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  #31  
Old Monday, October 15, 2012
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Default Khalji Dynasty(1290-1320)

The life and works of
Sultan Alla-Ud-Din Khalji

By
Dr. Ghulam Sarwar Khan Niazi



Contents
  1. Introduction
  2. Khaljis in the light of History
  3. Way to Throne
  4. Administrative Reforms
  5. Attitude towards Religion
  6. A Social Reformer
  7. AllaudDin and the Hindus
  8. Literature & Arts
  9. The Massacre of New Muslim Mughals
  10. Character and Achivements

Click below link in order to get this online book:

http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=...epage&q&f=true

Enjoy it.
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Billa (Monday, October 15, 2012)
  #32  
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Default --Asif Yousufzai--

Sir it is indeed a very nice effort from your part, it is extremely helpful. Thank you so much for all these posts. Sir I have emailed you, kindly check it out and then reply me. I will wait for your response.
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  #33  
Old Tuesday, October 16, 2012
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Default @Billa

Dear I checked inbox but did not find any mail from your side. Try to resend it or you can discuss it here with me if its ok for you.

Regards
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  #34  
Old Wednesday, October 17, 2012
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Sir I have emailed you again in detail. Please reply me as soon as possible.
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  #35  
Old Thursday, October 18, 2012
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Question Indo-pak Books !!!!

thanks alot bro asif,

can ya also tell from where you plan to prepare Indo-pak Objectives ????
i am planning to take CE 2014, so kindly reply us ....
also whats its scoring trend in your view ?????
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Old Friday, October 19, 2012
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Default @Billa & parwarsha

Quote:
Sir I have emailed you again in detail. Please reply me as soon as possible.
Dear I have forwarded you the soft copy of all those topics which you asked me for. Yeah one thing else, I didnt arrange the maps in order so You will have to give a little bit time to that (sorry for that).

Quote:
Originally Posted by parwarsha View Post
thanks alot bro asif,

can ya also tell from where you plan to prepare Indo-pak Objectives ????
i am planning to take CE 2014, so kindly reply us ....
also whats its scoring trend in your view ?????
You are welcome dear.

For objective section I followed Internet + History of Indo-Pak objective book by Sarfaraz Ahmad. It helped me in covering almost +90% of the subject.

As far as the scoring trend is concerned so dear many members of this forum have discussed this issue in detail. And for me the long & short of those discussions is that, scoring low or high depends on one's interest in that specific subject as well as his/her writing & presentation skills. So try to present your knowledge/views in a unique way and differentiate your work in a best possible way. Goodluck

Regards
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parwarsha (Saturday, October 20, 2012)
  #37  
Old Saturday, October 20, 2012
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Quote:
Originally Posted by parwarsha View Post
thanks alot bro asif,

can ya also tell from where you plan to prepare Indo-pak Objectives ????
i am planning to take CE 2014, so kindly reply us ....
also whats its scoring trend in your view ?????
you can also get solved objectives of last papers from forum

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optio...ce-1985-a.html
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parwarsha (Sunday, October 21, 2012)
  #38  
Old Tuesday, December 25, 2012
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Default Causes of the decline of Mughal Empire

Causes of the decline of Mughal Empire


here were many reasons for the decline of the Mughal Empire, beginning with succession disputes and ending with the arrival of the British, who took advantage of the lack of central control, the discontent and factionalism. Some of the specific reasons were:

1. Struggle for succession
After the death of Aurangazeb, a war of succession broke out among his three sons, Muazzam (Governor of Kabul), Muhammad Azam (Governor of Gujrat) and Muhammad Kam Baksh (Governor of Bijapur). In his will, Aurangazeb had directed his sons to divide the Empire peacefully among them. But at his death, there rose a bitter struggle for the throne of Delhi.

The competition for power led to the death of Azam and Muhammad. Muazzem took up the title of Bahadur Shah (also Shah Alam I) but when he died in February 1712, a fresh war of succession broke out among Muazzamís four sons. Three out of his four sons were killed in this conflict. The remaining son, Jahandar Shah, became the emperor. But soon, Farrukhsiyar, a son of one of the defeated princes, deposed Jahandar Shah to avenge his fatherís death. A series of such conflicts arising out of battles for succession, resulting in the absence of a long-lasting central authority, weakened the Mughal Empire.

