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Old Thursday, March 03, 2011
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712-1526
  • The Muslim conquest of Persia including the provinces of Kirman and Makran brought the Arabs face to face with the then ruler of Sindh who had made common cause with the ruler of Makran against the Muslims.
  • Arabia and the sub-continent had the trade relations since ages.
  • The Arabs had settlements on the coast of southern India, which then provided the link between the Arab ports and ports of south and Southeast Asia.
  • These commercial activities were increased after Arabs became Muslims and built an empire.
  • Some Arab merchants had died in Ceylon and the king of Ceylon sent to Hajjaj, the Umayyad viceroy of the eastern provinces, the orphan daughters of the merchants and many valuable presents for the caliph and the viceroy in 8 ships.
  • These ships were plundered by the pirates near the Sindh coast.
  • These pirates had constantly disturbed the flow of commerce between the Arab ports and the Arab establishments of south India and Ceylon.
  • The ruler of Sindh was Dahar, son of Chuch.
  • Hajjaj asked the Sindh ruler Dahar for the adequate steps but no positive response was received from him.
  • This stubborn attitude of Dahar infuriated Hujjaj. He sent a small expedition under Abaidullah in 710 to punish the Sindhi ruler but it was defeated.
  • In 711 he sent another army under Badeel but it too failed to achieve the desired results. It was defeated by Dahar’s son.
  • Hujjaj made preparations for a full scale attack. He sent his son-in-law 17 years old Imad-ud-din Muahmmad Bin Qasim to invade Sindh.
  • Muhammad Bin Qasim at that time was the Governor of Farus.
  • His army consisted of 6000 Syrian and Iraqi soldiers, a camel corps numbering 6000, and a baggage caravan of 3000 camels.
  • His siege engines included a manjaniq (ballista) worked by 500 men, and called the Bride (‘Arus).
  • He reached Daibul through Makran in 712. On his way to Daibul he conquered Panjgur and Arman Bela.
  • The people of Daibul remained inside the strong fortress. The Muslim armies laid a siege for months.
  • A red flag was fluttering on a large temple in Daibul. The inhabitants believed that Daibul would not fall as long that flag was intact. Muhammad Bin Qasim ordered to bring that flag down using manjaniq. It was done and the defenders lost heart and Daibul was conquered.
  • After Debul the Muslims reached Nirun, a city near Hyderabad.
  • The people of Nirn, including their ruler, were Buddhist.
  • The ruler of Nirun requested Hujjaj for amnesty which was granted even before the Muslim army reached there.
  • A Buddhist monk, who was left in charge of the city, surrendered.
  • The victorious army then proceeded to Savistan. The Buddhist Nirun ruler accompanied the Muslims. Here Dahar’s nephew Bajahra was the ruler. He wanted to put up a fight but the people did not support him so he had to flee.
  • Bajahra reached Sasum and tried to gather army to fight the Muslims but the Buddhist ruler refused to support him and cooperated with the invaders.
  • Bajahra put up some fight but was defeated and killed.
  • Hujjaj ordered Muhammad Bin Qasim to attack the capital of Dahar.
  • Muhammad Bin Qasim then crossed the Indus and met Dahar at Roar.
  • Dahar put up a fierce fight but was defeated and killed.
  • The Muslim armies then occupied Alor and Sikka(Uchh) before proceeding to Multan.
  • The Hindus at Multan offered resistance for 2 months but ultimately defeated.
  • The traders, merchants, artisans, Jats and Meds welcomed Muslims because of the atrocities of the native rulers.
  • Muhammad Bin Qasim treated the people with generosity and declared that their worship places would be protected.
  • He entrusted the Brahmins and Buddhist with responsible administrative office particularly in the revenue department.
  • He sent one of his generals to Qanauj but before anything could be achieved he was recalled by the Caliph because of the politics at the Capital and put in prison on his return. Later he died in the prison.
  • Arabs learnt the decimal numerals and chess from the Indians.
  • Indian books on astronomy, such as Siddhanta were translated into Arabic as were books on Ayurvedic medicine.
  • The book of fables called Kalilah wa Dimnah by the Arabs had its origin in Indian sources.
  • Subuktigin was a former slave of the Samanids who had become virtually independent in Central Asia (874-999) and had established a great political and cultural centre of islam at Bukhara.
  • Alptigin, who was a Turkish slave of the Samandi ruler, Abd-ul-Malik, was appointed governor of Khurasan.
  • Aptigin was removed from governorship on the death of his patron therefore he moved on to Ghazni and established himself as practically independent ruler in 962.
  • Subuktigin was the trusted slave and son-in-law of Aptigin.
  • Subuktigin became ruler of Ghazni on the death of Aptigin on April 20, 977.
  • Subuktigin extended his empire by annexing Khurasan, Sistan and Lamghan (Jalalabad).
  • At that time north-western part of Pakistan was ruled by the Hindu Shahi dynasty, with its capital at Waihind near modern Attock.
  • In 979 the Hindu shahi Raja Jaipal of Bathinda attacked Ghazni. A battle between Indian and Ghazni armies was fought between Lamghan and Ghazni.
  • Jaipal was defeated and he was spared after he agreed to pay tribute.
  • Jaipal did not keep his promise of paying tribute rather organized a confederacy of Hindu kings (including among others were Rajyapala, the Pratihara King of Kanauj, and Dhanga, the ruler of the distant Chandel kingdom to the south of the Jumna). The allies attacked Subuktigin in 991 and were defeated somewhere in or near Kurram (or Kumrah) valley and Peshawar was occupied by the Muslims.
  • In 997 Amir Subuktigin was succeeded by his son Mahmood Ghaznavi.
  • In 998 Mahmood conquered Khurasan from the Samanid ruler Abdul Malik ibn Nuh. From the battlefield at Marw he wrote a letter of allegiance to the Abbasid Caliph al-Qadir billah.
  • The Caliph conferred upon him the titles of Yamin-ud-daulah and Amin-u’l-millah. Mahmmood assumed the title of Sultan for himself.
  • In 1001 Jaipal again organized a vast army consisting of 12000 horsemen, 30000 foot and 300 elephants. The battle was fought somewhere near Peshawar. Jaipal was defeated and taken prisoner but then released on payment of a heavy ransom.
  • Jaipal committed suicide by self-immolation.
  • Jaipal was succeeded by his Anandpal.
  • Anadpal refused to tribute to Mahmood. In 2004 Mahmood attacked Anandpal’s territory Bhatiya (Bhera), on the left bank of the Jehlum, and annexed it.
  • On his return journey from Bhatiya Mahmood was harassed by Abdul Fateh Da’ud, the Isma’ili ruler of Multan. In 2005, after doing enough preparation at Ghazni, Mahmood set out to punish Da’ud. On his way to Multan Anandpal tried to obstruct his passage but was defeated.
  • Mahmood inflicted a crushing defeat on Da’ud who paid heavy indemnity.
  • When Mahmood was busy in his Multan compaign he heard that the ruler of Kashgar had invaded his territory. Mahmood entrusted the newly acquired Indian territories to Sukhpal, a grandson of Jaipal who had accepted Islam, as governor of Waihind.
  • As soon as Mahmood returned to Ghazni, Sukhpal apostatized and renounced allegiance to Ghazni.
  • In 2008 Mahmood marched to punish Anandpal who had again organized a large number of Hindu Rajas to fight the Muslims. These Rajas included the Raja of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Qanauj, Delhi and Ajmer.
  • Great religious fervor prevailed in Hindu masses. Women sold their ornaments to provide arms to the soldiers.
  • A fierce battle was fought somewhere between Peshawar and Waihind. At one moment it looked as if the Hindus were going to be victorious but suddenly the elephant of Anandpal took fright and fled from the battlefield. His army took it as an indication of retreat so the Hindu army fled in utter confusion and was relentlessly followed by the Muslims.
  • This defeat ended the Hnidu shahi dynasty and its territory was annexed by Mahmood.
  • The fort of Kangra or Nagarkot was the next target of his attack. It was situated at the top of a hill and was considered invincible. But it offered no resistance to Mahmood and easily fell into his hands.
  • In 1014 Mahmood attacked Thanesar and captured it.
  • Qanauj was the tradition imperial city of the Hindus. In 1019 Mahmood left Ghazni to subjugate Qanauj. On his way he occupied a number forts and defeated Hindus at Bulandshahar, Mathura and Brindaban.
  • Qanauj was the city of 7 forts and ten thousand temples. Its Raja, Rajapala, submitted without any resistance.
  • In 1019 Ganda, the Chandela Raja of Kalinjar organized a big confederacy against Mahmood but was defeated and fled from the battleground.
  • In 1021-22 Kalinjar was again attacked. This time the Raja concluded a treaty of peace with Mahmood.
  • The most famous attack of Mahmood was against Somnath. This fortified Hindu temple was situated on the sea-shore in Kathiawar and contained fabulous wealth.
  • For the maintenance of the temple 10000 villages were endowed. 1000 Brahmins and 500 singing girls were employed there.
  • Hindus believed that the Moon-god (Somnath) was so powerful that he would destroy the Muslims.
  • Mahmood reached Somnath in 1025 and laid a siege around it. Hindu Rajas had again gathered from all round the country to save their temple. They initially repulsed the Muslim attack but were finally defeated and Mahmood entered the temple which was a lofty structure supported by 56 pillars. Mahmood broke the idol with his own hand.
  • After Somnath Mahmood punished the ruler of Anhilwara who had taken part in the defense of Somnath.
  • Mahmood returned to Ghazni via Sindh in the spring of 1026.
  • His last invasion of India was directed against the Jats of Sindh who had harassed him during his return journey from Somnath in 1026.
  • Mahmood attacked India 17 times and defeated the Hindu Rajas from almost all parts of the country but annexed only the Punjab because of the animosity of the Hindu Shahi dynasty against the Ghaznavids.
  • He never met with defeat. He had a life long military career of 33 years.
  • The historians ‘Utbi, and Baihaqi, the philosopher al-Farabi and poets ‘Unsuri, ‘Asjdi and Farruki adorned his court.
  • The greatest of all these was Firdausi, the author of the world famous Shahnamah.
  • Mahmood established a university, a library and a museum at Ghazni.
  • The north-western part of Pakistan came under Muslim rule for the first time during his reign and Lahore developed into a great Muslim cultural centre.
  • Abu Raihan Al-Biruni ( a mathematician, philosopher, astronomer and a Sanskrit scholar) was born in Khwarizm (modern Khiva) in 973. He spent his early life under the patronage of Khwarizm Shah. He stayed for a while at the court of Qabus in Tabaristan where he dedicated his monumental work , the Chronology of the Ancient Nations, to Qabus. In 1017 Mahmood took him to Ghazni. He spent several years in the sub-continent and probably died in 1048.
  • Al-Biruni wrote the bilingual Tafhim on Astronomy, Qanun-ul-Masudi, also on Astronomy, dedicated to Mas’ud, son of Mahmood. His most famous work on India is Kitab-ul-Hind.
  • Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi died on April 30, 1030 in Ghazni at the age of 62..
  • Mahmood was succeeded by his son Mas’ud.
  • Sultan Mas’ud took keen interest in the affairs of the North-Western Indo-Pak region. He appointed a new governor at Lahore.
  • He undertook an expedition to conquer Hansi. His absence from Ghazni cost the Ghaznawids the western and northern parts of their empire including Nishapur which fell into the hands of the Seljuks.
  • Mas’ud was succeeded by his son Mahmud. During his reign the Raja of Delhi made a desperate attempt to oust the Muslims from the Punjab but could not succeed.
