B]
[LIST][*]First organized entity on territorial basis.[*]Beginning; loose foundation of old tribal States.[*]They were free in internal affairs.[*]They were expected to owe political allegiance to control authority (king).[*]That political period; internal disturbance, frequent revolts.[*]Stable political institutions could not developed in that period.[/LIST]
[B]3-States in the West[/B]
[LIST][*]Contemporary of Oriental Empire. Flourished in the West.[*]Aegean and East Mediterranean waters; note able progress in civilization.[*]Their factor of expansion was strong naval power.[/LIST]
[B]4-Greek City States[/B]
[LIST][*]Between 4th or 5th B.C. Historical linkage to present world.[*]Whole region divided, small cities, every city was State.[*]Mutual rivalries—concept of vast territory could not developed.[/LIST]
[B]5-Roman Empire[/B]
[LIST][*]Emergence of City State, different phases, big Roman Empire.[*]Form of government; hereditary monarchy—absolute authority (Roman City State)[*]1st B.C: Rome became great empire having centrally administered strong authority.[*]Roman Empire based on autocracy and oppression.[/LIST]
[B]6-Feudal State[/B]
[LIST][*]Division of Roman Empire, small feuds, feudal remained at war.[*]No central authority to unite principle and organize them in body politic.[*]Powerful lords captured the neighboring territories.[*]Small feudal States emerged on the Map of Europe, France, England, Germany etc.[/LIST]
[B]7-Position of Church[/B]
[LIST][*]Christianity was the State religion of Holy Roman Empire, they regarded ruler as representative of God.[*]Church united the people by one religion, culture and uniform laws.[*]Fall of Roman Empire: Church was considered source of all authority.[*]Church became more powerful than contemporary European rulers.[*]Compromise between spiritual authority and worldly rulers, rulers also considered as representative of God.[/LIST]
[B]8-Emergence of Modern Nation State[/B]
[LIST][*]In medieval ages, political power transformed between lords and tenants.[*]Territorial nationalism, common political goals, race united the people.[*]Regional languages flourished in 15th and 16th century which replaced Latin.[*]Hatred against feudalism, need of its substitution felt.[*]Invention of gun powder, a tremendous advancement in science and technology.[*]Introduction of money economy and development of socio-economic order.[*]16th century: new national States emerged in Europe.[*]Contemporary political thought contributed in this regards.[*]Importance of middle class, tussle between absolute rulers and people.[*]French Revolution paved the way for democratic ideals and introduction of constitutional monarchy.[*]Working class also got importance.[*]Popularity of democracy, socialistic thought, concept of welfare State realized and got foothold.[*]Present century, “One Nation One State” recognized by League of Nations later UN, in the form of “Right of National self-determination”. [*]Many States emerged in Asia and Africa in post war period.[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="4"]Thread will be updated after exam.(Insha Allah)
To be continue . . . . . [/SIZE][/FONT][/B]

moin arjumand Saturday, May 09, 2009 09:07 AM

plz continue..
 
AOA!
yes dear its a good effort on ur part. plz keep updating this thread.
thank u

wasay Sunday, May 10, 2009 09:09 AM

thanks dear for such a nice information I have chosen political science iin optional subject can any body plz guide abt the book and all on this subject.

musavir Friday, May 06, 2011 01:34 PM

Useful post will save my time

Xeric Friday, May 06, 2011 07:17 PM

pls update this topic.

thanks

adv.amir Saturday, May 21, 2011 01:56 PM

[QUOTE=Binyamin;110322]Dear fellows our respected member of the forum [B]azix_zee[/B] has started a thread [URL="http://www.cssforum.com.pk/central-superior-services-examination/topics-notes/political-science/21775-political-philosphy-will-updated.html"]Political Philosophy[/URL]. In this thread he has mentioned the key points for the convenience of aspiransts. It is also usefull for those who have no knowledge about Political Science and they want to opt it as an optional subject. Keeping in view the importance of the subject I have taken another step to collect the key points of principles of Political Science. It will cover the Political Science Paper-I, Part-B whereas earlier thread will cover Political Science Paper-I, Part-A.