2. Religious policy
Aurangzeb was brave and untiring in carrying out his duties. He was also a great soldier and general but he failed to be a good ruler because of his religious conservatism. He appeared to be an emperor of the Muslims only, not of all the people of India who had different religious and cultural identities. In 1679, he re-imposed the Jizia on the non-believers. He denounced the idea of joining hands with the Hindus for the integrity of the Empire. He rather focused on the Muslims only. He also banned sati, the Hindu sacrifice of widows. These and other of his religious policies insulted the non-Muslims and caused discontent and unrest.

3. Aurangzeb's Deccan policy
Aurangzeb's determination to crush the Marathas was also responsible for the decline of the Empire. The Emperor went to the Deccan to annex Golcunda in 1686 and Bijapur in 1687. These two states were not only Shia states but also supportive to the Marathas by providing employment and even military training. A friendly policy towards these two states could have made them his allies against the Maratha.

But Aurangzeb could not see this possibility. The Mughal Empire, by this time, had become too vast to be controlled efficiently by a centralised administration, especially Karnataka. Communication and transport were poor and the frequent Maratha raids made it difficult for the nobles to collect the taxes. This was a serious setback to the prestige of the Empire.

4. Aurangzeb's Rajput policy
Aurangzeb did not attach enough importance to the Rajput alliance. In December 1678, he introduced a change of policy towards the Rajputs who had contributed much to the growth of the Mughal Empire in India. When he annexed Marwar, Aurangzeb's aggressive policy drove the Rajputs to gather forces and the Rajput War turned into almost a national uprising. The war continued till Bahadur Shah I, Aurangzeb's son and successor, recognized Ajit Singh as the Rana of Marwar in 1709.

5. Maratha revival
By 1691, the Marathas (under the Peshwas) had become strong enough to rise up in rebellion under Raja Ram and other Maratha chiefs. They consolidated their positions in western India, dreaming of a greater Maharashtra Empire. The Marathas grew into the strongest power in northern India and took up the role of defenders of Hindustan against foreign invaders like Ahmed Shah Abdali. The Maratha conquests in the north accelerated the disintegration of the Empire.

6. The weak nobles and party factions
The weak characters of the nobility hastened the downfall of the Mughal Empire. The nobility were only interested in increasing their power and influence. The country was often broken apart by civil wars due to the quarrelsome nobles. The nobility was divided into two broad factions:
  • The Hindustani or Indo-Muslim party, who were the Afghan nobles, the Sayyids of Barha and Khan-i-Dawran whose ancestors had come to India from Badakhshan. These Indian Muslims were mostly aligned with the Hindus.
  • The foreign nobles were called Mughals as a whole but were divided into two groups. Those who came from Trans-oxania and other parts of Central Asia were mostly Sunni (The Turrani Party). The Irani nobles who were from Persia were mostly Shias.

During the reign of Bahadur Shah and Jahandar Shah, the Irani party was in power with Zulfikhar Khan as leader. But from the time of Farrukhsiyyar's reign, the Hindustani party, together with the Turrani group, took over power. At the end, the Turranians and the Iranians joined together against the Hindustanis. This factionalism grew stronger in the absence of a strong emperor.

7. Administrative weaknesses

Corrupt administration
The Mughal administration became full of corruption even before the death of Aurangzeb. Officers of all ranks took bribes. On the other hand, the high rate of taxation ruined the people who lost interest in production. In the reign of Shah Jahan, the state demand had been raised to half of the produce. His immense expenditure on the construction of numerous buildings worsened the condition of the finances. The tyrannical administration of the provincial governors brought further misery to the people who could go nowhere for redress.

The Mansabdari system
A mansab meant an official appointment of rank and profit, which was held by every officer of the state. They were bound theoretically to supply a number of troops for the military service of the state. The mansabdars were the official nobility of the country. They were directly recruited, promoted and suspended by the Emperor himself. The mansabdari system later deteriorated, therefore, with the ascendancy of weak rulers on the throne and as corruption and repression increased.