  • Mahmud was succeeded by his son Ibrahim who ruled for quite a long time from 1059 to 1099. During his reign the hold on Punjab was strengthened and successful expeditions were led against Banares, Thanesar and Qanauj.
  • In 1079 Sultan Ibrahim captured Ajodhan, (Presently know as Pakpattan).
  • During the reign of Bahram (1118-1152) the Afghan valley became the scene of a tripartite struggle for supremacy. To the already existing antagonism between the Ghaznawids and the Seljuks, the rise to power of the Shansabaniya princes in Ghur added fresh complications.
  • Ghur is the hilly area between Herat and Kabul.
  • In a confused struggle between the Ghaznawids and the Guris, ‘Ala-ud-din Husain inflicted a terrible punishment on Ghazni in 1151 by setting fire to the city and reducing it to ashes. Due to this he was known as Jahansuz.
  • The ruined city to which the Ghaznawids returned fell into the hands of the Ghuzz Turks and a son of Bahram Khusrau Shah fell back upon the Punjab in 1160, which was now the only part of their once vast empire which owed allegiance to the Ghaznawids.
  • The Ghaznawid rule over the Peshawar region, the Punjab and Multan lasted for about two hundred years.
  • After the fall of Ghazni many poets, writers and philosophers settled in Lahore which remained the capital of the area till the time of Iltutmish. Persian became the language of culture of the Muslim elite.
  • Ghaznawid Lahore had two prominent persons. The poet Mas’ud Sa’d Salman who wrote in Arabic, Persian and Hindi and the famous Ali Hujweri, known as Data Gunj Bakhsh, the author of Kash-ul-Mahjub, one of the earliest works on Sufism.
  • Shansabaniya was the ruling family of Ghur.
  • Qutb-ud-din Hasan was a Ghuri prince who had taken refuge in the court of Sultan Bahram of Ghazni. Bahram had also given him a daughter in marriage but later on killed him.
  • This cruel murder aroused a feeling of resentment in Ghur and Saifuddin, a brother pf the deceased prince attacked Ghazni and expelled Bahram from there.
  • On re-entering Ghazni, Bahram captured Saifuddin and had him executed.
  • Ala-ud-din, Another brother of Qutb-ud-din, took Ghazni by storm and wreaked such a vengeance that it never recovered from it. The whole of Ghazni was burnt to ashes and the fire kept burning for 7 days.
  • Later the city was again occupied by the Ghaznawids.
  • Ghuzz Turks expelled Khusrau Shah from Ghazni so he came to Lahore.
  • Khusrau Shah was succeeded by Khusrau Malik who an inefficient, luxury loving and debauch ruler.
  • Ala-ud-dinJahansuz died in 1163 and was succeeded by his nephew Ghiyas-ud-din Muhammad bin Sam in the principality of Ghur.
  • Ghiyas-ud-din Muhammad fought against the Ghuzz Turks and captured Ghazni in 1173-74.
  • Ghiyas-ud-din Muhammad entrusted the rule of Ghazni to his brother Shihabuddin or Muizz-ud-din Muhammad Bin Sam (better known as Muhammad Ghuri) and confined himself to ruling his native principality of Ghur.
  • At that time Khusrau Malik was ruling in Lahore while Multan and Uchh were held by the Ismailis.
  • Lower Sindh was held by the Sumra dynasty. Qanauj was being ruled by the Gahadwal Rajputs, Dehli and Ajmer by the Chauhans Rajputs, Gujarat by the Chalukyas (Baghelas) and Bundelkhand by the Chandels.
  • Muhammad Ghuri crossed Gomal Pass (instead of the Khyber Pass) and reached Dera Ismail Khan and from there to Sindh Sagar Doab. He occupied both Uchh and Multan in a single expedition in 1175.
  • He proceeded next against Anilwara, the capital of Gujarat in 1178. his army was exhausted after a long march through the desert and was repulsed by the ruler.
  • Muhammad Ghuri occupied Peshawar in 1179. From there he proceeded against Khusrau Malik who submitted.
  • In 1182 he advanced towards Sindh and captured Daibul and the adjoining areas.
  • In 1184 he occupied Sialkot.
  • In 1186 Khusrau Malik revolted and thus punished and taken as captive. This ended Ghaznawid rule once for all.
  • Now he captured Bhatinda ( a town on the Punjab frontier) which the Chauhans had taken from the Ghaznawids.
  • The conquest of Bhatinda was challenged by Prithviraj, the ruler of Delhi-Ajmer.
  • Prithvi advanced in 1191 with a vast army consisting of 200,000 horses and 3000 elephants. Many other Rajput Rajas joined him to fight Ghauri at Tarain.
  • During the battle Ghuri came face to face with against Govind Rai, the borther of Prithvi. Ghuri hit him with his spear knocking out two of his teet. Govind Rai hit the Sultan with a Javelin which made him bleed profusely and was about to fall. A young Khalaji soldier jumped in and guided his horse to safety.
  • The Sultan’s army dispersed in panic but soon gathered round their leader at Lahore and returned to Dehli. This is called the first battle of Tarain.
  • The Sultan made adequate preparations for a second campaign and retuned next year in 1192 with an army of 120,000 horses and encamped near Tarain.
  • Prithviraj was this time supported by 120 Rajput Princes of Indian states. His army numbered 300,000.
  • After a fierce battle the Hindu army was defeated. Govind Rai was killed in the battlefield while Prithviraj was captured and later put to death. This is known as Second battle of Tarain. This battle shattered the power of Chauhan Rajputs.
  • After Tarain Ghuri occupied Hansi, Kuhram, Sarswati and Samana.
  • Ajmer was given to a son of Prithvi Raj as a tributary and Dehli was allowed to be ruled by Govind Rai’s successor.
  • The Sultan then left his faithful officer Qutb-ud-din Aibek in charge of the newly acquired territories and himself returned to Ghazni.
  • Shortly after Aibek conquered Mirath, Koil (Modern Aligarh) and Dehli.
  • Aibek made Dheli as his headquarter.
  • Qanauj was being ruled by the Gahadwal king, Jayachandra. He hoped to rule India after Prithvi’s defeat.
  • Ghauri led an expedition against him in 1194 with an army of 50,000 horsemen.
  • Both armies met in the vicinity of Chandwara and Jayachandra was defeated and killed.
  • In Ajmer the Sultan’s tributary was ousted by his uncle indicating revolt. In 1195 Aibek proceeded to Ajmer crushed the rebellion and this time appointed a Muslim governor.
  • Aibek then punished Bhimdev II, ruler of Gujarat, who had helped the rebels in Ajmer. The Raja was killed but Anhilwara beinf too far away was not annexed.
  • Aibek then occupied Bada’un, Banaras (in 1197-98), Sirohi (1198-99), Gwalior (1200), Kalinjar (1202), Mahoba and Kalpi.
  • The overthrow of the rulers of the eastern kingdoms was effected with the remarkable ease by Aibek’s general Ikhtiyar-ud-din Muhammad Khilji, the son of Bakhtyar.
  • Initial expedtitons of Muhammad Khilji included occupation of iqta’s of Bhagwat and Bhili under Malik Husam-ud-din, the governor og Awadh.
  • In or about 1199 Muhammad Khilji made a sudden dash against the fortress of Bihar and occupied it. It was in fact a Buddhist monastery (Vihara) called Udanatapura Vihara and thus the whole country came to be called Bihar by the Muslims.
  • In 1200 Muhammad Khilji proceeded through the unfrequented Jharkhand region and marched so swiftly towards Nadia that only 18 horsemen could keep pace with him. He was mistaken a horse dealer and passed through the gates of Lakhmansena’s palace unopposed. He attacked the royal guards. The king who had just sat down at his lunch heard the uproar and fled by the back door barefooted. Meanwhile the main army of Muhammad Khilji arrived. He then proceeded northward and established his headquarters at Lakhnauti (Lakshmanavati) near Gaur (ancient Ganda) in Maldah.
  • In 1206 Muhammad Khilji started his ill-fated campaign against Tibet.
  • He left for this expedition from Devkot (in Dinajpur) with 10000 horsemen up the river Bhagmati. On reaching the hills he sustained heavy losses in a battle with the local people. He decided to return but this again proved to be disastrous and only 100 soldiers reached back with him at Devkot.
  • Muhammad Khilji was stabbed to death by one of his lieutenants in 1206.
  • Ghuri’s brother Ghiyas-ud-din at Ghau was resisting pressure from the Khawarizmshah.
  • The death of Ghiyas-ud-din in 1202 left Khawarizmshah unopposed.
  • In 1204 Muhammad Ghauri attacked Khawarizm with a large army.
  • The Khawarizmshah, Alauddin received assistance from the Qara-Khitai Turks and thus defeated the army of Muhammad Ghauri. This defeat spread the roumour og Ghauri’s death and thus ignited rebellions in his empire.
  • Khokhars grew turbulent in the Panjab and the remittance of revenue from Lahore to Ghazni was stopped. Muhammad Ghauri himself came to deal with the situation. The combined forces of Ghauri and Aibek crushed the Khokhars.
  • On his way from Lahore to Ghazni in 1206 the Sultan halted at Damik in the Jehlum district. There while engaged in his evening prayers, he was assassinated by an Ismaili fanatic on March 15, 1206.
  • As Sultan Muhammad Ghuri had left son, his empire was divided among his Turkish slaves. His nephew Ghiyas-ud-din Mahmud succeeded him at Ghur. One of his slaves Taj-ud-din Ildiz held Ghazni. Another slave Nasir-ud-din Qubachah was holding Uch while Qutb-ud-din Aibek was in Lahore.
  • Sultan Muhammad Ghuri’s nephew Ghiyas-ud-din Mahmud Ghuri gave Aibke freedom and the title of Sultan.
  • Aibek was elected Sultan by the amirs. He ascended to throne in Lahore on June 24, 1206.
  • Aibek was originally from a Turkish family of Central Asia but was sold as a slave to the chief qazi of Nishapur who arranged his early education and traning as a soldier.
  • After the death of the qazi his sons sold Aibek to a merchant who later on sold him to Muhammad Ghuri. By dint of his exceptional qualities he rose to the position of amir-i-akhur (controller of royal stables and establishments of breeding horses). This was a key post keeping in view the importance of cavalry in those days.
  • Aibek served Sultan Ghuri with distinction and once in a battle against Khawarizmshah he was captured but on the defeat of the enemy was released.
  • In 1208 the pressure of Khawarizmshah forced Taj-ud-din Ildiz to quit Ghazni and march towards the Punjab. Fearing that this might bring Khawarizmshah in pursuit, Aibek drove Ildiz out of Punjab and moved on to occupy Ghazni.
  • Aibek soon gave up Ghazni and returned to Lahore.
  • In 1210 Aibek fell from his horse while playing polo and died.
  • Aibek was the first independent Sultan of the newly established Sultanate of Delhi.
  • His generosity earned him the title of Lakh Bakhsh.
  • He was a patron of learning and bestowed favors on Hasan Nizami and Fakhr-i-Mudabbir.
  • On the death of Aibek the amirs and maliks in Lahore placed his son Aram Shah on the throne in 1210.
  • Because of incompetence of Aram Shah the nobles of Delhi invited Iltutmish, Aibek’s son-in-law to govern. Iltutmish was the governor of Bad’un at that time.
  • Aram Shah marched from Lahore to Delhi but was defeated and captured by Iltutmish. Nothing more is heard about him.