[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Political Science[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]


[B]Professor Garner: [/B]

“ Political Science begins and ends with the State.’

[B]Professor Gettle:[/B]

“A historical investigation of what the State has been, an analytical study of what the State is and a politico-ethical discussion of what the State ought to be”.

[B]Paul Ganet:[/B]

“It is a part of social sciences which treats of the foundation of the State and the principles of Government”.


[B]Politics and Political Science[/B]
[LIST][*]Political Science is an academic subject—politics is its practical manifestation.[*]Term politics, used by Aristotle and others as the name for the science of the State.[*]Difference same as between Politician and Political Scientis.[*]Political theory and Political Ideology[/LIST]
[B]Political theory[/B]
[LIST][*]It portrays the point of view of a particular theorist or school of thought [*]Gets benefit from political ideology.[/LIST]
[B]Political Ideology[/B]
[LIST][*]Wide in sense than the former.[*]Depicts the dominant political ideas of a particular region or an age.[/LIST]

[B][U]Political Science and Political Philosophy[/U][/B]

[B]Political Philosophy[/B]
[LIST][*]Professor Gilchrist, “It deals with the fundamental problems of the State and government, questions of duties and rights.”[*]It does not cover the entire field of Sate and government.[/LIST]
[B]Political Science[/B]
[LIST][*]Concerned not only with such problems but also history of political institutions.[*]History has no place in political philosophy.[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Is Political Science really a science?[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]



[B]What is Science?[/B]

A systematic knowledge of things and forces of nature based on observation, experiment or reason.

Systematic method of knowing something.


[B]Kinds of Sciences[/B]

[B]Sciences of Nature:[/B] Natural and exact sciences e.g. Physics, Chemistry etc
[B]Sciences of Society:[/B] Also called social sciences e.g. Political Science, Sociology etc.


[B]Arguments in support of Political Science as a Science[/B]


[B]Aristotle[/B], “regarded Political Science not only a science but declared it to be the supreme or master science.”

[B]Hobbes[/B] also believed the Political Science to be a science.
[LIST][*]Can be a science if enquiry and research based on observation, experimentation and empirical verification of facts are adopted.[*]The whole world appear to be a laboratory.[*]Gilchrist, “Every change in form of government, every new law passed by parliament and every war is an experiment in Political Science”.[*]After systematic study of the revolutions the political thinkers concluded that poverty of masses and power in the hands of small groups—real cause (experiment)[*]Ibn-e-Khaldoon discovered universal laws regulating a cyclic change regarding the origin, rise and fall of dynasties.[/LIST]
[B]Arguments against Political Science as a Science[/B]


[B]Buckle,[/B] “In the present state of knowledge, Political Science so far from being a science, is one of the most backward of all arts.”

[B]Maitland,[/B] “When I see a good set of examination questions headed by the words ‘Political Science’ I regret not he questions, but the title.”

[B]Auguste Concludes[/B]
[LIST][*]i. No common agreement among its writers and thinkers regarding principles and conclusions.[*]ii. Lack of continuity of development[*]iii. Lack of fixed laws and principles to predict future political events and developments[/LIST][LIST][*]Its laws and conclusions are not exact.[*]Writers do not adopt any one method for enquiry and research-differ from one another[*]Political conditions: difficult to apply scientific method[*]Difficult to predict the flow of events due to uncertain political conditions.[*]Direct political changes makes researcher’s task more difficult[*]Political affiliations of a researcher affects his findings in research (impartiality: major essential of scientific research)[/LIST]
[B]Balanced View about Political Science as a Science[/B]
[LIST][*]It is science but not exact and definitely scientific in outlook[*]Its principles may not exact and universal but generally valid and useful in solving the problems of State and government.[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Approaches/Methods of the Study of Political Science[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]



