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Old Monday, July 18, 2011
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Post Muslim Political Thought---Allama Iqbal

Allama Iqbal

Allama Muhammad Iqbal is a figure of legendary greatness amongst the scholars and poets of the modern age and his political thought has won a great deal of attention and respect amongst discerning students of political philosophy. He was born at Sialkot, a renowned city of Pakistan. He received his early education in Scotch Mission College, Sialkot and after his elementary schooling; he came to Lahore for higher education. He did M.A. in Philosophy from Government College Lahore in 1899 and served the Government College, as a lecturer in the subject of Philosophy for about five years. He later left for England in 1905 for higher studies. He obtained PhD degree from Munich University by writing a thesis, The Development of Metaphysics in Persia. He again went to London and did Bar-at-Law from Lincoln’s Inn. He returned to India in 1908 and was appointed as Professor of Philosophy in the Government College Lahore. Along with professorship he enrolled himself as a practicing barrister at the Lahore High Court. He resigned after a year and half from professorship and continued his legal practice.

He entered into practical politics and joined his efforts with freedom-champions to liberate the Indian Muslims from the clutches of the Hindus and subjugation of the English. He was elected as Member of the Punjab Legislative Council, and later elected unanimously of the President of All-India Muslim League. He vigorously advocated the two nation theory and demanded a separate homeland for Indian Muslims, where their religion and culture could flourish without any fear of chauvinism. He actuated the Muslims of India from political slumber to champion their cause for separate country within India, and this very vision became crystal reality in his pronouncement in the annual session of the League in 1930. Dr. Allama Iqbal’s declaration for Pakistan echoed throughout the world and it became the instrumental in re-awakening and the enlightenment of Muslims to combat all forces for the achievement of a separate homeland i-e. Pakistan.

Dr. Iqbal has given an ever-inspiring treasure of knowledge and philosophy through his works, which have immortalized him on the pages of existence. He is widely respected because of his philosophy and poetry which enlivened the nation, living in a state of vertigo to win their liberty from the usurpers. As poet he is considered to be the poet of Prophets for all ages. His works have been translated into many foreign languages so that the students must properly be benefited in their future researches by his thoughts and philosophies.

His works are detailed as under:

1. Development of Metaphysics in Persia (Thesis for PhD)
2. Asrar-e-Khudi (Secrets of Self)
3. Ramooz-e-Bay-Khudi (Mysteries of Selflessness)
4. Payam-e-Mashriq (Message of the East)
5. Bang-e-Dara
6. Zaboor-e-Ajam
7. Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (collection of lectures)
8. Javed Namah
9. Bal-e-Jibraeel
10. Pas Che Bayad Kard Ay Aqwam-e-Sharq
11. Zarb–e-Kaleem
12. Armughan-e-Hijaz
13. Ilmul-Iqtisad (Economics)

Iqbal as a Muslim Political Thinker

Allama Iqbal a great supporter of freedom and pioneer of Muslim movement in the sub-continent recklessly strived for the achievement of his noble ideals. Indian Muslims were tied in the chains of enslavement and subjection and he strived for the whole nation with his virulent speeches and thought-provoking declarations for making unanimous efforts for liberty and emancipation. His dynamism is proverbial, his mysticism is extraordinary and his simplicity is an example for his followers. He gave new inspiration to the Muslims who were politically unconscious and ignorant. He kindled fire in them to fight for their basic rights. He is loudly applauded everywhere due to his greater contributions leading to the ultimate establishment of Pakistan.

Allama Iqbal was a sensitive sage of his age and he saw the prevailing political ills in India, and inculcated ideals for the complete liquidation of the dominators, so that Islamic culture and heritage be protected from all penetrating evils. The Hindu and the English were the two domineering forces in the sub-continent and all fundamental privileges for Muslims were completely denied. In order to liberate the Muslims from cruel subjugation, our thinker took deep interest in the political situation and problems as no sensitive and intelligent young Indian could fail to do, but “it was only when he realized that most of the political leaders of the Muslims were lacking political acumen and foresight that he started taking active interest in politics.” (S.A.Vahid)

Allama Iqbal was a member of the Committee of Muslim League formed in London in 1903 by the Rt. Hon. Ameer Ali. On his return from England, Iqbal took keen interest in the objective working of the Muslim League but did not participate actively in politics from 1910-1923. In 1924, Allama Iqbal joined the National Liberal League of Lahore but not finding it very effective resigned from it later on. In 1926, he was elected as a member to the Punjab Legislative Assembly.