  • Political situation was dismal at that time. Sindh and Multan were held by Nasir-ud-din Qubachah. Delhi and its environs were in the possession of Iltutmish. In Bengal ‘Ali Mardan, who had succeeded Muhammad Bin Bakhtyar Khilji, had declared himself independent. Lahore was the bone of contention between Qubachah, Iltutmish and Ildiz, who had recovered his position at Ghazni.
  • Iltutmish belonged to a noble family of Ilbari Turks. His personal qualities arose the jealousy of his brothers who sold him to a slave dealer. After sometime he was purchased by Sadr Jahan, the qazi of Bukhara, who educated him. Later he was brought to Delhi where Aibek bought him and treated him kindly. Iltutmish was first appointed as sar-jandar (chief of the guards) and later raised to the high office of amir-i-shikar. He was then appointed amir of Gwalior and later on Governor of Bada’un. He showed great courage at the time of suppression of khokhars which pleased Sultan Ghuri as lot.
  • Iltutmish acceded to throne in 1211 and immediately faced a strong revolt of many nobles. He successfully suppressed the rebels and brought the country between Banaras and the Siwalik hills under his control.
  • In an attempt to reconcile with Ildiz he accepted the insignia of royalty sent by him.
  • Lahore had meanwhile passed into the hands of Qabachah.
  • In 1214 Khawarizmshah ejected Ildiz from Ghazni who came to Lahore and established himself there.
  • In 1215 Iltutmish marched against Ildiz and defeated him on the historical battlefield of Tarain. Ildiz was made a captive and later on executed.
  • Lahore was again occupied by Qabachah who was also defeated by Iltutmish and compelled to surrender the upper Punjab.
  • At this time Mongols had devastated Balkh, Bukhara, Herat and Samarqand. The Khawarizmshahi Empire was also relentlessly put to an end. ‘Ala-ud-din Muhammad was forced to seek shelter in a Caspian Island where he ecentually died while the crown prince Jalal-ud-din Mangbarni was pushed across the Indus to find refuge in Sindh Sagar doab in 1221.
  • Jalal-ud-din requested Iltutmish for support or shelter but Iltutmish politely refused him because it have attracted a Mongol invasion. Jalal-ud-din went to the Salt Range and first fought with Khokhars then established matrimonial alliance with them.
  • Jalal-ud-din then defeated Qabachah and compelled him to pay a heavy tribute. After 3 years of wandering in West Punjab he attacked Sindh and then went to Persia in 1224.
  • According to scholars the refusal by Iltutmish to support Jalal-ud-din at that time saved the newly created Delhi Sultanate from the Mongol wrath.
  • In Bengal the Khalaji ruler Husamud-din ‘Iwaz had assumed the title of Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din and extended his authority over the territories of Jajnagar, Bang, Kamprup, and Tirhut.
  • In 1225 Iltutmish led an expedition against ‘Iwaz who submitted and acknowledged his authority. Iltutmish returned after appointing his son Nasir-ud-din Mahmood governor of Awadh.
  • In 1227 Nasir-ud-din Mahmood attacked Lakhnauti and killed ‘Iwaz.
  • Iltutmish then launched a series of expeditions against the Hindus who had recovered most of their lost territories. In 1226 he re-conquered Ranthambore and took Mandawar in the Siwalik Hills in 1227.
  • When Qabachah was busy tackling Jalal-ud-din Iltutmish occupied Lahore.
  • In 1228 Iltutmish marched against Uchch and directed his lieutenant from Lahore to attack Multan.
  • Qabachah withdrew to the Island fortress of Bhakkar in the lower Indus.
  • After a siege of about 3 months Uchch was captured.
  • An army from Delhi also pressed hard on Qabachah in his Island refuge when he started negotiations for a settlement. In an attempt to escape Qabachah was drowned in Indus. After his death the Sumra ruler of lower Sindh, Sinan-ud-din Chanesar, also submitted to Iltutmish.
  • In 1229 the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustansar billha through a letter invested him with the monarchy of all the territories in his possession. After this investure Iltutmish issued new coins with the Caliph’s name inscribed on them and describing himself as the “Helper of the commander of the Faithful”. He also introduced purely Arabic coinage and issued silver Tankah, the precursor of the modern rupee.
  • In 1231 Iltutmish besieged the fortress of Gwalior. Its ruler, Mangal Dev, escaped secretly after an year’s resistance.
  • In 1231-32 Iltutmish built the famous Qutb Minar in honor of the great saint Khawajah Qutb-ud-din Bakhtyar Kaki.
  • In 1234 Iltutmish. Invaded Malwa, captured the fort of Bhilsa and Ujjain and thus extended the boundaries of his empire to Narbada. On his return a group of Isma’ilis made an unsuccessful assassination attempt on his life.
  • The prominent people in his court were Fakh-i-Mudabbir, historian Minhaj-i-Siraj and the poet Taj-ul-Mulk Rizah.
  • At the end of 1235 he led an expedition against the Khokhars but on the way he fell seriously ill and was carried back to Delhi in a litter. He died in April 1236 after a reign of 26 years.
  • Iltutmish laid the administration on sound basis. In this task he was assisted by his famous wazir Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaidi.
  • Iltutmish named his daughter Raziyah as his successor in preference to his sons.
  • In spite of the wish of Iltutmish the nobles raised to throne his eldest surviving son Rukn-ud-din Firuz in April 1236.
  • Rukn-ud-din Firuz was a pleasure-seeking and incapable ruler. The business of the state passed into the hands of his mother, Shah Turkan. She was an intriguer and removed her rivals by putting them to death. She also got killed one of the younger sons of Iltutmish, Qutb-ud-din. This infuriated the nobles and they revolted.
  • The governors of Bada’un, Multan, Hansi, and Lahore entered into a conspiracy against Rukn-ud-din Firuz.
  • In Bengal Tughril assumed independence. Rukn-ud-din Firuz started from Delhi to the deal with the rebels but desertions in his army and the news of a revolt at Delhi forced him to return to the capital.
  • In Delhi Shah Turkan precipitated a crisis by capturing he step-daughter Raziyah to put her to death.
  • The people of Delhi rose in favor of Raziyah and Shah Turkan was taken as a prisoner.
  • The Turkish officers now rallied around Raziyah and proclaimed her queen.
  • Rukn-ud-din Firuz was captured and imprisoned where he died on 9th Nov. 1236 after a reign of about 7 months.
  • Raziyah had had the chance to show her qualities to govern in the life time of Iltutmish when he entrusted her with the business of the state when he went for his Gwalior expedition.
  • Raziyah acceded to throne with the title Jalalat-ud-din Raziyah in Nov. 1236.
  • The provincial nobles who had revolted against Firuz felt dismayed at not being consulted before her accession to the throne and they marched against Delhi. Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaidi also did not her right to sovereignty and joined the rebels.
  • Raziyah came out of palace and encamped near the rebel forces on the bank of the River Jumna. By unsusal courage and diplomacy she created divisions among her enemies and with the help of one group crushed the other.
  • Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaidi fled to the Sirmur hills where he died.
  • Raziyah appointed Khawajah Muhazzib-ud-din Husain as her wazir with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk.
  • All the governors now showed their allegiance to her. Even the governors of the distant provinces of Bengal and Sindh submitted to her rule.
  • Her army dealth effectively with the rebellion of Isma’ilis who under the leadership of Nur-ud-din Turk assembled at Delhi and a force of one thousand fully armed men launched an attack on the worshippers in the Jamia mosque of Delhi on March 5, 1237.
  • She appeared in court and in the battlefield attired in male dress.
  • She promoted an Abyssinian named Jalal-ud-din Yaqut to the post of amir-i-akhur and made him her personal attendant. This was intended to break the monopoly of the Turkish officers.
  • The Turkish nobles reacted to it and the group of ‘Forty’ under Aitigin decided to remove her.
  • The group of ‘Forty’ was created by Iltutmish as his supporters but had grown too strong now.
  • In 1239 the governor of Punjab was the first to revolt but his revolt was successfully suppressed.
  • This was followed by the revolt of the governor of Bhatinda, Altuniya.
  • She proceeded to Bhatinda to crush the rebellion but faced defeat. Yaqut was killed and Raziyah was taken captive and imprisoned in the fortress of Bhatinda in the custody of Altuniya.
  • The rebels then proceeded to Delhi where the third son of Iltutmish had been raised to the throne by the ‘Forty’ with the title Muizzuddin in April 1240.
  • While in prison Raziyah in a desperate attempt to regain her throne married her captor and together they marched towards Delhi but were defeated. They both fled but were killed by Hindu robbers.
  • Bahram was made king on the condition that Aitigin would act as the Sultan’s deputy. But Aitigin also tried to have some royal prerogatives. This infuriated Sultan Bhram who got him killed.
  • Another noble Badr-ud-din Sanqar was also killed on the conspiring against the Sultan.
  • The Turkish oligarchy now organized a rebellion against the Sultan.
  • These intrigues weakened the royal authority this encouraged the Mongol leader, Bahadur Tair to come from Khurasan and Ghazni and attack Lahore. The governor of Lahore fled and the city was occupied by the Mongols on December 22, 1241. Mongols as usual killed a large majority of people. The army which the Sultan sent to beat the Mongols became rebellious itself and fell back upon the Delhi. They besieged the Sultan in his palace for over 3 months and occupied the city. The Sultan was taken as a prisoner and then killed.
  • The nobles then raised to throne ‘Ala-ud-din Mas’ud, son of Rukn-ud-din Firuz in 1242.
  • During the reign of ‘Ala-ud-din Mas’ud (1242-1245) East Bengal and Bihar broke away from the centre and Multan, Sindh and Upper Punjab were also lost to the Sultanate.
  • ‘Ala-ud-din Mas’ud appointed Baha-ud-din Balban, later know as Ulugh Khan, as amir hajib.
  • Balban organized a large army to repel the Mongol invaders. He got relieved Uchch and forced the Mongols back.
  • ‘Ala-ud-din Mas’ud tried to re-establish the prestige of the monarchy and curb the power of the ‘Forty’.
  • The Turkish officers now deposed him and Nasir-ud-din Mahmood was made Sultan in 1246.
  • Nasir-ud-din Mahmood was a son of Iltutmish and was a pious and generous man. His reign (1246-1266) was a period of increasing court intrigues and weakening royal authority. This state of affairs again invited attacks from Mongols.
  • Nasir-ud-din Mahmood was fortunate to have Balban as amir hajib. Balban was a man of strong personality and most of the state business was being run him.
  • Balban was son of a Turkish noble of the Ilbari tribe. He was captured by the Mongols and sold in Baghdad to Khawaja Jamal-ud-din Basri. Later in 1232 he was taken to Dehli and sold to Iltutmish.
  • Under Nasir-ud-din Mahmood Balban paid attention to restore the central authority. In 1247 he punished the Khokhars and Jats of the Salt Range who had assisted the Mongols. In 1248 he undertook several expeditions against the rebellious Hindu chiefs of the Doab.
  • There was a strong fortress called Talsandah near Qanauj. Balban conquered this fortress after a severe battle. The territory between Kalinjar and Karah was cleared of rebels. In Mewat, south of Dehli, he crushed the Meos. Next to be re-occupied was Ranthambore.
  • Nasir-ud-din Mahmood married one of the daughters of Balban and appointed him malik naib (Lord Lieutenant of the Empire) with the title Ulugh Khan. His brother Saif-ud-din was appointed amir hajib.
  • The jealous nobles succeeded in poisoning the ears of the Sultan against Balban who removed him from the office in 1253.
  • Nasir-ud-din Mahmood now appointed ‘Imad-ud-din Raihan, a converted Muslim, as wakil-i-dar and entrusted him with the powers enjoyed by Balban.