Condition of the people
The people of India suffered greatly. The land revenue taxes increased from the time of Akbar. The nobles were mistreated and cheated out of their land rights. In response, they often broke official regulations and behaved cruelly. People's miseries increased after Aurangzeb's death and peasants often left their lands in despair.

The discontent of the peasants was an added reason for the uprisings of the Satnanis, the Jats and the Sikhs. Many peasants formed bands of robbers and adventurers weakening law and order further.

8. The demoralised Mughal army
The condition of the army was deplorable. The immense wealth of India and the wine and comforts they enjoyed demoralised the Mughal army and led to its deterioration. The Mughal army was so weak that even after three attempts it failed to capture Kandahar. In 1739, Nader Shah, the Persian invader, easily plundered Delhi and carried out a wholesale massacre. The people lost all respect for the Mughal sovereign.

Misuse of revenue by the nobles
The Mughal army was formed of contingents maintained by the great nobles from the revenues or assignments of their posts. With the weakening of the central control, the nobles used those assignments to benefit themselves.

Lax discipline
Discipline became lax in the army. There was no regular punishment for military crimes. Aurangzeb often ignored acts of treason and cowardice, and even neglect of duty. There was no drill in the army and each soldier trained as he wished with his weapons.

Outdated weapons
The weapons and methods of warfare had become outdated by this time. They depended mostly on artillery and the armour-clad cavalry. The artillery was local and followed by a huge camp of various people of different ages, combatants, and non-combatants, and numerous elephants, cattle and beasts of burden. In the eighteenth century, musketry was already introduced in other armies, and the Maratha cavalry with their swiftness and suddenness could easily bring disorder in the Mughal camps.

Not a national army
The Mughal army comprised various elements of people who fought battles in their individual ways. With the expansion of the Empire, the army became too huge and uncontrollable. Moreover, the jealousies and rivalries of the high-ranking officials in the army often destroyed the chances of victory during the campaigns.

9. The Persionís invasions of Ahmed Shah Abdali
The invasions of Ahmed Shah Abdali, the invader from Persia and the son of Nadir Shah, hastened the downfall of the Mughal Empire. These frequent invasions revealed the weakness of the Empire and brought chaos and confusion. The third battle of Panipat in 1761, fought between Ahmed Shah Abdali and the Marathas, ended in a disastrous defeat for the Marathas. It also weakened the Marathas and the Muslim rulers, paving the way for the British Rule in India.

10. The arrival of the British
The Mughals neglected the navy and this proved to be a disaster. The coastline was left unprotected and the Europeans were able to establish themselves in India with little difficulty. Various European nations who had established trade relations with India, seeing the weakness of the Mughal Empire, began to focus more on political influence than trade in India.

Through diplomancy, military skill and persistence, the English East India Company emerged as successful in exploiting the volatile circumstances in India in general and Bengal in particular. They first succeeded in getting permission from emperor Jahangir to build forts and conduct trade in Surat, Agra and Ahmedabad around 1620. But given the prevailing trend of decline in the Mughal Empire, particulary towards the end of Aurangzebís reign, they gradually became politically ambitious.

In 1688, the British blockaded the Bombay and Mughal ports and captured many Mughal ships. As the Mughal Emperor responded strongly, they were forced to sign a treaty in 1690. The company was given a license for trade only on condition that the captured vessels would be returned and a payment of one and a half lacs of rupees made. Though this treaty apparently restrained the British, this was not good for the Mughal Empire in the long run. The reason is that this treaty legitimised the presence of the British, as well their right to do business in India. From this time onwards, the British organised their strength in Bombay, Madras and Bengal and tried to help build up an alliance that was not sympathetic to the Mughals.

The arrival of the British was to prove fatal to the Mughal Empire. Britain was the most technologically advanced country in the world and the British brought with them weapons far in advance of those used by the Mughals. The British also brought a unity and sense of determination which the divided Mughals lacked.
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