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Old Saturday, January 19, 2013
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Default Repeated Questions of Geology


  • Discuss the internal structure of the earth in the light of seismic velocities. (2012)
  • Describe the internal structure of the Earth and its relation to solar system. (2010)
  • What methods are available to determine the age of the Earth? Describe its internal structure. (2004)
  • How Earth came into being? Briefly discuss theories about its origin. (2003)


  • How the Earthquake is located? How the destruction was made by earthquake in 2005 in Pakistan? Discuss briefly.(2013)
  • In the context of earthquake, define epicentre and focus. Using P and S waves how the epicentre of an earthquake is located? (2011)
  • What is the difference between magnitude and intensity of an earthquake? What are earthquake resistant structures? (2005)
  • How do you locate the epicenter of an earthquake? What measures are necessary for those areas of Pakistan which are seismically active(2004)
  • What are EARTHQUAKES? How are these produced? What measures need to be adopted to mitigate the damage caused by the earthquakes(2002)

Plate Tectonics

  • Discuss three types of collision of Plate boundaries with reference to Plate system of Pakistan. (2013)
  • Briefly describe the theory of plate tectonic. Also comment on the Indian-Eurasian Collision and formation of Himalayas(2012)
  • How many Tectonic Plate Boundaries are found? Describe them briefly with emphasis to Indian Plate. (2009)
  • What is meant by continental drift and plate tectonics? Discuss various tectonic elements of the Earth. (2003)

Fault and Folds

  • Short Note - Types of fold (2014)
  • Differentiate Structural Geology and Tectonics. Enlist classification of fault based on Slip and attitude of fault and attitude of strata with brief description and diagrams.(2013)
  • What are faults, how they are recognized in field? Give the classification of faults based on Slip types. (2011)
  • How do you classify Folds? Discuss the types of Folds in the mountains of Balochistan. (2005)
  • How do you classify Faults? Discuss the importance of chaman fault in the geology of Pakistan. (2004)


  • What are volcanoes, how they are formed? Discus their elationship with orogeny and plate tectonics. Also describe the types of eruptions related with various types of volcanoes . (2014)
  • Describe volcanic processes in detail with emphasis to volcanic activity in Indus and Baluchistan Basins. (2009)
  • What is a Volcano ? Where are Volcanoes located on Earth? What are different types of Volcanic Eruptions? Where does Calk-Alkaline magmatism occur? (2008)

Weathering and Erosion

  • How many kinds of Geomorphic Cycles are possible? Discuss process of chemical weathering in detail. (2007)
  • Discuss the process of weathering and erosion. What is the importance of these processes? (2005)

Sedimentary Structures

  • What are Deltas, how they are formed? Describe deltaic landforms and give the characteristics of deltaic sediments. (2014)
  • With the help of a diagram give the clasifcation of sandstones proposed by Dot orFolk. Describe the compositon of each class.(2014)
  • With examples, discuss the geological parameters which control the landforms of an area. Describe the landforms resulted by sedimentation through ice and melt water. (2011)
  • What are sedimentary structures? Describe its classification and discuss the deformational sedimentary structures(2010)


  • Discuss the process of fossilization in detail.(2012)
  • Define fossil, discuss various modes of fossilizations. Describe main morphological features of class Trilobita of Phylum Arthropoda. (2011)
  • What importance has micro fossils in stratigraphy? Give the Classification of Phylum Sarcodina up to Family level. (2009)
  • What is a Fossil? What are various requirements for the preservation of fauna and flora in rocks? (2008)
  • What is the importance of Fossils in Geology? Describe various processes of fossilization. (2007)
  • What are FOSSILS? How are these preserved? List the most important INDEX Fossils of Pakistan. (2003)
  • Describe the morphology of Brachiopods. What is their significance in the stratigraphy of Pakistan? (2005)
  • Describe the morphology of CEPHALOPODS. What is their significance in the stratigraphy of Pakistan? (2004)
  • Write an essay on the Foraminifera with special reference to their distribution in Pakistan(2002)