  • The Turkish amirs were soon disillusioned and again rallied around Balban and marched towards Delhi. The Sultan came out to oppose them but an armed conflict was avoided when the Sultan agreed to dismiss Raihan and reinstate Balban in his previous position in January 1255.
  • Qutlugh Khan, governor of Awadh and Kishlu Khan, governor of Multan and Uchch combined their forces and marched towards Delhi to oust Balban from power. They were utterly defeated. Kishlu Khan fled back to Uchch while Qutlugh Khan was never heard of.
  • Kishlu Khan got in touch with Hulagu Khan and the Mongol army invaded Punjab and was ready to cross the River Sutlej. The Sultan sent a large army to counter the threat posed by the Mongols who retreated before the royal army could arrive.
  • In 1260 Balban inflicted crushing defeat on resurgent Meos of Mewat.
  • In early 1260s an envoy from Hulagu Khan visited Delhi. This was in reply to a friendly overture made by Balban. The Mongol envoy was given an impressive reception. Armed men numbering 200,000 foot and 50,000 horse with banners and other equipment were assembled in the new city of Kilokhari near Delhi. They were drawn up shoulder to shoulder in 20 lines. The Mongol envoy was awestruck by the grandeur and majesty of the Delhi Sultanate.
  • During the reign of Nasir-ud-din Mahmood the attempts were made to bring the principality of Lakhnauti under effective control but only with limited success.
  • In 1252-53 Mughis-ud-din Yuzbek was appointed the governor of Awadh, Bihar and Bengal. He extended his boundaries in Bengal by conquering Radha and Nadia.
  • Mughis-ud-din Yuzbek announced his independence from the central authority. After his death Arsalan Khan became the ruler of Awadh.
  • On the death of Arsalan Khan his son Tatar Khan succeeded him with the title of “Chief of All the Maliks of China and the East”.
  • Nasir-ud-din Mahmood fell ill in 1265 and died on Feb. 18, 1266.
  • Nasir-ud-din Mahmood was known to earn his livelihood by copying Quran.
  • Balaban succeeded Nasir-ud-din Mahmood as Sultan Ghiyas-ud-din Balban early in 1266.
  • Balban enforced recognized forms of court etiquette strictly.
  • Balban claimed his descent from Afrasiyab, the legendary Turanian hero of Shahnama. He gave Persian names to his grandsons: Kaikhusrau, Kaiqubad, Kaikaus, Kaimurs.
  • Balban was always serious in his public life. He was known to be a strong and just King who kept the country safe from the Mongol invasion.
  • In administering justice he never cared for the position of the person. He gave exemplary punishments to the Malik Baqbaq, the governor of Bada’un and Haibat Khan, the governor of Awadh for their offences.
  • Balban strengthened the system of newswriters(barids) reported to him the activities of the local officers.
  • Because of the fears of the Mongol invasions Balban did not pursue the policy of conquests so rarely left the capital.
  • His cousin Sher Khan, the governor of the frontier provinces of Multan and Dipalpur, proved to be a great obstacle for the Mongols.
  • After the death of Sher Khan Balaban’s eldest son Muhammad was appointed the governor of the provinces of Multan and Dipalpur. The district of Samana was separated and put under his second son Bughra Khan.
  • The Meos had recovered from the early actions taken against them and had resumed their notorious activites of plundering the travelers etc. In the years 1266-67 Balban got the jungles cleared and drove these culprits from their hideouts.
  • The Doab between the Ganges and Jumna was also made safe by appointing Muslim soldiers there and maintaining new posts.
  • In 1268 he suppressed the insurgency in Katehar (Rohailkhand).
  • In 1268-69 Balban led punitive expeditions against the Jats of the Salt Range and restored order in the Punjab.
  • In 1279 the combined forces of Muhammad and Bughra Khan inflicted heavy defeats on the invading Mongols when they had crossed the Sutlej River.
  • In 1279 Tughril declared independence in Bengal and adopted the title of Mughis-ud-din. He defeated two armies sent by Balaban. This enraged Balban who led an expedition himself in 1280 and put and end to it by killing Tughril and his supporters.
  • Balban appointed his son Bughra Khan as governor of Bengal.
  • In 1286 his crown prince Muhammad died in an encounter with the Mongols on the Lahore-Dipalpur border. The news of the death of that remarkable prince broke the heart of the Sultan but he kept his composure.
  • Muhammad was a cultured, noble and courageous prince. He patronized men of letters like Amir Khusraw and Amir Hasan Sijzi.
  • Being quite old now himself Balban summoned Bughra Khan to come to Delhi.
  • Bughra Khan spent sometime with him but then went back to luxurious life of Lakhnauti. This act of his was disliked by Balban who now nominated Muhammad’s son Kaikhusraw as the next Sultan.
  • Balban died in 1287.
  • The nobles of Delhi, in disregard of Balban’s advice, raised to the throne Bughra Khan’s son Kaiqubad who was only 17 years old.
  • Kaiqubad proved to be a pleasure seeking king. The administration was conducted by Malik Nizam-ud-din, son-in-law of the aged Kotwal Fakhr-ud-din. At his instigation the Sultan killed Kaikhusraw and removed Khawaja Khatir, the wazir.
  • Bughra Khan wrote letters to his son to act like a sensible person but in vain. Bughra Khan then decided to go to Delhi. Kaiqubad marched from Delhi to prevent his father to reach the capital.
  • A meeting was arranged between father and son on the banks of the Sarju in Awadh. As the father attended the court he bowed and kissed the ground before his son who was sitting on the throne. Kaiqubad was overwhelmed with emotion and he threw himself on the feet of his father. Bughra Khan advised Kaiqubadto get rid of Malik Nizam-ud-din.
  • This meeting provided the theme of one of the poems ( Qiran-us-sa’dain) of Amir Khusraw.
  • Kaiqubad, on return to Delhi, ordered Malik Nizam-ud-din to proceed to Multan as governor. On his hesitation to comply with the order the Sultan had him killed.
  • The Sultan appointed a Khalaji Malik, named Firuz, as ‘ariz-i-mumalik.
  • The luxurious life led by the Sultan resulted in breakdown of his health. He got a stroke of paralysis and was on the verge of death.
  • Firuz Khalaji attempted to capture the throne. The Turkish nobles raised Kaimurs, 3 years old son of Kaiqubad to throne with the title of Shamsuddin. They hoped to rule themselves on his behalf.
  • In the confusing struggle that ensued Firuz Khalaji prevailed. He got Kaiqubad killed and took Kaimurs in his custody.
  • For three months Firuz Khalaji conducted the affairs of the state as regent but finally decalred himself Sultan with the title Jalal-ud-din Firuz Shah in the unfinished palace of Kilukhari on June 13th, 1290. This resulted in the end to Turkish sultanate.
  • The Khalajis were Central Asian in origin but had lived in Afghanistan so long that they had become different from the Turks.
  • The overwhelming Turk population of Delhi initially did not like the change but the mildness and generosity of Firuz Shah removed all prejudice against him.
  • Firuz Shah remained in Kilukhari for sometime but later on entered Delhi and took residence in the royal Red Palace of Balaban. It is said that on reaching the palace he dismounted from the horse and wept. He expressed his unworthiness to occupy the throne but the chaos and anarchy of the Sultanate forced him to do so. This act of his won him many friends.
  • Firuz Shah retained ‘Ala-ud-din Kishlu Khan ( famous as Malik Chhajju), a nephew of Balban, as the governor of Karah-Manikpur. Malik Chhajju was the sole survivor of the old dynasty.
  • Khawaja Khatir, the wazir under Balban and Kaiqubad, was retained in his office.
  • Fakhr-ud-din, the Kotwal of Delhi, was re-employed.
  • The eldest son of Firuz Shah got the title of Khan Khanan, the second Arkali Khan and the third Qadr Khan. His youngest son was appointed ‘ariz-i-mumalik.
  • His nephew and son-in-law ‘Ala-ud-din was made amir tuzuk. Another nephew Almas Beg was appointed as akhur beg.
  • Another outspoken cousin Ahmed Chap was appointed naib barbek.
  • After about two months of accession of Firuz Shah Malik Chhajju pressed his claim to the throne and assumed royal title at Karah.
  • Malik Chhajju was joined by the governor of Awadh and he marched to Delhi with a large army. The Sultan’s army stopped him near Bad’un and defeated him. Malik Chhajju was brought before the Sultan in fetters. The Sultan again wept and ordered the release of the prisoners. On the rebuke from from Ahmed Chap the Sultan said that he did not like to shed the blood of the Muslims.
  • He now posted his nephew and son-in-law Ala-ud-din as governor of Karah.
  • Firuz Shah also showed unwise kindness to the thugs and instead of punishing them they were sent to Bengal as free people.
  • Such a behavior ignited seditions.
  • Sidi Maula, a disciple of Shaikh Farid-ud-din Ganj Shakar, maintained a hospice at Delhi where large number of people were fed everyday. Khan Khanan is said to have been of his disciples. But the hospice soon became a centre of political intrigue, and a conspiracy to kill Firuz and declare Sidi Maula as the Caliph was unearthed. All the conspirators including Sidi Maula were arrested.
  • Sidi Maula was then put to death by a qalandar at the instance of the Sultan.
  • Khan Khanan died shortly after Sidi Maula.
  • In 1290 the sultan led an expedition to Ranthambhor, leaving his second son Arkali Khan as regent at the capital. The Sultan captured the fortress of Jain but when the Rana fortified himself in Ranthambhor and offered resistance, he decided not besiege it. To Ahmed Chap’s objections he replied that ten such forts were not worth the loss of a single hair of a Muslim.
  • In 1292 Mongols, numbering 150,000, under Abdullah invaded the subcontinent penetrating as far as Sunnam. The Sultan, who had earlier encountered the Mongols as ‘warden of the marches’, at once set out to meet the invaders and completely overpowered them.
  • The Mongols then withdrew. Ulghu, a descendant of Chengiz Khan decide to stay back. He accepted Islam with 4000 of his followers and the Sultan gave him his daughter in marriage.
  • These “New Muslims”, as they were called, entered the Sultan’s service and were settled in the suburbs of Delhi. Some of them returned back to their homes because of climate.
  • In 1292 the Sultan also undertook expeditions against Mandor and Jain territory.
  • Towards the end of 1292 ‘Ala-ud-din obtained permission of the Sultan to invade Malwa and captured it and Bhilsa. The Sultan was pleased with him and appointed him ariz-i-mumalik and added Awadhto his charge of Karah.
  • While in Bhilsa Ala-ud-din heard about the vast wealth of the southern Kingdom of Deogir.
  • After getting permission to raid Chanderi from the Sultan Ala-ud-din raised an army of 8000 and reached Ellichpur, the northern outpost of the Yadava kingdom of Deogir, in Feb. 1296. First posing as a dissatisfied Delhi noble seeking service with some ruler ‘Ala-ud-din pushed on unhindered and appeared before Deogir.
  • At that time the main Yadava army was away with Ramachandara’s son Shankara (Singhana) on a pilgrimage to the south. ‘Ala-ud-din attacked Deogir and Ramachandara, seeing no escape, sued for peace. ‘Ala-ud-din concluded a treaty.
  • Shankara on hearing about this hurried back to the capital and attacked the Muslim army. The timely arrival of Nusrat Khan with a contingent helped ‘Ala-ud-din to defeat the Hindu army. Now ‘Ala-ud-din dictated fresh and harsher terms for peace. He demanded cession of Ellichpur and the payment of a huge indemnity.