Secretary of Muslim League:
In 1928, Iqbal became secretary of that branch of the Muslim League which functioned under the President-ship of Sir Muhammad Shafi. Along with other members of League, he appeared before the Simon Commission which was appointed by the British Government to report on the introduction of further political reforms in the sub-continent. While participating eagerly in Punjab politics, Iqbal was also interested in all-India politics. In 1929 he attended the Muslim Conference held in Delhi under the Chairmanship of Sir Agha Khan, and made some important contribution to the deliberations of the conference. In 1930, he was unanimously elected to preside over the Annual Session of the Muslim League held in Allahbad. In his historic presidential address, Iqbal said, “I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state. Self-government within the British Empire or without the British Empire, the foundation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West India.”

Round Table Conference:
In 1931, Allama Iqbal attended the Second round Table Conference in London and served as the representative of the Minorities Committee. He returned to Lahore on 30th December 1931 most disappointed at the attitude of Mr. Gandhi and other Hindu leaders at the conference and convinced more than ever, that the only solution of the political troubles of the sub-continent was a division of the country.

In 1932, Iqbal was invited to attend the Third Round Table Conference. While the Conference was in progress, Iqbal grew so dissatisfied with its proceedings that he resigned and returned to India. In 1936, at the inspirations of Mr. Jinnah, Iqbal undertook the work for the Punjab Parliamentary Board, which was to conduct elections. Muslim politics was in turmoil and chaos as at that time Mr. Jinnah was facing a very hard time. But in the midst of all this darkness there shone a flickering light in Lahore and this was Iqbal who stood steadfast by Jinnah in those trying days and helped him to charter the course of Indo-Muslim politics.

When Allama Iqbal died as a broken heart without seeing the fulfillment of his ideals, Mr. Jinnah sent this message to his son, “To me he was friend, guide and philosopher and during the darkest moments through which the Muslim League had to go he stood like a rock and never flinched one single moment.”

On March 24, 1940, when the Pakistan Resolution was passed by the Muslim League at Lahore, Mr. Jinnah said, “Iqbal is no more amongst us, but had he been alive he would have been happy to know that we did exactly what he wanted us to do.”

Iqbal’s Contributions:
No one today denies that Iqbal placed a very vital part in the founding of Pakistan. Iqbal was perhaps not a politician in the strict sense in which Mr. Jinnah or Mr. Nehru were, but he could see further than almost any other of his contemporaries could. It was the part of Allama Iqbal’s greatness that he not only formulated conception of an Islamic State in India and outlined its physical boundaries but laid down the characteristics which a state must have. Rushbrook Williams said, “If it were to provide that interplay between the individual and the society in which the individual lives, which Iqbal knew to be essential for the highest development of both.”

Allama Iqbal’s contributions to Islam and Muslims are unparalleled in their characteristics and his followers interwove the practicability on the basis of his ideals. All Muslims of the world are indebted to our great thinker and pay gratitude for his relentless fight for a separate homeland, which changed the political attitudes of other sovereigns. His selfless services and devotion in the field of poetry, philosophy and metaphysics are unprecedented, which ushered a new era of literature and knowledge. His message through his statements, speeches and work will ever vibrate against evil, slavery and subjugation.
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Iqbal’s Concept of an Islamic State

Allama Iqbal’s greatness as a versatile poet and his originality and profoundity as a renowned thinker can never be denied in any age of human thought and philosophy. His greatness in these fields can attract no controversy. The eternal presence of the Poet of the East in Pakistan is felt with deep reverence and respect more than a visionary poet or merely an academic philosopher. He is the creator of the very conception of the state of Pakistan. The birth of Pakistan, as an independent Islamic state, on the map of globe, had many causes but name so potent as the one that has reference to the vision which Iqbal had about the political future of the Indian Muslims.

Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan, the former President of Pakistan, said, “It is common fallacy to believe that the concept of Pakistan was formed in a poet’s dream. The poet, Dr. Muhammad Iqbal, was no idle dreamer. Nor can countries like Pakistan, 364737 square miles; population 80,000,000 spring from the nebulous realm of poetry alone. Iqbal was in fact a philosopher of traditional as well as modern thought who had made a careful study of human affairs, both of East and West, and focused the light of his inquiry on the causes of economic and cultural subjugation to which the Muslims of India had been systematically subjected since their first abortive struggle for independence in 1857. It was in his presidential address at the annual session of All-India Muslim League in 1930 that he spelt out the broad outlines of a plan under which the Muslims of India were led to aspire to an independent state in which they would be free to follow their own way of life.”

Allama Iqbal in the name of Ijtehad, strongly defended his idea of the creation of Muslim Empire within the sub-continent of India, which was very akin to its approximation to the Western conception of the term “state”, purely as an interim and transitional phase of the growth of universal brotherhood of man. Khawaja Abdur Rahim was of the view that Universal brotherhood is an ideal good for human evolution which Islam came to establish, and the symbol of which phenomenon every year is held aloft by Islam for the rest of the world to see on the day of pilgrimage at Mecca, when millions of Muslims coming from distant parts of the world congregate, in the presence of One God, and stand shoulder to shoulder in spite of the local loyalties they may owe to the lands whence they come.

Allama Iqbal said, “For the present every Muslim nation must sink into her own deeper self, temporarily focus her vision on herself alone, until all are strong and powerful to form a living family of republics. A true and living unity, according to the nationalist thinkers, is not so easy as to be achieved by a merely symbolical over lordship. It is truly manifested in a multiplicity of free independent units whose racial rivalries are adjusted and harmonized by the unifying bond of a common spiritual aspiration. It seems to me that God is slowly bringing home to us the truth that Islam is neither nationalism nor imperialism but a League of Nations which recognizes artificial boundaries and racial distinctions for facility of reference only and not for restricting the social horizon of its members.”

The state of Pakistan exists to fulfill higher Muslim aspirations in the modern world history; to begin with, it must be made to serve as a stepping stone to the final phase of Muslim history, as a sort of a platform from where we are to appeal to the rest of the humanity to listen to the Divine Oracle which says that all humanity is one and the various communities into which it is divided is merely for the purpose of identification and the division has no other deeper meaning. The philosophy of colorless cosmopolitan must not be accepted. For the uplift of universal brotherhood of mankind, Pakistan should not emphasis the growth of the distinctive and cultural features. It is rather to stress that the historical evolution of our national life in all its uniqueness is an important condition precedent for the full realization of the ideal of brotherhood of man. We have to love Pakistan and develop the distinctive features of Pakistan’s culture.

Allama Iqbal was of opinion that the rehabilitation of Muslim history could take place provided in Pakistan, future homeland of Indian Muslims; historical task will be approached, for development of national culture with an eye on ultimate goal of universal history. In Islam the idea of territorial frontiers has no ultimate juridical significance, because fundamentally the earth belongs to the God and is the inheritance of the righteous ones. The discords and the conflicts which are presently infesting the world peace and are threatening to mount up to a point where another global war may breakout with consequences too terrible to contemplate, are ultimately traceable to the rigid adherence to the concept of absolute national sovereignty.

No nation is prepared to surrender any part of its sovereignty in favor of the creation of super national authority; that is so simply because the state in our own day has become an idol which is to be worshipped to the utter neglect of our reverence for that element of transcendence which gives to the human history, a universal background. Much of the chaos and disorder that one notices is the social, economic and political. Life in Pakistan ultimately reflects the crisis of a character which has taken place in our interior consciousness. It is here that an attempt that healing has to be initiated. Ethics but not Economics lay down the primary force for the redemption of man. All strength, even material strength is ultimately possible and durable only upon a moral basis.
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Iqbal’s Conception of Khudi (Ego)

The conception of Khudi has been the most important contribution of Iqbal to the realm of political thought. It was not due to the fact that he was the first to treat the subject before him such eminent minds as Nietzsche, Fichte, Bergso and William James had dealt with the subject from the various angles of vision. Iqbal’s originality lay in the fact that the whole concept of Khudi underwent a radical change and assumed a realistic interpretation under his masterly pen. To Iqbal, Khudi or ego does not signify pride or arrogance, but the spirit of self affirmation of one’s potentialities and their proper utilization. Every object of the universe exhibits this spirit in some way or other. Even the Creator of this universe could not help expressing His ego and created this world in order to be known. One Hadith alludes to this fact in these words:

“I was a hidden treasure. I wished that I may be recognized, therefore I created the whole creature.”