  • Diferentiate betwen Chronostratigraphic and Lithostratigraphic units. Which of these units are esentialy synchronous and why? Write the stratigraphic sucesion of Bara Nala Section of Sindh.(2014)
  • Short Note - Stratigraphy of Khewra Gorge (2013)
  • Describe the stratigraphy of Khewra Gorge (2012)
  • Define correlation, describe the principle of correlation with examples from the stratigraphy of Pakistan(2010)
  • Describe the Stratigraphy of Oceanic Crust?. (2008)
  • What is Stratigraphic Code of Pakistan? Describe the Paleozoic rocks of the Salt Range. (2005)
  • What is STRATIGRAPHY? Briefly describe various stratigraphic units? Summarize the Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Salt Rage. (2003)
  • What are the basic time stratigraphic units and their corresponding time units? Why did geologist find it necessary to establish these two kinds of units? (2001)

Salt Range

  • Discuss the occurrence,stratigraphy and the reserve of coal in salt range(Cis and Trans Indus). (2012)
  • Describe the morphological and structural characters of Salt Range. Discuss its importance in geology of Pakistan. Give the lithological characteristics of Salt Range Formation. (2011)
  • Describe the succession (Various Formations) of Mesozoic Era from Salt Range. (2009)
  • Enlist generalized succession of Paleozoic Era found in Salt Range and discuss the regional Unconformities established in Indus Basin of Pakistan. (2007)


  • How orthopyroxenes can be diferentiated from clinopyroxenes under polarizing microscope? Name the members of ortho-and clinopyroxenes. Write al optical properties of orthopyroxenes. (2014)
  • Short Note - Hardness of the minerals and scale (2013)
  • How minerals are classified? Discuss and en list the classification of minerals other than silicate.(2013)
  • Discuss the physical properties of minerals dependent on light. (2012)
  • How rock-forming minerals are classified on the basis of silicate structure? Give example of each class. Write down the physical properties of mica group. (2011)
  • How X-ray diffraction helps to determine the mineralogical composition of rocks? (2010)
  • What are various common rock-forming minerals of the Earth’s Crust ? Briefly describe their composition and structure(2008)
  • Define mineral, crystal and rock. Describe the Feldspar group of minerals(2005)
  • What is the significance of physical properties of mineral? Describe the PYROXENE group of minerals(2004)
  • What is a MINERAL? Discuss various ROCK-FORMING MINERALS with the help of examples(2003)
  • What are Feldspars? Keeping in view the Al/Si distribution over the non-equivalent tetrahedral sites in the structure of feldspar. What is a disordered feldspar? (2002)


  • Describe various Crystal System briefly and give examples of two minerals at least for each system. (2007)
  • What is he base of division of crystals into Systems and Classes? What are the peculiarities of the “Normal class” of a system? Describe the symmetry of the normal class of the Hexagonal System. (2002)


  • What is Bed Form ? Describe the variety of Bed Forms produced under varying conditions of Flow Regime? (2008)
  • Define bedding and stratification. Discuss various types of bedding. Which features are employed to check whether the beds are right side up or over turned? (2002)

  • Short Note - Stages of deformation (2013)
  • Short Note -Kinds of unconformities (2013)
  • How do the sediments convert to sedimentary rocks? Describe a few elastic sedimentary rocks. (2005)
  • What are unconformities? Discuss various stages involved in their development and describe with the help of diagrams various types of unconformities. (2002)
  • Discuss the rock cycle and explain how it is related to plate tectonics.(2001)

Igneous Rocks
  • Discuss the origin of MAGMA in relation to plate tectonics. How different types of igneous rocks are formed from a single magma? (2012)
  • What is acidic igneous rocks ? Describe the petrology of granite in detail. (2010)
  • What are Rocks? Discuss igneous rocks and compare and contrast the intrusive and extrusive rocks. (2004)
Metamorphic Rocks

  • Describe principal types of metamorphic rocks in details. (2009)
  • Briefly Describe the classification of Metamorphic Rocks. (2008)

Plutonic and volcanic rocks

  • Differentiate between Plutonic and volcanic rocks in detail and give examples of rocks from Pakistan and at least five for each kind(2007)
  • Briefly describe the major plutonic and volcanic rocks with their composition. Give some examples from Pakistan(2001)