  • ‘Ala-ud-din returned to Karah on June 3, 1296.
  • Sultan was not aware of this lengthy campaign of ‘Ala-ud-din. On knowing this he was very happy and expressed the desire to go to meet him. Ahmad Chap wanred him against such a dangerous step and advised him to intercept ‘Ala-ud-din at Chanderi. But the Sultan did not pay any heed to his advice.
  • ‘Ala-ud-din wrote a couple of letters to the Sultan apologizing for carrying out these expeditions without his permission and invited him to come to Karah.
  • Firuz proceeded by river to Karah with a few trusted courtiers while an army followed him by land.
  • ‘Ala-ud-din’s brother Almas Beg, who accompanied the Sultan from Delhi, persuaded him to meet his nephew with a few unarmed attendants as the armed guards were likely to frighten ‘Ala-ud-din.
  • On the seeing the Sultan ‘Ala-ud-din fell on his feet. Firuz raised him up assuring him of his continued affection. But as the Sultan led ‘Ala-ud-din to his boat two assassins attacked the Sultan and killed him on July 20, 1296.
  • There are many possibilities for the likely conspirators or behind the door machinations involved in this assassination but none offers a satisfactory answer.
  • Immediately after the murder of Jalal-ud-din Firuz ‘Ala-ud-din was proclaimed Sultan. The division in Firuz’s family helped ‘Ala-ud-din’s cause. In total disregard of Arkali Khan, the eldest surviving son, the queen-mother Malikah-i-Jahan declared a younger son of Firuz as Sultan with the title of Rukn-ud-din Ibrahim.
  • The supporters of Arkali Khan at Delhi refused to recognize Ibrahim.
  • Ala-ud-din lost no time and marched on Delhi with ‘iron in one hand and gold in the other’.
  • At Bada’un Ala-ud-din met an army sent from Delhi to oppose him but it was won over by lavish distribution of gold.
  • As Ala-ud-din approached Delhi, Ibrahim came out to give a fight but the bulk of his army deserted him. Ibrahim left for Multan with the queen-mother and Ahmed Chap.
  • Ala-ud-din marched into Delhi and resided in the Red Palace of Balban on Oct. 20, 1296.
  • Ala-ud-din confirmed Khawaja Jahan (Khawaja Khatir) as Wazir. Ala-ul-Mulk was appointed governor of Karah. Zafar Khan was made ariz-i-mumalik.
  • Nusrat Khan was appointed Kotwal of Delhi. Qazi Sadr-i-Jahan was given the office of qazi-i-mummalik.
  • Ala-ud-din’s brother Almas Beg was the recipient of the highest title of Ulugh Khan, Malik Sanjar, the brother of his second wife was given the title of Alf(Alp) Khan.
  • After reorganization Ala-ud-din sent Ulugh Khan and Zafar Khan with a large army to Multan to deal with the sons of the late Sultan Firuz. Multan was besieged and the city surrendered. Arkali Khan, Ibrahim and Ahmad Chap were taken captive alongwith the queen-mother. The two princes were executed while the queen-mother was kept under surveillance at Delhi.
  • In 1297-98 a Mongol army, 100,000 strong led by Kadar invaded the Punjab. Ulugh Khan defeated them near Jullundhar. They appeared again in Sind in 1299 under Saldi and this time Zafar Khan defeated them and captured 2000 Mongols. These captives were sent to Delhi in chains.
  • In 1298 Ala-ud-din sent Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan to conquer Gujarat. The Baghela Chief Rai Karan offered some resistance but then fled with his daughter Deval Devi to seek shelter with Raja Ramchandra of Deogir leaving his wife Kamala Devi who fell into the hands of the Muslim army.
  • Nusrat Khan then proceeded to the rich port city of Cambay and obtained enormous booty.
  • Here Nusrat Khan got a handsome Hindu eunuch who later became famous as Malik Kafur.
  • After the establishment of Muslim administration in Gujarat, Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan started for Delhi but on the way some new converts rebelled over distribution of booty and they killed Nusrat Khan’s brother and a nephew of the Sultan. Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan stood firm and by the beat of drums assembled the loyal soldiers who defeated the rebels and killed most of them.
  • According to Barani Ala-ud-din became power drunk with his early successes and thought of creating a new religion and conquering the world like the Alexander. The advice of Ala-ul-Mulk, the sagacious Kotwal of Delhi, prevented him from initiating these absurd things. Amir Khusraw does not mention any of these things.
  • Towards the end of 1299 a large horde of 200,000 Mongols under Qutlugh Khan crossed the Indus and advanced up to Delhi. The Sultan decided to face the Mongols in the suburbs of Siri and went out of the city. He succeeded in defeating and dispersing Mongols but lost his great general Zafar Khan in the pursuit of the enemy.
  • The ruler of Ranthambhor, Hamir Deo, gave shelter to the rebellious new converts. The Sultan sent Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan to punish him with a large army. Ranthambhor had a strong fortress of strategic importance. The Muslim army besieged the fortress. During the siege Nusrat Khan was struck by a weapon and died shortly afterwards. This disheartened thje Muslims and Ulugh Khan was forced to retreat.
  • The Sutlan himself marched to Ranthambhor. On his way a rebel made an unsuccessful attempt on his life. The Sultan again laid a siege on Ranthambhor.
  • The siege of Ranthambhor was in progress when the Sultan heard that his two nephews rebelled in Bad’un and Awadh but were soon overpowered.
  • A much more serious rebellion was raised in Delhi by Haji Maula, an old servant of the house of Balban. The Delhi populace was discontented by the aggression of the new Kotwal Tirmizi. On instigation from Haji Maula in May 1301 the people of Delhi rose in rebellion and killed the Kotwal. They plundered the treasury and raised to throne a Saiyid and compelled other people of the city to pay homage to him.
  • The Sultan sent his foster-brother Malik Hamid-ud-din to Delhi. He assembled his small band of followers and forced his way through the western gate of the city and was soon joined by some loyal elements who now attacked Haji Maula and killed him. The Saiyid was beheaded in the Red Palace and order was restored in Delhi.
  • The Sultan now concentrated his energies on the siege of Ranthambhor. Using sand bags to fill the moat, the Muslims scaled the walls and captured the fortress on July 11, 1301. Hamir Deo was killed.
  • Shortly after the conquest of Ranthambhor Sultan’s brother Ulugh Khan died.
  • Now the Sultan began to supervise the working of the government personally. He strengthened the intelligence service. He prohibited the manufacture, sale and drinking of wine. He himself gave up drinking.
  • The Sultan went further and prohibited social gatherings in the houses of the nobles and marriages between members of their families without his permission.
  • Then he withdrew all grants of land which could not be justified on the basis of the service rendered to the state. Wherever was possible salaries were paid in cash.
  • The main source of the government income was the state demand on agricultural produce. He decided to raise the share of the state to the Islamic maximum of a half.
  • Then he made the rule of Measurement the practice instead of actual division of the crops. Under Measurement the land actually cultivated was measured and state demand was fixed on the basis of schedules of average produce for the area concerned.
  • He took steps to see that the peasants were justly treated and what they paid came to the coffers of the state rather than go to the pockets of the middlemen. He therefore, took steps to control the local Hindu revenue agents and officials who had so far become rich at the cost of the state and the peasant.
  • In or about 1302 Ala-ud-din sent an expedition to Warangal under the command of Fakhr-ud-din Jauna (the future Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughluq) and Malik Chhajju, nephew of the late Nusrat Ali.
  • Proceeding from Karah through Bengal and Orissa the Muslim army entered Telingana and reached the neighborhood of Warangal. The Muslim failed to capture this heavily fortified city.
  • In 1n January 1303 the Sultan started on an expedition to Mewar. Chittor, the capital of Mewar, was situated on a hilltop and was practically invincible. When the Sultan besieged the fortress, the Rajputs under Rana Ratan Singh put up a stiff fight and resisted all attempts at the occupation of the fortress for about seven months. At last being hard pressed, the Rajputs came out of the fortress and were defeated after a strong fight.
  • The Sultan appointed his son Khizr Khan to the government of Chittor and named the place Khizrabad in his honor.
  • Following the conquest of Chittor the Sultan’s troops carried on protracted campaigns in different parts of Rajputana. These resulted in the subjugation of Siwana and Jalor.
  • The losses suffered by the Mongols in 1299 had quietened them for a while but Sultan’s preoccupation with the Chittor expedition prompted them to attack again. An amry of 1, 20,000 Mongols under Targhi advanced towards Delhi and camped on Jamna in 1303. The Sultan had just returned from Chittor and the city was ill-defended and ill-provided with the provisions. The Mongols blockaded the city.
  • Finding himself without adequate forces the Sultan retired into the fortress of Siri and the Mongols felt free to plunder the countryside and even enter the streets of Delhi. The invaders, however, retreated after two months probably they had not come prepared to laying a siege.
  • Delhi escaped from annihilation at the hands of the Mongols and it seemed so miraculous that the people attributed it to the prayers of Shaikh Nizam-ud-din Auliya.
  • The Sultan now initiated reforms for army and defense of the state. All the old forts on the frontier were repaired and heavily garrisoned. New forts were also constructed. A large and permanent standing army was created. To ensure efficiency and discipline in the army a whole set of new army regulations was introduced.
  • To keep his soldiers satisfied and loyal he ordered that the salaries be paid in cash instead of land. He introduced two very important army reforms, namely, the preparation of a description roll (chihra) of every soldier and the branding of horses (dagh) with special marks to avoid deception. The annual pay of a well-equipped cavalryman with two horses was fixed at 234 tankas.
  • The salaries of other government officials were also fixed on a modest scale. To enable all of them to live comfortably and to the resources of the state go further he established an efficient system of price control.
  • Ala-ud-din prepared a realistic tariff fixing the prices of all the commodities, food grains, horses, cattle, cloth etc. Peasants were ordered to sell grains to the registered dealers at controlled rates. Money was advanced to approved dealers to enable them to purchase goods in large quantities.
  • All merchants were required to registered themselves with the office of the superintendent of the market (shahnah-i-mandi) and bring their articles to the sara-i-adl, the official market, where all commodities were presented for sale at controlled rates. Government assistance was given to the merchants to import articles in short supply and not manufactured in the Empire.
  • The superintendent of the market and his staff kept a vigilant eye on all transactions in the market. Hoarding of food grains was prohibited.
  • Due to these reforms the Sultan succeeded in maintaining a vast army of a million horses. The people were happy because of the economic reforms and were able to get the necessities at cheaper rates.
  • The historian Barani has referred to a conversation between the Sultan and Qazi Mughis-ud-din. The Qazi advised the Sultan to follow the path of the Caliphs as far as his personal expenditures from the state treasury were concerned. The Qazo also informed the Sultan that the zimmis were being treated with too much consideration and that the troopers were being given the share of one fifth of the booty while in the days of the caliphs there used to get four-fifth. The Qazi told the Sultan that the punishments affilicted by him were too harsh. The Sultan rewarded the Qazi for his courage.
  • In 1305 some 50,000 Mongols under Ali Beg and Tartaq crossed the Indus and avoiding the frontier garrisons and the capital attacked the Doab and Awadh.
  • Ala-ud-din sent Malik Nayak with an army of 40,000 horses against the Mongols and defeated them near Amroha. Both the Mongol leaders were taken captive and executed.
  • To avenge the death of their leaders the Mongols again invaded the subcontinent in 1306.