[B]1. Experimental Method:[/B]
[LIST][*]The whole world appears to be a laboratory[*]Every new law and constitution serves the purpose of political experiment.[*]Much caution is required. Political phenomenas are very complex and influenced by economy, religion, races, geography etc[/LIST]
[B]2. Observational Method[/B]
[LIST][*]Lord Bryce and Montesquieu used that method.[*]A researcher tests hypothesis with reference to contemporary realities and gives his conclusions.[*]During the observation of British Political System Montesquieu discovered “Separation of Powers”.[*]Framers US-Constitution fully incorporated the doctrine of Montesquieu.[/LIST]
[B]3. Sociological Method[/B]
[LIST][*]The purpose and mode of State action corresponds to the physical features of individual’s life.[*]Ibn-e-Khaldoon developed this method and explained the nature and functions of the government with reference to the particular stage of human civilization.[/LIST]
[B]4. Historical Method[/B]
[LIST][*]Used by Freeman and Seeley[*]It provides the data and contributed for evolution of political theory and development of political ideas.[*]Most of problems can be solved while placing them in historical setting.[*]Study of evolutionary growth of different institutions—historical method provide clue to understand their content.[/LIST]
[B]5.Philosophical Method[/B]
[LIST][*]By Plato and Rousseau[*]Study of explanation of human behavior and nature is essential for explaining all political phenomena.[*]Ancient Greek constructed the political concept on the basis of philosophy.[/LIST]
[B]6.Comparative Method[/B]
[LIST][*]Used by Aristotle[*]He applied it and studied various political systems, while conclusion and generalization.[/LIST]
[B]7.Psychological Method[/B]
[LIST][*]Political scientists are motivated by psychological factors.[*]The followers prefer to explain nature and functions of political institutions in this set up.[*]Thomas Hobbes used this method.[/LIST]
[B]8.Legal or Juridicial Method[/B]
[LIST][*]Nature, evolution and problems relating to political system can be better appraised and analyzed by legal norms.[*]Muslim scholars appraised political changes of Islam in the light of the law of Islamic Shariah.[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Utility and Scope of the Study of Political Science[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]



[B]1. Success of Democracy[/B]
[LIST][*]Political powers cannot be claimed on hereditary basis.[*]Equip the decision makers and aware citizens politically.[*]Citizens not only to cast vote but to participate indirectly in decision-making process.[/LIST]
[B]2. Political Consciousness[/B]
[LIST][*]Develop understanding of political process and political relations[*]Knowledge regarding governmental affairs.[*]Awareness of right to vote.[/LIST]
[B]3. Protection of Rights[/B]
[LIST][*]Reject autocracy.[*]Effective for enforcement of rights.[*]Solid guarantee for protection of fundamental liberties.[/LIST]
[B]4. Promotion of Knowledge[/B]
[LIST][*]Broadens the intellectual understandings.[*]Enriches knowledge.[*]Analyze the political issues by utilizing research techniques.[/LIST]
[B]5. Political Training[/B]
[LIST][*]Educates the voters, to perceive their responsibilities.[*]Hold political office bearers accountable to the people.[*]Enhance political sagacity, skill, general information and training statecraft.[/LIST]
[B]6. Adjustment of Loyalties[/B]
[LIST][*]Provide higher sense of tolerance among associations and political parties.[*]Create and foster supportive political values in a society.[/LIST]
[B]7. Improvement of Political Behavior[/B]
[LIST][*]Aquaints with peaceful means of techniques for demands and wishes get translated into pubic policy.[*]Clear estimation of far-reaching disastrous consequences of violence.[*]Improvements of political behavior by clear perception of right and wrong.[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Relation of Political Science with other Social Sciences[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]


