List of Governor Generals and Viceroys of India
Governor Generals of India
Lord William Bentinck (1828 1835):
Carried out the social reforms like Prohibition of Sati (1829) and elimination of thugs (1830).
Made English the Medium of higher education in the country (After the recommendations of Macaulay).
Suppressed female infanticide and child sacrifice.
Charter Act of 1833 was passed; made him the first Governor General of India. Before him, the designation was Governor General of Bengal.
Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835 1836): Abolished all restrictions on vernacular press (called Liberator of the Press).
Lord Auckland (1836 1842): The most important event of his reign was the First Afghan War, which proved to be a disaster for the English.
Lord Ellenborough (1842 1844)
Lord Hardinge I (1844 1848)
Lord Dalhousie (1848 1856):
Opened the first Indian Railway in 1853 (from Bombay to Thane).
Laid out the telegraph lines in 1853 (First was from Calcutta to Agra).
Introduced the Doctrine of Lapse and captured Satara (1848), Jaipur and Sambhalpur (1849), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853) and Nagpur (1854).
Established the postal system on the modern lines through the length and breadth of the country, which made communication easier.
Started the Public Works Department. Many bridges were constructed and the work on Grand Trunk Road was started. The harbors of Karachi, Bombay and Calcutta were also developed.
Made Shimla the summer capital.
Started Engineering College at Roorkee.
Encouraged science, forestry, commerce, mineralogy and industry.
In 1854, Woods Dispatch was passed, which provided for the properly articulated system of education from the primary school to the university.
Due to Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagars efforts, remarriage of widows was legalized by Widow Remarriage Act, 1856).
Viceroys Of India
Lord Canning (1856 1862):
The last Governor General and the first Viceroy.
Mutiny took place in his time.
On Nov, 1858, the rule passed on to the crown.
Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse.
The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were established in 1857.
Indian Councils Act was passed in 1861.
Lord Elgin (1862 1863)
Lord Lawrence (1864 1869):
Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe.
High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.
Expanded canal works and railways.
Created the Indian Forest department.
Lord Mayo (1869 1872):
Started the process of financial decentralization in India.
Established the Rajkot college at Kathiarwar and Mayo College at Ajmer for the Indian princes.
For the first time in Indian history, a census was held in 1871.
Organised the Statistical Survey of India.
Was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan convict in the Andamans in 1872.
Lord Northbrook (1872 1876):
Lord Lytton (1876 1880):
Known as the Viceroy to reverse characters.
Organised the Grand Delhi Durbar in 1877 to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of Kaiser I Hind.
Arms Act(1878) made it mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms.
Passed the infamous Vernacular Press Act (1878).
Lord Ripon (1880 1884):
Liberal person, who sympathized with Indians.
Repeated the Vernacular Press Act (1882)
Passed the local self government Act (1882)
Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William Hunter Commissions recommendations).
The I Factory Act, 1881, aimed at prohibiting child labour.
Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later.
Lord Dufferin (1884 1888):
Indian National Congress was formed during his tenure.
Lord Lansdowne (1888 1894):
II Factory Act (1891) granted a weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for women and children, although it failed to address concerns such as work hours for men.
Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate.
Indian Council Act of 1892 was passed.
Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan.
Lord Elgin II (1894 1899):
Great famine of 1896 1897. Lyall Commission was appointed.
Lord Curzon (1899 1905):
Passed the Indian Universities Act (1904) in which official control over the Universities was increased.
Partitioned Bengal (October 16, 1905) into two provinces 1, Bengal (proper), 2.East Bengal & Assam.
Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to enquire into the police administration of every province.
The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 98 led him to create the North Western Frontier Province(NWFP).
Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1904), to restore Indias cultural heritage. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India was established.
Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency Act (1899) and put India on a gold standard.
Extended railways to a great extent.
Lord Minto (1905 1910):
There was great political unrest in India. Various acts were passed to curb the revolutionary activities. Extremists like Lala Laipat Rai and Ajit Singh (in May, 1907) and Bal Gangadhar Tilak (in July, 1908) were sent to Mandalay jail in Burma.
The Indian Council Act of 1909 or the Morley Minto Reforms was passed.
Lord Hardinge (1910 1916):
Held a durbar in dec, 1911 to celebrate the coronation of King George V.
Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911), capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911).
A bomb was thrown at him; but he escaped unhurt (Dec 23, 1912).
Gandhiji came back to India from S.Africa (1915).
Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement.
Lord Chelmsford (1916 1921):
August Declaration of 1917, whereby control over the Indian government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people.
The government of India Act in 1919 (Montague Chelmsford reforms) was passed.
Rowlatt Act of 1919; Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919).
Non Cooperation Movement.
An Indian Sir S.P.Sinha was appointed the Governor of Bengal.
A Womens university was founded at Poona in 1916.
Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage new educational policy.
Lord Reading (1921 1926):
Rowlatt act was repeated along with the Press act of 1910.
Suppressed non-cooperation movement.
Prince of Wales visited India in Nov.1921.
Moplah rebellion (1921) took place in Kerala.
Ahmedabad session of 1921.
Formation of Swaraj Party.
Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922.
Communist part was founded in 1921 by M.N.Roy.
Kakory Train Robbery on Aug 9, 1925.
Communal riots of 1923 25 in Multan, Amritsar, Delhi, etc.
Swami Shraddhanand, a great nationalist and a leader of the Arya Samajists, was murdered in communal orgy.
Lord Irwin (1926 1931):
Simon Commission visited India in 1928.
Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1929.
Dandi March (Mar 12, 1930).
Civil Disobedience Movement (1930).
First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930.
Gandhi Irwin Pact (Mar 5, 1931) was signed and Civil Disobediance Movement was withdrawn.
Martydorm of Jatin Das after 64 days hunger strike (1929).
Lord Willington (1931 1936):
Second Round Table conference in London in 1931.
On his return Gandhiji was again arrested and Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed in Jan 1932.
Communal Awards (Aug 16, 1932) assigned seats to different religious communities. Gandhiji went on a epic fast in protest against this division.
Third Round Table conference in 1932.
Poona Pact was signed.
Government of India Act (1935) was passed.
Lord Linlithgow (1936 1944):
Govt. of India Act enforced in the provinces. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces. They remained in power for about 2 years till Oct 1939, when they gave up offices on the issue of India having been dragged into the II World War. The Muslim League observed the days as Deliverance Say (22 December)
Churchill became the British PM in May, 1940. He declared that the Atlantic Charter (issued jointly by the UK and US, stating to give sovereign rights to those who have been forcibly deprived of them) does not apply to India.
Outbreak of World War II in 1939.
Cripps Mission in 1942.
Quit India Movement (August 8, 1942).
Lord Wavell (1944 1947):
Arranged the Shimla Conference on June 25, 1945 with Indian National Congress and Muslim League; failed.
Cabinet Mission Plan (May 16, 1946).
Elections to the constituent assembly were held and an Interim Govt. was appointed under Nehru.
First meeting of the constituent assembly was held on Dec. 9, 1946.
Lord Mountbatten (Mar.1947 Aug.1947):
Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of free India.
Partition of India decided by the June 3 Plan.
Indian Independence Act passed by the British parliament on July 4, 1947, by which Pakistan and India became independent on August 14 and 15, 1947.
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