  • A Mongol army under Kabak proceeded through Multan towards Ravi and another under Iqbalmand and Taibu marched towards Nagaur. Malik Kafur together with Ghazi Malik advanced against the forces of Kabak and defeated them on the bank of the Ravi. Then Malik Kafur marched towards the other Mongol army in Nagaur and defeated them and took a large number of prisoners.
  • This was the last Mongol invasion during the reign of Ala-ud-din.
  • In 1305 the Sultan sent his governor of Gujarat Ain-ul-Mulk against Malwa. The army of Malwa under Raja Mahlak and Koka Pradhana was defeated and the leaders were killed. Then the fort of Manda was besiged and occupied. The cities of Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi were also occupied.
  • Ain-ul-Mulk was allowed to add Malwa to his governorship of Gujarat.
  • About the years 1306-7 the Sultan turned his focus towards the south. Raja Ramachandra of Deogir had not only stopped paying tribute for several years but had also given shelter to Raja Karan of Gujarat and his daughter Deval Devi.
  • The Kamala Devi had now married Ala-ud-din and had desired to get her daughter.
  • In 1307 the Sultan appointed Malik Kafur to the supreme command of the army to attack Deogir and directed Ain-ul-Mulk and Alp Khan to help him.
  • Kafur defeated Ramachandra who offered to go to Delhi to pay homage to the Sultan. Ala-ud-din received him with great honor and conferred on him the title of Ra’-i-Rayan and allowed him to ruler over his dominions as a vassal. This generous treatment made the Raja loyal to the Sultan.
  • In 1309 Malik Kafur marched for Warangal. He was helped by Deogir Raja Ramachandra. The fortress of Warangal was made of stone and was protected by an outer wall of mud and two deep moats surrounding the inner fort and the outer wall.
  • Kafur besiged the fort. Raja Pratap Rudra Deva offered stiff resistance. After a long siege the Muslims succeeded in making a breach in the outer wall. And led a direct attack on the inner fort. The Raja sued for peace by sending a golden image of himself with a gold chain round the neck and agreeing to pay an annual tribute. But Malik Kafur insisted on the surrender of his treasure held by the Kakatiya Prince.
  • Raja agreed to it and a treaty was concluded. The booty included 100 elephants, 7000 horses and a diamond considered by some to be the koh-i-nur.
  • In 1311 Malik Kafur was again sent against the ruler of the Kingdom of Dvarasamudra. He was again helped by the Raja of Deogir. The Hoysala Kindom was in midst of a confrontation between two rival claimants. This facilitated its conquest by Muslim army. The Raja Ballala prepared to withstand the attack of the Muslims but was defeated and agreed to pay an annual tribute.
  • With the help of Raja Ballala Malik Kafur now proceeded to Ma’bar (Madura) where a civil war between two brothers Vira Pandya and Sundra Pandya had just ended. The brothers united to fight against the Muslims and fought pitched battled in different parts of the difficult and impenetrable country. After occupying a few cities which were evacuated by the Pandaya rulers Kafur turned towards Madura, the main capital of the Pandayas. This was also evacuated and fell into the hands of the Muslim army.
  • Kafur then advanced as far as the southern extremity of the subcontinent and is said to have built a mosque at Rameshwaram.
  • Kafur then started a back journey towards Delhi and reached there after 6 months in October 1311.
  • The Sultan held a colorful reception in the Palace of the Thousand Pillars at Siri in honor of the victorious general.
  • The empire of the Sultan now extended to nearly whole of the subcontinent from the Gangetic Doab to Rameshvaram in the south and from the Sonargoan in the east to Thatta in the west.
  • The Sultan nominated his eldest son Khizr Khan as his heir. The marriage of the Crown Prince with the daughter of Alp Khan made this group dominant which was not liked by Malik Kafur.
  • Malik Kafur sought the permission of the Sultan to go out to Deccan to deal with Shankara, son and successor of Ramachandra who had assumed a rebellious attitude.
  • Malik Kafur first defeated Shankara, and carried raids into Telingana and Dvarasamudra. The kingdom of Madura was also attacked then he retuned to Deogir, made it his headquarters and remained there till 1315 when the Sultan recalled him on account of his illness.
  • The return of Kafur to the capital gave rise to further intensification of court-intrigue in which the party of Malikah-i-Jahan and her brother Alp Khan were on one side and Kafur and his follower Kamal-ud-din Gurg were on the other.
  • Kafur had Alp Khan killed. Khizr Khan was imprisoned but Kamal-ud-din Gurg was in turn killed by the followers of Alp Khan in Gujarat where Kafur had sent him.
  • Chittor under Hamir and Deogir under a son-in-law of Ramachandra declared their independence.
  • In these circumstances Ala-ud-din breathed his last on Jan. 5, 1316.
  • Ala-ud-din was almost illiterate.
  • Great poets like Amir Khusraw and Amir Hasan Sijzi flourished during his time.
  • The death of Ala-ud-din further intensified the rivalry between the parties of Malikkah-i-Jahan and Malik Kafur.
  • In this struggle Malik Kafue emerged as victorious. He managed to produce a will of the late Sultan disinheriting Khizr Khan and nominating Shihabud-din Umar, as child of six, as his successor.
  • The child was according declared Sultan and Kafur acted as regent.
  • A policy of exterminating the sons of Ala-ud-din was pursued. Kafur sent some agents to blind Mubarak Shah, the third son of Ala-ud-din. The prince bribed them with some jewellery and appealed them to spare him for the sake of Ala-ud-din. This appeal had the desired effect and the agents left him and rushed to the residence of Kafur and killed him.
  • Shihabud-din Umar was deposed after 6 months and Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah declared himself Sultan on 19th April, 1316. He was a luxury seeking person and left all power in the hands of a low born Hindu.slave, whom he had given the title of Khusraw Khan.
  • Khusraw Khan undertook an expedition to the south and achieved great success against the ruler of Warangal. On his return to the capital his influence increased and he engineered a plot to assassinate Mubarak Shah. He succeeded in his designs on April 15, 1320 when he butchered the Sultan with his accomplices.
  • Khusraw Khan’s actions generated strong anger in Muslims. The Muslim nobles rallied around Tughluq, generally known as Ghazi Malik because of his battle against the Mongols.
  • His son Malik Jauna was in the court holding the position of akhur bek. He left that position and joined his father.
  • Tughluq had meanwhile sent out appeals to the provincial amirs to join hands with him to put an end to Khusraw’s biased actions against the Muslims and Islam.
  • Khusraw sent an army of 40,000 to fight with Tughlaq.
  • Tughlaq inflicted a crucshing defeat on the army of Khusraw and proceeded to Delhi. Khusraw made a desperate attempt to save his rule but was utterly defeated and killed.
  • Tughluq assembled the nobles and enquired if there was any survivor of Ala-ud-din’s family. There was none therefore they appealed Tughluq to become the Sultan. He ascended the throne on Sept. 8, 1320 with the title Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah.
  • Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah acted as governor of Dipalpur during the reign of Ala-ud-din.
  • He claimed that he had fought 29 battled against the Mongols.
  • After the death of Ala-ud-din the Kakatiya ruler of Warangal, Raja Pratap Rudra stopped paying tribute to the Delhi Sultanate.
  • Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah sent his sone Jauna Khan (who was given the title of Ulugh Khan) to Warangal in 1321-22. He proceeded through Deogir and laid siege on the fortress of Warangal. After a long siege the Raja sued for peace offering immense presents and annual tribute but before the agreement could be reached there was some trouble in the Muslim army which forced Malik Jauna to return to Delhi.
  • Malik Jauna led a second expedition to Warangal in 1323. This time fortress was occupied and the Raja surrendered. The name of Warangal was changed to Sultanpur.
  • After Warangal Malik Jauna attacked Jajnagar (Orissa) on the eastern coast.
  • An inscription at Rajamundry commemorates his building of a mosque which still exists.
  • Jauna is also believed to have re-conquered the Pandya Kingdom of Madura.
  • Soon after these expeditions a fresh wave of Mongols resulted in the invasion of Samana. Sultan sent an army which in two successive battled defeated and repulsed the Mongols.
  • Two months after the Mongol battles a Parwari revolt was suppressed.
  • Bengal was then practically independent since the death of Balban. The ruler Shams-ud-din had died in 1322 and was succeeded by Ghiyas-ud-din Bahadur Shah. But his accession was opposed by Nasir-ud-din Ibrahim.
  • Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah left Ulugh Khan in Delhi and proceeded to Bengal.
  • Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah attacked Bengal and took Ghiyas-ud-din Bahadur Shah as prisoner.
  • Nasir-ud-din Ibrahim was entrusted with the government of Northern Bengal with its capital at Lakhnauti. The southern and eastern Bengal with their capital cities of Satgaon and Sonargaon were annexed and placed under Tughlaq’s adopted son Bahram Khan.
  • After Bengal Sultan advanced to Tirhut (Northern Bihar). The Raja of Tirhut was defeated and one Ahmed Khan was appointed governor.
  • After these expeditions the Sultan marched back for Delhi in 1325. Jauna went out of Delhi to receive his father near Afghanpur. A wooden structure was built within 3 days under the supervision of the royal architect Ahmed Bin Ayaz. The Sultan stopped at this place for lunch after which there was some display of elephants. The pavilion fell down killing the Sultan along with five or six other persons.
  • Ibn Battutah thinks that it was a plot by Jauna (Muhammad Bin Tughlaq) to kill his father while Barani thinks that it was an accident.
  • Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah built the fort of Tughlaqabad and several other buildings including his own tomb.
  • Malik Jauna ascended the throne 3 days after the death of his father in 1325 and is better known in history as Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.
  • After 40 days he proceeded to Delhi and held the coronation at the palace of the late Sultan.
  • The first part of the reign of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-1335) was a period of peace and prosperity while the second ( 1335 – 1351 ) witnessed rebellions and disturbances.
  • Early in his reign Muhammad Bin Tughlaq had to deal with the rebellion of his cousin Baha-ud-din Gurshasp, governor of Sagar, near Gulberga in the Deccan.
  • Gurshasp was defeated and took shelter with his family with the Hindu Raja of Kampili.
  • The Sultan sent an army against Kampiladeva, the ruler of Kampili, who was killed in fighting. Gurshasp, however, took shelter with the Hoysala king Ballala of Dvarasamudra. As the Muslim army proceeded towards the Hoysala Ballala surrendered the rebel who was flayed alive in Delhi.
  • These campaigns in the Deccan extended the boundaries of the Delhi Sultanate to the southernmost limits of the subcontinent.
  • The geographical and strategic situation of Deogir fascinated the Sultan. He built a new fort there an planted a Muslim colony around it calling it Daulatabad. He wanted to make it the second capital.
  • In 1326-27 the Sultan decided to shift part of the Muslim population in Delhi to Daulatabad. In particular he transferred many officials. Besides some leading theologians and Sufis were asked to go to the new city to settle down there. So a large number of people had to migrate. Every convenience was provided to them. The Sultan purchased their Delhi houses and paid full prices.
  • Despite royal patronage the transfer involved much hardship and suffering and many people died on the way and others failed to feel at home in the new city and desired to go back to Delhi.
  • The Sultan who has gone to Daulatabad came back to Delhi in 1337 and announced that those who wanted to come back were allowed to do so on state expense.
  • A portion of the emigrants chose to remain in the new place which increased the Muslim influence in the South. Consequently when the empire disintegrated a Muslim state arose there under the Bahmani Dynasty with Daulatabad as its capital. It remained under the Muslim sway until India annexed the Nizam’s dominion.
  • The Sultan’s project to build up Daulatabad as the second capital was strongly opposed by many who were affected. The rebellion of Bahram Aiba, surnamed Kishlu Khan, who was the governor of Uchh, Sind, and Multan was the direct result of this opposition.