[B]1. Political Science and History:[/B]
[LIST][*]History provides necessary data for research, conclusions—past events.[*]Political Science furnishes conceptual and ideological foundation to history without it, history is mere chronology.[*]History provides data regarding birth, growth and death of political institutions.
[*][B]Professor Seeley,[/B] “[I]Political Science without history has no root while history without Political Science bears no fruit[/I]”.
[*]Democracy is the best form of government: substantiated by history.[/LIST]

[B]Difference between Political Science and History[/B]

[LIST][*]Research and study of Politic restricted to political events.[*]Political Science concern the present and future course of action while history deals pasts events only.[*]History—chronological order and Political Science: generalization of conclusions.[*]History does not evolve new idea or hypothesis.[*]Political is speculative while history is narrative.[/LIST]

[B]2. Political Science and Economics:[/B]

[LIST][*][B]Aristotle:[/B] Economic disparities is cause of revolutions.[*]Economic factors play crucial role in prosperity and survival of State.[*]Organized socio-political life guarantees satisfaction of economic wants.[*]Political thinkers of eighteenth century regarded Economics a branch of Political Science (Not accepted at present)[*]At presented Economics emerged as distinct and full-fledged science.[*]Economics deals with mode of production, source of wealth and the patren of its distribution.[/LIST]

[B]Impact of Economics on Political Science[/B]


Economic conditions have deep imprints on political ideas
Particular type of class determines nature of political structure
Most of the problems are economic.
Political parties draw manifesto while projecting economic problems.
Major cause of political instability in third world countries is economic.


[B]Impact of Political Science on Economics[/B]


Economic concepts and activities affect political conditions and political decision making.
Different type of governments enact distinct economic policies e.g. Socials government—nationalism. Liberal Democratic State—welfare economic system.


[B]3. Political Science and Sociology:[/B]

[LIST][*]Sociology is basic social science deal with all aspects of social existence.[*]Political aspect is only a part of Sociology.[*]Political Science is study of human political behavior and working of political institutions. Sociology help us to understand political problems.[*]Sociology provides information regarding evolution of the Sate and social legislation.[*]Political issues can be better solved, appraised and analyzed with reference to their sociological setting. [*]Political Science borrowed techniques of research from Sociology.[*]Difference between Political Science and Sociology[*]Political Science is study of Sate. Sociology is study of society and agencies of social control.[*]Sociology explains both conscious and unconscious activities of social life. Political Science concern, actions consciously performed.[*]Sociology is study of organized and unorganized groups while Political Science deals politically organized society.[*]Sociology has no concepts and guideline for future course of action where as Political Science analyzes and explains past events for shaping a good political life in future.[/LIST]
[B]4. Political Science and Ethics:[/B]

[LIST][*][B]Ethics:[/B] Refinement of conscience, aims at character building. It sets principles of right and wrong.[*]What is wrong in Ethics cannot be considered right in politics.[/LIST]

[B]Impact of Ethics on Political Science[/B]

[LIST][*]Moral values are deeply rooted and held in esteem in societies even autocratic governments try to justify their policies.[*]Prevailing cannons of morality are given full weight age in legislation.[*]Law is enforced most effectively when it has sanction of public morality at their back.[*]Law and policies of government can bring revolutionary changes in the ethical concepts. [*]Media and educational system are the best tools to effectively indoctrinate moral values through State’s machinery.[*]Revivalism of Islamic ethical order can be implemented by an Islamic Sate.[/LIST]

[B]5. Political Science and Psychology:[/B]
[LIST][*]Political attitudes of individual are better understood by psychology.[*]Patern of government: mental attitude of people e.g. people living in desserts are more freedom loving than city (Ibn-e-Khaldoon) they always foster democratic governmental structure.[*]Revolutionary changes in attitude and thinking of citizens: through effective political power and Sate resources.[*]Psychological techniques of propaganda are employed by political parties to mould pubic opinion in favour.[*]Psychological test (for civil and military services) to judge their aptitude and bent of mind.[/LIST][/QUOTE]
salam to all seniors
plz help me regarding my interview for the post of lecturer political science
i have 5 days to prepare
plz give me gud suggestions

zt4096 Thursday, December 01, 2011 10:36 PM

[QUOTE=Xeric;110323][B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]The State[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]


[B]Aristotle[/B]

“An aggregation of different families and villages organized for the purpose of providing facilities for the promotion of a happy and prosperous life.”