Thus man being the highest creature, should have spirit of “I-am-ness” in its perfection, and should assimilate and absorb in himself the attributes of God and thus become His vicegerent (naib) on earth. This implies that a limited authority has been given to every man to fashion his life according to ego. Ego must then consist in creating desires and wishes and trying to realize them, by the authority vested in every man.

Iqbal said,

خویشتن را چوں خودی بیدار کرد
آشکارا عالم پندار کرد
صد جہاں پوشیدہ اندر ذات او
غیر او پیداست از اثبات او
در جہاں تخم خصومت کاشت است
خویشتن را غیر خود پنداشت است

When the Self awakened itself, it revealed the world of concepts.

A hundred worlds are hidden in its being; its not-self comes to being from its self-affirmation.

It has sown the seeds of hostility in the world by imagining itself to be other than itself.

Allama Iqbal believed that the philosophy of self-denial was developed by the weaker nations in their days of decline and degradation. The criticism of Nietzsche against Christianity was based on the fact that the Christians having a defeatist mentality believed that paradise was to be given to the weak and the humble few and not to the wealthy and the strong.

Iqbal and Nietzsche:

Despite the high price he bestowed upon Nietzsche and acceptance of his influence, the fact remains that Iqbal was never completely a follower of Nietzsche. Iqbal profited from many great thinkers and renowned Sufis, but in keeping with his own philosophy of Khudi he never completely became an imitator of any. The influence of Western thought apparent in Asrar-i-Khudi contains not only the philosophy of Nietzsche but also ideas of the German philosopher, Fichte, and of the French Jews, Bergson.

Allama Iqbal has delineated in his famous poem, Asrar-i-Khudi that there are three stages in the development of Khudi. The first stage is called Obedience, the second Self-Control and the third is called Divine Vicegerency. In the first stage the self is likened which is taken directly from Nietzsche, while the other tow are taken from Islamic philosophy and literature. Allama Iqbal states in his famous lecture entitled, “The Human Ego” that there is in the history of modern thought one positive view of immortality. This view deserves some consideration, not only because Nietzsche has maintained i.e. with prophetical fervor but also because it reveals a real tendency in the modern mind.

Allama Iqbal said, “The Quranic view of the testing of man is partly ethical, partly biological. I say partly biological because the Quran makes in this connection certain statements of a biological nature which we cannot understand without a deeper insight into the nature of life. It mentions, for instance, the fact of Barzakh, a state perhaps of some kind of suspense between Death and Resurrection. Resurrection appears to have been differently conceived. The Quran does not base its possibility, like Christianity, on the evidence of the actual resurrection of an historic person. It seems to take and argue resurrection as a universal phenomenon of life, in some sense true even of birds or animals.”

According to Quranic view:

1. That the ego has a beginning in time, and did not pre-exist its emergence in the spatio-temporal order.

2. There is no possibility of return to this earth. This is clear from the following verses: “When death overtook one of them, he said, Lord! Send me back again, that I may do the good that I have left undone. By no means, these are the very words which he shall speak. But behind them is a barrier (Barzakh), until the day when they shall be raised again. "(23, 101)

3. That infinite is not a misfortune: “Verily there is none in the Heavens and in the Earth but shall approach the God of Mercy as a servant. He has taken note of them and remembered them with exact numbering: and each of them shall come to Him on the day of resurrection as a single individual.”

This is a very important point and must be properly understood to have a clear insight into the Islamic theory of salvation. It is with the irreplaceable singleness of his individuality that finite ego will approach the infinite ego to see for himself the consequences of his past actions and to judge the possibility of his future.

Helpers of Ego:
Allama Iqbal maintains that stability, permanence and integrity are the essence of ego. A dew-drop vanishes with the sunlight; a drop of tear disappears after a while, because they took stability, while a drop which remains in a sea shell becomes a pearl. Similarly, an individual should subjugate and exploit to his benefit, the things external to him and save himself from being subjugated. It is true that as against God man is helpless, but as against other creatures, or natural objects, man is quite powerful, to harness them to his best advantage and benefit.