  • Kishlu Khan refused to obey the orders of the Sultan requiring him to move with his family to Daulatabad. He gathered a large army but the Sultan advanced from Daulatabad and defeated and killed him in 1327.
  • This state of affairs encouraged an invasion by the Mongols under their leader Tarmashirin of Transoxiana. He marched with a huge army through Lamghan and Multan and proccded towards Delhi. But the invaders rapidly retraced their steps when the Sultan pursued them as far as Kalanaur.
  • In 1327 just after the Mongol event the Sultan was convinced by some Khurasani nobles to conquer Khurasan.
  • The condition of Iran under a young ruler Abu Said favored this idea.
  • The Mongol ruler of Transoxiana Tarmashirin and an-Nasir, the ruler of Egypt had also threatened eastern and western frontiers of the Persian Empire.
  • The Sultan cultivated friendly relations with both the rulers of Egypt and Transoxiana. He also colledted an army of 3, 70,000 men for this invasion.
  • The Khurasan expedition never materialized because of the changed political situation. Egypt and Perisa re-established friendly relations. Tarmashirin was deposed in his country by the rebels.
  • The disbandment of the army collected for the invasion created discontent and rebellion.
  • The Sultan then ventured to conquer the mountainous region of Qarachal in 1328. This was inhabited by refractory tribesmen. The army reached the mountains but then rains broke the communication and supply lines and almost the whole army was destroyed because of the hardships and the attacks by the tribesmen. However the mountain chief subsequently agreed to pay tribute.
  • The Qarachal region, which lies between China and the Sub-continent, was now under the authority of the Sultan. On knowing this the Chinese Mongol emperor sent an embassy with gifts in 1341 to the court of the Sultan seeking the permission to build Buddhist temples in the Qarachal region.
  • The Sultan reciprocated by sending Ibn Battutah as an envoy to the Chinese Emperor with presents but the delegation never reached China.
  • Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq has won the epithet “the prince of moneyers’ because of the purity and excellence of his coins.
  • In 1330 he introduced token currency. Silver was not in abundance and at that time the coins of silver mixed with baser metals were in circulation successfully. Gradually the quantity of silver in the coins had become nominal. This led the government to issue coins of baser metals with the face value of silver coins. At that time this kind of token currency was in vogue in nearby states of China and Iran. In China paper currency was being used. In Iran the experiment of paper currency had failed.
  • The Sultan experimented token currency with copper. He issued copper token coins and made them legal tender for the silver tankah of 140 grains.
  • This experiment was successful initially but soon failed. Counterfeit copper coins soon flooded the market. This led to an anomaly that while people paid payment of revenue in token currency but refused to accept copper coins in payment of their goods. The government did not make serious attempts to prevent forgery.
  • There was a complete deadlock in the payment situation.
  • When the Sultan realized that the scheme was impracticable he announced his desire to give in exchange gold and silver for these copper coins.
  • This trade off caused huge loss to the treasury.
  • In order to make up the loss to the treasury because of a number of failed experiments the Sultan enhanced land tax in the rebellious Doab region by five to ten percent.
  • Although the tax was not heavy but the people of Doab had suffered because of famine and draught and the disbandment of army for Khurasan had caused unemployment in this region also.
  • The tax-collectors faced stiff resistance and some of them were even killed by the cultivators.
  • The Sultan then punished the rebels in the whole area from Baran to Dalmau.
  • According to some historians this was beginning of the great disorders of his reign.
  • In most of the country both Muslims and Hindus were instigated by the provincial governors to rise against the Sultan.
  • There were as many as 15 revolts from 1335 to 1351.
  • The causes of these revolts were varied and complex. Heavy financial losses caused by various projects and schemes of conquest, the resultant additional taxes and famines and droughts embittered the people against the Sultan who became more and more severe in his treatment.
  • Another important factor contributing towards these rebellions was the fact that the Sultan fell under the influence of philosophers, free-thinkers and Hindu yogis, which was not liked by the orthodox in Muslims.
  • Many theologians and Sufis had turned against the Sultan for his pressure to migrate to Daulatabad. According to Barani the Sultan executed many ulema, mashaikh, saiyids, Sufis qalandars, clerks and army men. Ibn Battutah has also verified this.
  • Taking advantage of the situation the Hindus also made a desperate bid to reassert their independence.
  • The first to rise in revolt was Saiyid Ahsan Shah of Ma’bar, the southernmost province of the Empire (1334-35).
  • The army sent from Delhi to punish him was perhaps won over and never returned.
  • The Sultan, who was busy in Doab went to Delhi and then proceeded southward via Deogir and Telingana.
  • At Daulatabad the Sultan levied new taxes and made such heavy demands that it created more resentment.
  • Just at that time a severe famine broke out in Delhi and Malwa. There was a cholera epidemic at Telingana and the troops of the Sultan died in large numbers.
  • The Sultan himself became ill and there was a rumor that he had died.
  • The Sultan abandoned the Ma’bar expedition and returned to Delhi.
  • Saiyid Ahsan Shah declared himself independent and laid the foundation of the Sultanate of Madura. This Sultanate, however, did not last long, because it was isolated and too weak to resist the Hindu pressure.
  • The Hindus in Telingana, Andhra and the areas to the south of the Krishna and Tungabhadra organized a Hindu movement to free the place from the Muslim domination.
  • Started under the leadership of one Kapaya Nayaka, the movement was carried on by Krishna Nayaka who organized a league of 75 Hindu chiefs of the south.
  • The Hoysala King Vir Ballala III also supported him with troops.
  • Krishna Nayaka invaded Telingana and Malik Maqbul, a Hindu convert to Islam who was in charge of Telingana, fled from there.
  • Muhammad Tughlaq had appointed Harihara and Bukka, two Hindus brothers who had converted to Islam, as governor and deputy-governor of Kampili. But under the influence of a Hindu sage Vidyranya they renounced Islam.
  • Harihara founded the new city of Vijayanagar on the Tungabhadra and was crowned king in 1336.
  • Muhammad Tughlaq had divided Bengal into three administrative units and appointed Qadr khan over Lakhnauti, Azam-ul-Mulk over Satgaon and Ghiyas-ud-din Bahadur and Bahram Khan over Sonargaon.
  • Ghiyas-ud-din Bahadur rebelled and Bahram Khan fought against him and was killed.
  • After the death of Bahram Khan his armour-bearer Fakhr-ud-din declared himself independent at Sonargaon in 1338. In Lakhnauti Haji Ilyas declared himself independent, under the title of Shams-ud-din Ilyas Shah in 1342.
  • The severity of famine in and around Delhi compelled the Sultan to remove his family and court to a hastily constructed temporary town called Swargdwari in the rive rain tract of the Ganges not far from Qanauj for obtaining supplies of food and provisions from the fertile area of Karah and Awadh.
  • He stayed there for a period of two and half years (1338-1341) during which he had to deal with several rebellions, namely those of Nizam Min at Karah, Nusrat Khan at Bidar, Ali Shah at Gulberga and Ain-ul-Mulk in Awadh.
  • Ain-ul-Mulk was an able administrator and a wise statesman under whose administration Awadh had enjoyed peace and prosperity. But when the Sultan decided to transfer him to Daulatabad he revolted but was defeated but was pardoned because of his past services.
  • The Sultan sent his envoy to the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustakfi Billah in Egypt and in return the Caliph sent him a robe of honor and manshur in 1343-4. This was the recognition by the Muslim center. In the coins and in the khutbah the Sultan acknowledged the suzerainty of the Caliph.
  • The Sultan organized the department of amir-i-kuhi for developing agricultural facilities. The attempt to revive the areas devastated by the famine and rebellion failed because of the wrong choice of men in authority.
  • The Sultan had to crush the rebellion of Taghi. He pursued Taghi from Broach to Cambay, from Cambay to Asawal, and Pattan. At last he defeated him. Taghi fled and sought shelter with the Sumras of Sindh. The Sultan then proceeded to Thatta in pursuit of Taghi but he became sick with fever and died at a place within 14 kroh of Thatta on March 20, 1351.
  • The death of Muhammad bin Tughlaq created confusion in the army which was left without a leader. The late Sultan had employed Mongol mercenaries to help him suppress the rebellion. They plundered the imperial camp and started for Delhi.
  • The military officers and religious leaders decided to elect Firuz, son of Rajab, cousin of the late Sultan, to the throne.
  • Firuz hesitated but he was crowned on March 23, 1351.
  • Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughlaq’s sister Khudawanzadah put forward her son as a candidate but the nobles rejected him.
  • Khawajah Jahan, a wazir of the late Sultan, raised to throne a child about whom he claimed that he was a son of Sultan Muhammad but he received no support. He then submitted to Firuz who pardoned him but then the nobles convinced the Sultan to dismiss him. He was later executed.
  • The formal coronation of Firuz Tughlaq was held on 25 August, 1351.
  • The new Sultan took a number took a number of steps to put things in order.
  • An amount of two crore tankas advanced to the peasants by the late Sultan was written off.
  • An annual amount of 36 lakh tankas was granted as allowance to ulema and mashaikh to encourage learning and piety.
  • A sum of one crore tankas was granted in pensions and gifts to the poor and the needy.
  • Compensation was given to the heirs of those who had been executed during the previous regime.
  • These steps brought the desired results and people were reconciled with the govt. and enjoyed peace and tranquility for the first time in many years.
  • New assessment of land revenue was undertaken on the basis of thorough inspection and investigation.
  • The steps taken by the Sultan increased production and brought down the prices of the commodities.
  • In 1353 Firuz Shah led an expedition to Bengal where Haji Ilyas had declared independence under the title of Shampud-din Ilyas Shah.
  • As the imperial army approached Bengal Ilyas Shah evacuated Pandua, the capital city, and entrenched himself in a fort called Ekdala protected by rivers and jungles.
  • After a brief siege the Sultan made a tactical move and withdrew his troops. As the Ilyas Shah sallied forth the royal army returned and inflicted a crushing defeat on him.
  • Due to the start of rainy season the Sultan cut short his expedition and cncluded a treaty with Ilyas Shah depriving him of his conquests west of Lakhnauti but confirming him in his possessions in Bengal.
  • On his return to the capital Firuz Shah laid the foundation of the city of Firuzabad on the banks of the Jumna.
  • Ilyas Shah died the next year and in 1359 the Sultan had to lead another expedition against his successor in Bengal named Sikandar. He founded en route a new city on the Gumti which he called Jaunpur after his cousin, the late Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.
  • Sikandar entrenched himself in the fortress of Ekadala which was besieged by the royal army. After some time a treaty was concluded with Sikandar and he agreed to send some elephants to Delhi annually as tribute.
  • On his way back from Bengal Firuz Shah halted at Jaunpur from where he proceeded to Jajnagar (Orissa). With a large army he first reached Bihar and them marching through Manbhum and Singhbhum, he reached Banarasi.
  • At the approach of the royal army the Raja took shelter in an Island. The Sultan pursued him but the Raja’s ambassadors met him and negotiated terms of peace. The Raja agreed to send a fixed number of elephants annually to Delhi as tribute.
  • The Sultan reached back Delhi in 1361.
  • Nagarkot (Kangra) was conquered by Muhammad Tughlaq in 1337 but its chief then rebelled against the central authority. The Sultan captured the fortress of Nagarkot after a siege of 6 months.
  • The Rai met the Sultan with rich presents and again acknowledged the authority of the Sultanate.
  • The capital city of Nagrakot was named Muhammadabad in the honor of late Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq.