  • What do you understand with palaeocurent analysis? What are the tols used for this analysis? How palaeocurent direction is determined using a Rose diagram or a Vector Diagram?(2014)
  • Describe the tertiary succession of lower Indus Basin. (2013)
  • What do you understand by Sedimentary Environment? Discuss in details the Marine environment.(2013)
  • What is meant by Metamorphism? What are various agents /factors of Metamorphism? (2008)
  • Define Formation. Describe the Tertiary sequence of strata in Sindh. (2008)
  • Describe various kinds of primary sedimentary structures and their role in identification of top and bottom of a Bed surface.(2007)
  • Describe the Cretaceous sequence of Hazara Area and the Suleman Range. (2007)
  • Discuss the difference in the Petrography; chemistry and occurrence of the Alkali basalt and tholeiitc basalt. (2002)
  • What is incongruent melting? Draw Phase diagram of the binary system-Leucite-Silica. Describe the characteristic features of this system. (2002)

Short Notes

  • Interference figure (2014)
  • Metamophic facies (2014)
  • Suture in Cephalopods (2014)
  • Present is key to the past (2013)
  • Mechanism of metamorphism (2013)
  • Magmatic Differentiation (2011)
  • Diagenesis (2011)
  • Dolomitization (2011)
  • Metasomatism(2011)
  • Metamorphic zones and facies. (2001),(2010)
  • Earth Magnetic Field(2010)
  • Convergent Plate Boundary(2010)
  • Chemical weathering(2010)
  • Different weathering. (2001)
  • Primary structures of igneous rock(2001)
  • Geomorphic cycle(2001)

To succeed,look at things not as they are,but as they can be.:)

Last edited by Amna; Saturday, January 17, 2015 at 02:48 AM. Reason: Updated
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adan zahra (Saturday, September 19, 2015)
Old Saturday, January 19, 2013
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Moderator: Ribbon awarded to moderators of the forum - Issue reason: Best Moderator Award: Awarded for censoring all swearing and keeping posts in order. - Issue reason: Diligent Service Medal: Awarded upon completion of 5 years of dedicated services and contribution to the community. - Issue reason:
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  • Discuss the processes of mineralization of Pegmatites. (2013)
  • Discuss the mineralization associated with pegmatites.(2012)
  • Name various geochemical prospecting methods for minerals. Describe any one of them in detail with examples. (2011)
  • Describe various kinds of gemstones and give their occurrences from Pakistan.(2001)
  • Discuss prospects for mineral –based industries in Pakistan .(2012)

Metallic and Non-Metallic Mineral

  • Discuss in detail the geology of non-metallic minerals in Northern Areas of Pakistan. (2013)
  • Discuss with reference to geographical distribution, economic value and occurrences of Non-Metallic Minerals of Pakistan. (2009)
  • Describe the variety of metallic minerals available in Pakistan. Also point out the types of industries which can be set up based on these metallic minerals.(2008)
  • Discuss with reference to geographical distribution, economic value and kind of occurrences, various metallic ores and minerals from Pakistan. (2007)
  • Discuss metallic mineral resources of Pakistan? Suggest economically viable, mineral-based industries for various deposits? (2003)

Mineral Deposits

  • Describe formation and ocurences of salt deposits of Salt Range area and its utilzation in various industries.(2014)
  • Describe genesis and metalogeny of Muslim Bagh chromite deposits.(2014)
  • Discuss the occurrence and industrial utilization of bentonite deposits of Pakistan. (2013)
  • Discuss the genesis of primary Kaolin deposits of Pakistan. Also describe different end uses of this commodity.(2012)
  • Write about the tectonic setting and metallogenic province of RecoDiK Copper – Gold Belt of Baluchistan. Discuss the genesis and petrography of the deposit. (2011)
  • Describe the occurrence and industrial utilization of bentonite deposits of Azad Kashmir. (2010)
  • Describe the process of Magmatic concentration during formation of mineral Deposits. (2007)
  • What is PORPHYRY Copper deposit? Describe the geology of SAINDAK area.(2004)
  • Discuss mineral deposits of Hydrothermal Origin. (2002)
  • What are salt domes? Discuss their evolution and economic significance. (2001)
  • Define metallogeny with reference to plate tectonics, giving examples from Pakistan.(2000)