[B]Bluntschli[/B]

“The politically organized people of a definite territory”.

[B]To sum up[/B]

“A society politically organized within a definite territory, having its own government with coercive power to enforce obedience and which is free from external control”.


[B]Essential Elements of the State[/B]

[B]1. Population[/B]
[LIST][*]Its absence: no human organization[*]Include all citizens whose rights and duties are legally recognized.[*]In ancient Greek Sates slaves and metics were not regarded as citizens, deprived of civil and political rights.[*]Modern Sates: no discrimination of class, creed or religion.[/LIST]
[B]Size[/B]
[LIST][*]Early Greeks preferred limiter number.[*]Plate restricted it to 5040.[*]Aristotle: neither so small to distinguish between rulers and ruled, nor so vast inconvenience in administration.[*]At present no hard and fast rule: Israel 60 lac, India and China over 1 billion.[*]It should be proportional to the size and resources of territory.[*]Not to small—not be able to defend or to develop its resources to the fullest extent.[/LIST]
[B]2. Territory[/B]
[LIST][*]Nomads: well organized, three elements are found, mere absence of a demarcated territory disqualifies them to be treated as body politic.[*]Scattered Jews did not form a State till they settled down in Israel.[*]Membership of Sate confine to people living in its territory.[/LIST]
[B]Vastness[/B]
[LIST][*]Greeks preferred limited territory.[*]Ancient Romans believed expansion to the global level.[*]Territory of the Sate includes, land natural resources, lakes and rivers, the marginal sea, air space etc.[*]Like population not possible to prescribe territorial limits.[*]USA and Russia are most powerful States, they possess huge territory and natural resources.[*]Scientific inventions: possible to govern large territories.[*]Not only vastness but also geographical position, climate and character of the people contribute to power and prosperity e.g. the Great Britain.[/LIST]
[B]3. Government[/B]
[LIST][*]Through it, will of State is formulated and expressed or through it, States sovereignty is exercised.[*]Number of people having a portion of territory with no any established organization to formulate or express their will is not called a State. [*]Governmental organization may be simple, few functions and restricted but must be there to form a State.[*]Government is temporary and State is permanent.[*]Change is government has no affect on the existence of State.[*]Parliamentary—Presidential, Unitary and Federal System, Democracy are most popular form of governments where as autocratic and totalitarian are disliked.[*]Government consists f Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.[*]“If the people are the limbs and the territory the body, the government is the head or brain of the State.”[/LIST]
[B]4. Sovereignty[/B]
[LIST][*]Paramount position to command unconditional obedience form its citizens and the groups.[*]Sovereignty discriminate the State from other type of human associations and establish it supremacy over all.[*]Sovereignty has two aspects.[*]Internal Sovereignty: Supremacy of the State over all individuals within its jurisdiction.[*]External Sovereignty: Independence of State from external control.[/LIST]
[B]1. State and Government[/B]
[LIST][*]Government is an element of State, so important that State is dependent on it for the formulation and expression of its will.
[*]Government has deep imprints on the working of political system.
[*]Hobbes regards defiance of government to treason against State.
[*]Democratic system signifies the difference: criticism against government’s policies is not treason rather it is indispensable for the preservation of a democratic life.[/LIST]

[B]Difference between State and Government[/B]

[LIST][*]Territory is essential element of government while government can be formed without its own territory e.g. defacto government of Afghanistan in Islamabad.
[*]All citizens are members of State whereas government consists of few of them.
[*]Physical characteristics of State are same everywhere while forms of government differ from place to place e.g. Presidential in USA, Parliamentary in UK etc.
[*]Sovereignty is attribute of State not of government. Government has power because State grants, government exercises only delegated powers.
[*]State is permanent, sovereignty remain till the existence of State while government change e.g. French Revolution: a big change in form of government but State continue.
[*]State is abstract while government is concrete. People may against government but never against the State.[/LIST]