Mr. Justice Anwar-ul-Haq said, “According to Iqbal, life is a forward, assimilative process and in essence is the continuous creation of desires and ideas. The human ego has a definite mission on earth in the two main diversions. In the first place, it has to struggle with its environment and to conquer it. By this conquest it attains freedom and approaches God, Who is the freest entity. In the second place, the ego has to maintain a constant state of tension and thereby attain immortality. By attaining freedom and immortality the go conquers space on the one hand and time on the other. The ego has to help in the upward march of humanity by leading to the birth of a higher type of man, namely, the superman or the perfect man, who is the ideal to which all life aspires.”

According to Iqbal the following factors and forces fortify the human ego or personality:

1. Love:
Iqbal explained the word Love in a letter to Prof. Nicholson, “It means the desire to assimilate, to absorb. Its highest form is the creation of values and ideals and the endeavors to realize them. Love individualizes the lover as well as the beloved. The effort to realize the most unique individuality individualizes the seeker and implies individuality of the sought, for nothing else would satisfy the nature of the seeker.”

2. Faqr:
By Faqr, Iqbal means an attitude of mind which enables a man to endlessly strive spurning delights and rewards, except the attainment of worthy ends. In other words, it depicts selflessness and abnegation and ascendancy over one’s natural environment and a sense of complete detachment from worldly affairs and rewards. Once an individual is able to achieve this attitude of mind, there is no limit to what he might attain in the way of development of personality and spiritual strength. Allied with Faqr is the element of courage, both physical and moral.

3. Courage:
Both physical and moral courage means overcoming and combating all obstacles and hurdles with no failure of nerve, no submission to forces of evil or to desire to give in except to conviction. Iqbal calls upon the younger generation to live dangerously and courageously. He said,

آئین جواں مرداں حق گوئی و بے باکی
اللة کے شیروں کو آتی نھیں روباھی

The code for men of courage is spontaneous truth and fearlessness; Brave people knew nothing about cunningness.

4. Tolerance:
For other people’s views and manners represents the strength of the high order and its cultivation is greatly beneficial to human society. It also sustains and strengthens the human ego.

5. Kasb-e-Halal:
In a world where selfishness and aggrandizement are playing vital part in human life, insistence on kasb-e-halal is of the utmost significance. Iqbal insists that the individuals should constantly exert him to acquire things which he wants to enjoy. He even goes to the extent of deprecating inheritance of worldly good as he feels that it hurts the ego. Even in the field of ideas, Iqbal advices avoidance of borrowing. Succinctly, lawful and rightful acquisition, anything not obtained by foul means like cheating, fraud or theft, acquiring things or ideas through one’s personal efforts and struggles.

6. Creative and original activity:
Iqbal is opposed to mimicry and copying others slavishly. Blind imitation is of no avail and must be discouraged.

As against these positive factors there are certain negative forces which are constantly at work to weaken the ego and stultify the human personality. These are:

1. Fear:
Fear of persons and objects (except God) in all its different phases such as worry, anxiety, anger, jealousy and timidity is a positive danger for ego. It robs man of efficiency and happiness.

2. Beggary:
Not used in the limited sense but all that is achieved without personal effort and it is in every form inimical to ego development. All economic and social parasites which flourish on society under various high-sounding names are beggars.

3. Slavery:
It completely arrests the freedom of man, which retards the development of one’s ego. Enslavement and mental torture of man, who’s self prompts him for freedom. Every kind of slavery, whether physical or mental, distorts character and lowers man to the level of a beast and weakens the human ego. It stifles the growth of ego which needs freedom for its normal development.

4. Nasab-Parasti:
Races, nations, tribes, communities, castes and families take pride in their superior racial characters come to destroy the peace and tranquility of the world.

Iqbal is strongly opposed to all these weaknesses in human character. In fact these weaknesses develop due to the failure of the individual to practice or inculcate in him the positive elements for the development of character and personality.

Mr. Justice Anwar-ul-Haq says, “These basic elements in Iqbal’s concept of Khudi were explained to the younger generation of this country in which hope lies for the future. In fact humanity at large could benefit immensely by the adoption of these ideals. While man has made enormous strides in the development of scientific techniques and is on the verge of conquering space and outer space. I am not sure whether he has made progress in conquering the basic elements in his own nature. It is imperative for us, who are fortunate to have the stage of Iqbal’s philosophy, to understand this philosophy and to try to act upon it in our daily lives. Who knows that the salvation of the world may yet lie with those who imbibe the teachings of Iqbal and of the Quran which is the source of Iqbal’s inspiration?”
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