Radioactive Minerals

  • What are the important radioactive minerals? Discuss their host rocks and occurrences in Pakistan. (2003)
  • Briefly describe occurrence of radioactive minerals in Pakistan.(2000)


  • Discuss the efficiency of expulsion and also discuss how this expulsion (primary migration) does occurs form source rocks? (2007)
  • Describe the environmental conditions of the transformation of organic matter into kerogen. How the expulsion occurs from the source work? (2001)


  • Discus diferent geophysical techniques used to prospect hydrocarbon deposit in an area.(2014)
  • Short Note - Sequence stratigraphic approach in exploration of hydrocarbons (2013)
  • Describe the theories regarding the origin of hydrocarbons. Also discuss the primary migration of Hydrocarbons. (2012)
  • Describe the theories regarding the origin of Petroleum and Primary Migration of Hydrocarbons.(2010)
  • Briefly describe origin, migration and occurrences of hydrocarbons. Discuss hydrocarbon provinces of Pakistan. (2003)
  • How gravity and magnetic techniques are useful in hydrocarbon exploration?(2001)


  • Describe the Trap mechanism and classify the kinds of traps according to Allen Allen. (2009)
  • Describe the factors controlling organic productivity of organic mass. Discuss the mechanism of oil trapping. (2007)


  • Evaluate Thar coal deposits for power generation. Describe major constrain in this regard.(2014)
  • Discuss the occurrence, stratigraphy and the reserve of coal in salt range(Cis and Trans Indus). (2012)
  • Give the occurrence of coal deposits in the Kirthar Province of Lower Indus Basin. Describe their stratigraphic association, coal varieties and reserves. (2011)
  • Discuss the future prospect of coal mining in Pakistan with reference to Sindh region especially. (2009)
  • Describe the ranks of Coal. What are the problems of Utilization of THAR Coal? (2004)
  • What are the major coalfields of Pakistan? Discuss their Rank and Quality, and propose their suitable industrial applications. (2003)
  • Discuss formation of coal deposit, their classification and occurrence in Pakistan.(2002)

Oil And Gas

  • Describe the structure and stratigraphy of SUI gas field. What are the advantages and disadvantages of an international gas pipeline to Pakistan? (2004)
  • Briefly describe the case histories of the following oil and gas fields:(2001) (a) Marl Gas Field
    (b) Khaskhaili Oil Field
    (c) Dhulian Oil Field
    (d) Dhodhak Condensate Field

Engineering Geology

  • Discus those geotechnical properties which are considered essential for the selection of durable building material.(2014)
  • What is the role of an Engineering Geologist in the site investigation of a mega project. (2010)
  • Give an account of the geological materials used as building stones.(2002)

  • Discuss salient feature of Tarbela Dam.(2010)
  • Discuss the characteristics features of Building Material and enlist all those factors consider for construction of a Dam. (2009)
  • Describe the geological factors required for selection of Dam site.(2008)
  • What geological factors must be considered in the selection of sites for DAMS? Discuss the silting problem in Mangla and Terbela. (2004)
  • Briefly discuss the geological factors, which should be taken into consideration while selecting a suitable site for the construction of dams.(2002)
  • How sites for dams’ construction are investigated? Which site you will suggest for dam construction on Indus River? Discuss.(2001)
  • Describe various types of dams and factors influencing their construction (2000)

  • What geological factors are considered for the sites of Bridges especially in Hilly areas and what consideration should be taken into account for its long life?(2007)


  • What geological considerations are essential before selecting a site for and during construction of a tunnel? Discuss in detail. (2011)

Salinity and water logging

  • What are the posible causes of water loging and salinity in Pakistan? Discus some remedial measures for the reclamation of such soil.(2014)
  • Why we have more water logging in Sindh region and also discuss various kinds of Aquifer found in this region. (2007)
  • Write any essay on the water resources of Pakistan. Suggest measures to control water-logging and salinity. (2003)
  • Write in detail note on salinity and water logging problems in Sindh Region.(2001)