[B]2.State and Society[/B]
[LIST][*]Man compelled to develop many relationships i.e. political, economic, cultural etc, society stands for all these relationships.
[*]Society stands for entire network of social relationships.
[*]If society is good a State will also be good and stable system.
[*]State can play role for better standard of life in a society.[/LIST]
[B]Difference between State and Society[/B]
[LIST][*]Society embraces the whole life of man; State concerned with is political aspect only.
[*]Society has no territorial reference, it belong to man alone not its environment, it may confined to home or extend to the whole world while Stat cannot be thought without territory.
[*]Society lacks sovereign power whereas State has endowed with sovereignty.
[*]Every individual is a member of State; Association; every member is free to opt or leave.
[*]First society than State came into existence.
[*]Violation of law; punishment by State while society depends upon State to control its members.
[*]State has definite government while society has no legal and any prescribed organization.[/LIST]
[B]3.State and Association[/B]
[LIST][*]“An association is a group of persons organized for the pursuit of an interest in common”.
[*]State is also a human association in a sense, though superior enough to regulate the conduct of all other association.
[*]There are many associations in society e.g. family, church, clubs etc[/LIST]
[B]Difference between State and Association[/B]
[LIST][*]Membership of State is necessary/compulsory while association is optional.
[*]Membership of State; one whereas membership of association; as many as depends upon aptitude and convenience of a person.
[*]State; look after interests of all, Association; Only its members
[*]State has wide range of functions while associations have specific interests.
[*]State is a permanent institution whereas association is temporary, it disappear after getting specific objects e.g. Association for Removal of Literacy.
[*]State has sovereignty while Association uses the instrument of moral persuasion or may deprive from membership.
[*]State carries on functions in a definite territory. Associations are not bound to, they may confine to a small village or on international scale e.g. UN, Red Cross etc.
[*]State has the right to dissolve associations, if they indulge in immoral and disruptive activities in society[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Islamic Concept of Welfare State[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]


[LIST][*]State is bound to bring far reaching and multi dimensional changes.
[*]Islam has given just and stable political order, righteous society; fair play and justice.
[*]Islam; neither uncontrolled economic patern (capitalism) nor socialistic solution. It has distinct mode i.e. betterment of whole society.
[*]Enforcement of welfare system though State machinery.
[*]Fostering fraternal feelings, love, brotherhood, charity etc.[/LIST]
[B]Balanced View[/B]
[LIST][*]Islam maintained suitable balance between liberty and equality.
[*]West liberalism is a social myth of equality.
[*]Responsibility of State
[*]Employment of mental and material resources.
[*]Pious Caliphate in Medina was an ideal system and has no parallel in modern world.
[*]Islam portrayed such a system which is based on chain of responsibilities.
[*]Social security system of Hazrat Umar (R.A)[/LIST]
[B]Enforcement of Justice[/B]
[LIST][*]protection of property right.
[*]Close all doors for ill means of getting wealth.
[*]Obligation of Islamic State to implement system of Zakat. Economic Justice
[*]Promote civic virtues, support simplicity, fair of Allah, uprightness, truthfulness etc.
[*]Hoarding and carted are strictly prohibited.
[*]No believe in complete socialization nor rigid type of economic system. Maximum sanctity is attached to human labor.
[*]Government is responsible for provision of work to all people.
[*]Right of property is not indefeasible, it is rather trust. Every Muslim to spend wealth in the way of Allah (SWT).[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="6"]Theories of the Origin of the State[/SIZE][/FONT][/B]



[SIZE="5"][B]Concept of State in Historical Perspective or The State in History[/B][/SIZE]

Evolution of State is inconsistent and irregular, resulting in different forms of polities.

[B]1-Tribal Organization[/B]
[LIST][*]Most primitive form, chief of the tribe had to perform variety of functions.[*]Gradually became hereditary and assumed absolute authority.[*]Strong tribes got hold of weak.[*]Gradually tribal organization expanded to vast area.[*]e.g. Euphrate, Dajla, Sindh, Ganga, Yang etc.[/LIST]
[B]2-Oriental Empire[/B]
[LIST][*]First organized entity on territorial basis.[*]Beginning; loose foundation of old tribal States.[*]They were free in internal affairs.[*]They were expected to owe political allegiance to control authority (king).[*]That political period; internal disturbance, frequent revolts.[*]Stable political institutions could not developed in that period.[/LIST]
[B]3-States in the West[/B]
[LIST][*]Contemporary of Oriental Empire. Flourished in the West.[*]Aegean and East Mediterranean waters; note able progress in civilization.[*]Their factor of expansion was strong naval power.[/LIST]
[B]4-Greek City States[/B]
[LIST][*]Between 4th or 5th B.C. Historical linkage to present world.[*]Whole region divided, small cities, every city was State.[*]Mutual rivalries—concept of vast territory could not developed.[/LIST]
[B]5-Roman Empire[/B]
[LIST][*]Emergence of City State, different phases, big Roman Empire.[*]Form of government; hereditary monarchy—absolute authority (Roman City State)[*]1st B.C: Rome became great empire having centrally administered strong authority.[*]Roman Empire based on autocracy and oppression.[/LIST]
[B]6-Feudal State[/B]
[LIST][*]Division of Roman Empire, small feuds, feudal remained at war.[*]No central authority to unite principle and organize them in body politic.[*]Powerful lords captured the neighboring territories.[*]Small feudal States emerged on the Map of Europe, France, England, Germany etc.[/LIST]
[B]7-Position of Church[/B]
[LIST][*]Christianity was the State religion of Holy Roman Empire, they regarded ruler as representative of God.[*]Church united the people by one religion, culture and uniform laws.[*]Fall of Roman Empire: Church was considered source of all authority.[*]Church became more powerful than contemporary European rulers.[*]Compromise between spiritual authority and worldly rulers, rulers also considered as representative of God.[/LIST]
[B]8-Emergence of Modern Nation State[/B]
[LIST][*]In medieval ages, political power transformed between lords and tenants.[*]Territorial nationalism, common political goals, race united the people.[*]Regional languages flourished in 15th and 16th century which replaced Latin.[*]Hatred against feudalism, need of its substitution felt.[*]Invention of gun powder, a tremendous advancement in science and technology.[*]Introduction of money economy and development of socio-economic order.[*]16th century: new national States emerged in Europe.[*]Contemporary political thought contributed in this regards.[*]Importance of middle class, tussle between absolute rulers and people.[*]French Revolution paved the way for democratic ideals and introduction of constitutional monarchy.[*]Working class also got importance.[*]Popularity of democracy, socialistic thought, concept of welfare State realized and got foothold.[*]Present century, “One Nation One State” recognized by League of Nations later UN, in the form of “Right of National self-determination”. [*]Many States emerged in Asia and Africa in post war period.[/LIST]
[B][FONT="Comic Sans MS"][SIZE="4"]Thread will be updated after exam.(Insha Allah)
To be continue . . . . . [/SIZE][/FONT][/B][/QUOTE]
[B][COLOR="DarkOliveGreen"]please dear continue the lecture.......... please ..... I found It very very useful..... so please continue it........waiting anxiously......[/COLOR][/B]

Xeric Thursday, December 01, 2011 11:19 PM

[QUOTE=zt4096;379924][B][COLOR="DarkOliveGreen"]please dear continue the lecture.......... please ..... I found It very very useful..... so please continue it........waiting anxiously......[/COLOR][/B][/QUOTE]

I'll try to continue. :)


09:48 PM (GMT +5)

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