  • Short Note - Types of Aquifers (2001) (2012) (2013)
  • What is Aquifer? Describe various types of Aquifers? How can we solve the problem of pollution of underground water? (2008)
  • Describe various types of aquifers and the law governing movement of groundwater.(2002)

Slope Failure

  • Discuss various types and patterns of slope failures in Pakistan and their stability techniques. (2013)
  • Discuss the different types of slope failure and their stability techniques. (2012)
  • Describe various modes of slope failures in rocks .(2010)


  • What factors are responsible for Landslides? How will you stabilize a frequently sliding mass of shales and mudstone?(2004)
  • What are LANDSLIDES? Discuss various hazards associate with them. Describe measures to control landslides. (2003)


  • What are Kimberlites? Discuss their distribution in space and time, geological setting and petrography. (2011)
  • Describe the characteristics of reservoir rocks and enlist producing reservoir rocks of Indus Basin.(2009)
  • Describe the Geology (formation,lithology ,age) of the Source Rocks of Petroleum in the Indus Basin of Pakistan .(2008)

Exploration Geology

  • Short Note - Exploration in Badin Block in Lower Indus Basin with reference to Stratigraphic Traps Exploration Strategy. (2013)
  • How the geochemical survey is used for the exploration of mineral deposits? (2010)
  • Describe the Seismic method of Exploration and briefly discuss the mechanism of seismograph and geophones. (2009)
  • What are various Geophysical techniques used for exploration of mineral deposits? (2008)
  • Discuss two common geophysical techniques employed in the exploration of oil and for groundwater.(2004)
  • Discuss geophysical prospecting: techniques employed for the exploration of metals, water and hydrocarbons.(2003)
  • What geophysical technique(s) is/are recommended for the prospection of iron-ore deposits? Give details of the techniques and instrument(s) used for this type of survey. (2002)
  • Write note on “geophysical method used for oil exploration.” (2000)
  • Make a diagram of a modern drilling rig, label its various parts and discuss the function of the water-based and oil drilling muds in Oil well drilling. (2002)

Photo Geology , Aerial Photograph and Remote Sensing

  • Give the criteria for lithological interpretation on an aerial photograph.Briefly discuss the merits and demerits of Aerial Photography and Satellite Remote Sensing over each other. (2011)
  • What are various steps involved in the process of preparation of geological map of an area? What is the use of aerial photographs in this process? (2008)
  • How photo geology and remote sensing does help in mineral exploration? (2007)
  • Write note on “use of remote sensing in mineral exploration .” (2000)


  • Discuss in detail the causative mechanisms of earthquakes in Pakistan. (2013)
  • Describe the economic significance of the Pab Formation in Lower Indus Basin.(2013)
  • Elaborate Hydrologic Cycle. How the water-flow budget of an hydrologic basin is calculated? (2011)
  • What is meant by alkali – aggregate reaction ? Elaborate the concepts of Alkali – Silica reaction. (2010)
  • What is Kerogen ? Describe the processes involve in the evolution of Kerogen to Pertroleum ? (2008)
  • Explain the DARCY Law. Can groundwater exploration be an alternate to Kalabagh Dam? (2004)

Short Notes

  • Geothermal energy (2014)
  • Driling mud (2014)
  • Land slides (2014)
  • Foundation analysis (2013)
  • Hydrological Cycle (2012) (2013)
  • Lag time or bottom-up figure (2002)
  • Coal and its varieties (2002)
  • Marble deposits in Pakistan(2002)
  • Geochemical exploration technique (2001)
  • Radioactive minerals of Pakistan (2001)
  • Metallogeny of Pakistan (2001)
To succeed,look at things not as they are,but as they can be.:)

Last edited by Amna; Saturday, January 17, 2015 at 03:11 AM. Reason: Updated
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Default Solved MCQs

Assalam u alaikum

I need solution of Geology MCQs from Past papers. thnx
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Hello Bro , For geology we can share some notes and strategy . please share your email id.
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