  • Sultan Firuz found a large collection of manuscripts in the vicinity of the temple of Jwalamukhi. One of these manuscripts was later translated into Persian for the Sultan under the title of Dala’il-i-Firuz Shahi.
  • In 1364 Sultan Firuz undertook an expedition to Thatta to punish the new Summa rulers of Sindh who had replaced the Sumras. The Summas had made inroads into the territories of Gujarat and Multan.
  • The Sutlan set out with an army of 90000 horses and a large fleet of boats was launched on the Indus.
  • The Jams, Juna and Banbhaniya defended Thatta. An epidemic broke out in the royal camp and there was shortage of food and fodder. The Sultan decided to retreat to Gujarat.
  • The retreat proved to be disastrous and the army reached Gujarat after a huge loss of men and material.
  • In Gujarat the Sultan dismissed the governor Nizam-ul-Mulk who had failed to send reinforcements to Thatta.
  • With reinforcements and fresh supplies the Sultan returned to Thatta with the new governor of Guajarat, Zafar Khan, and encamped outside Thatta.
  • The Summas also arranged a strong force and the two armies faced each other for a long time.
  • At last the Jams offered submission which was accepted because of the intercession of Makhdum-i-Jahaniyan. They acknowledged the suzerainty of the Sultan by agreeing to pay an annual tribute.
  • Jam Juna and Banbhaniya accompanied the Sultan to his court at Delhi.
  • The Sultan never really liked to wage a war against the fellow Muslims.
  • In 1380 the Sultan inflicted exemplary and crushing defeat on Rai Karkhu, the Raja of Katehar (Rohailkhand), who had killed the governor of Bada’un, Saiyid Muhammad.
  • The failthful and able wazir of the Sultan Khan Jahan died in 1370. His son was raised to the position of wizarat with the same title but Khan Jahan II was no way near in talents like his father.
  • The eldest son of the Sultan Fath Khan died in 1376.
  • In 1356 the Abbasid Caliph of Egypt, al-Mu’tasid sent for the Sultan the deed of investiture and robe of honor. The Caliph’s letter bestowed the title of Saif-ul-Khilafah and Qasim-i-amir-mu’minin on the Sultan.
  • In 1366 the Caliph Al-Mutawakkil also sent letters patent to Firuz Shah. The names of these Caiphs appear on Firuz Shah’s coins.
  • The Sultan built colleges, hospitals and canals.
  • He built 40 irrigation dams, 40 mosques 30 colleges, 100 hospitals, 100 public baths, 10 monumental pillars, 10 public wells and 150 bridges. He constructed 5 canals.
  • He built 3 cities; Fathabad, Hisar Firuz and Firuzabad.
  • He constructed a grand palace at Hisar Firuz.
  • Firuzabad was built on the banks of river Juman. It spread over 10 square miles and covered a site previously occupied by 18 villages. The area was full of buildings and crowded with people. It had 8 big mosques which could accommodate 10000 worshippers. Its ruins are now called Firuz Shah’s Kotla.
  • In Firuzabad on the top of a three-storied building one could see one monolithic Ashokan pillar which the Sultan carried from the village Topra in the Siwalik Hills, across a distance of 150 miles.
  • Another Ashokan pillar was carried by the Sultan from Meerut to Delhi.
  • Learned Brahmin scholars called by the Sultan to decipher the inscription on the pillars failed to make out the script.
  • Firuzpur was another town built near Bada’un. It was also called “Akhirpur” in derision as it was the last town built by Firuz Shah. He also built numerous building but most of them fell into decay soon.
  • The Sulan was loved gardens. He renovated many old gardens of Ala-ud-din and laid out about 1200 new gardens.
  • Firuz Shah established a separate department of charity (Diwan-i-Khairat). It included a marriage bureau, which provided needy fathers or guardians with the necessary things to marry their daughters and wards. It also had an employment bureau supervised by the kotwal of Delhi.
  • Firuz Shah was a great patron of learning. He established 30 colleges, of the Firuz Shahi Madrassah of Firuzabad was the most prominent. One can still see some of the buildings of his other great college beautifully located in the middle of a large artificial lake, Hauz Khas near New Delhi.
  • Firuz was fond of History. Barani, Afif and other historians flourished under his patronage. He ordered a book dealing with Hindu philosophy and astrology to be translated into Persian under the title Dalail-i-Firuz Shahi.
  • During the previous regime many Hindu chiefs and peasants had taken to brigandage. They had to be suppressed by force and many were captured while fighting. They were not executed or imprisoned. However they lost their free status and became slaves.
  • The humane and liberal treatment towards slaves and their elevation to important positions was a hallmark of his reign.
  • The Sultan ordered the provincial governors to send the best ones among slaves to his court. They were then educated and trained in various arts and crafts. Their number rose to 180000. their case was entrusted to a department called Diwan-i-Bandagan.
  • The Sultan imposed jiziyah for the first time on the Brahmins who had been exempted by the previous rulers.
  • During the last days of his life his abilities were hampered by old age and the affairs of the state were left in the hands of Khan Jahan II who had cast his eyes on the throne.
  • He tried to embitter the feelings of the Sultan against his only surviving son, Muhammad Khan, who however took prompt action against Khan Jahan II.
  • Khan Jahan II fled to Mewar from there he was hunted out and executed.
  • On August 22, 1387 Firuz Shah held a darbar and gave his son the title of Muhammad Shah and practically abdicated in his favor, although the coins were struck in the name of the father and the son.
  • During the period of 13 months after the darbar the Sultan witnessed a confused civil war and the nobles once more brought out the old Sultan into the public. He was so highly respected that his presence had a magical effect on the hostile parties.
  • His son Muhammad Shah had become unpopular with the soldiers therefore Firuz Shah nominated his grandson Ghiyas-ud-din, son of Fath Khan, as Sultan.
  • Firuz Shah died on September 20, 1388.
  • The death of Firuz Shah initiated a confused civil was which lasted till the death of the last Tughlaq ruler in 1412.
  • After Firuz his grandson Ghiyas-ud-din occupied throne after some contention between the his heirs.
  • Ghiyas-ud-din was a weak, worthless and pleasure seeking monarch. He was soon murdered by his cousin Abu Bakr who became king in Feb, 1388.(?????). But Nasiruddin Muhammad, the Governor of Nagarkot snatched the throne from him.
  • After the death of Nasiruddin Muhammad his son Humayun ascended the throne but he too died soon and was succeeded by his brother Nasiruddin Muhammad Tughlaq with the title of Muhammad Shah. He was the last representative of the house of Tughlaq.
  • In 1398-99 the King of Samarkand, Amir Timur invaded the subcontinent with a large Turkish force. He had become the leader of the Chughtai Turks at the age of 33. He then conceived the idea of the world conquest. He turned towards subcontinent after the conquest of Persia, Afghanistan, Syria, Kurdistan, a part of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia.
  • In November 1397 he sent his grandson, Pir Muhammad who proceeded with an army of 30,000 horse. He crossed the Indus and captured Uchh and Multan after a few months. He overran the territories of Dipalpur and Pakpattan. He reached as far as the Sutlej and there waited for Timur to come.
  • In August 1398 Timur himself marched towards the Subcontinent with a big force of 92000 cavalry. He crossed the Indus in Sept. 1398 and met Pir Muhammad Jahangir on the bank of the Sutlej.
  • Their combined forces marched towards Delhi. On the way they sacked Bhatnir, Sarsuti, Kaithal, Samana Tughlaqpur and Panipat. In December 1398 Timur’s forces reached Delhi where Muhammad Shah was the Sultan.
  • Timur crossed Jumna and encamped opposite the town of Loni, seven miles north-west of Delhi. He was had large number of prisoners with him which posed a major problem. He ordered execution of all the prisoners.
  • Muhammad Shah and his minister Mallu Iqbal collected a large army to fight Timur but were utterly defeated. The Sultan fled from the city.
  • Timur entered Delhi in 1399 he agreed to spare the lives of the citizens on the condition of payment of a heavy ransom. The conduct of the soldiers collecting ransom led the Hindus to resist and killed some soldiers. This infuriated Timur and he then ordered a general massacre and Delhi was soon in shambles. At that time Delhi comprised three cities; Siri, Jahanpanah and old Delhi. Timur left Delhi after a stay of 15 days. On his way back he stormed Meerut, Kangra and Jammu.
  • Timur appointed Khizr Khan, who joined him in Delhi, as governor of Multan, Lahore and Dipalpur.
  • Timur crossed Indus to go back in March 1399.
  • After the departure of Timur the whole of Northern India was in disorder and confusion. As a result of the whole destruction of stores of grain and standing crops, famine and pestilence swooped upon the land.
  • This state of affair made many provinces to declare their independence.
  • Sultan Muhammad Shah who had fled to Gujarat came back to Delhi. But he could not do much to improve the lot of the country.
  • Sultan Muhammad Shah Tughlaq died in 1412 after a reign of about 20 years and with him ended the Tughlaq dynasty.
  • Even before the death of the last Tughlaq Sultan a contest for power had ensued between Daulat Khan Lodi and Khizr Khan, the ruler of Multan. Initially Daulat Khan was successful and he occupied the throne of Delhi in 1412.
  • In 1414 Daulat Khan was defeated by Khizr Khan who ascended to throne.
  • Khizr Khan claimed to be a Saiyid. He sided with Timur during his invasion.
  • Although Khizr Khan attained sovereign power he preferred to rule first in the name of Timur and then of his successor Shah Rukh.
  • The Sultanate was now reduced to Sind and upper Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.
  • A large number of independent and hostile states grew up all around. These states fall into four groups. The first group consisted of the Hindu states of Rajputana with the ruler of Mewar as their leader. The Muslim states of Gujarat and Malwa comprised the second group. The third consisted of the Southern states, the Bahmani and Vijayanagar kingdoms. The fourth group comprised the eastern states-Gondwana, Orissa, Bengal and Jaunpur.
  • During the reign of Khizr his wazir, Taj-ul-Mulk led a series of campaigns against the Rajput princes of Katehar and Etawah. Other expeditions were sent to Kampil, Patiali, Jalesar, Gwalior, Biyana and Mewat. These expeditions met with temporary success but failed to produce any permanent results.
  • From Gwalior Khizr proceeded to Etawah to realize the tribute from the new Rai. He fell ill during one of his expeditions and on his return to Delhi died on May 20, 1421.
  • Khizr Khan was succeeded by his son Mubarak Shah, who unlike his father assumed full regal titles and had the khutbah read in his name.
  • The regin of Mubarak Shah was full of series of rebellions and heroic efforts on the part of the monarch to suppress them.
  • The Khokhars were the real cause of trouble in the Punjab. They were helped by other people also. Ultimately Mubarak Shah succeeded in defeating the rebels.
  • There frequent rebellions in Mewat as well but each time the rebels were crushed by the royal armies.
  • Sarwar-ul-Mulk was the wazir of Mubarak Shah. He was a newly convert to Islam from Hinduism. He proved to be inefficient administrator. Mubarak Shah entrusted all matters relating to revenue to another officer leaving Sarwar-ul-Mulk in charge of political affairs only. This move infuriated the wazir and he decided to take the life of the Sultan. On Feb. 19, 1434 the Sultan was murdered by two agents of Sarwar, Sidh Pal Khatri and Ranu Khatri, when he was entering the mosque for Friday prayers during his visit to the newly founded city of Mubarakabad on the bank of the Jumna.
  • Mubarak Shah was succeeded by his nephew Muhammad Shah. Early in his reign he was a helpless witness of the conflict between Sarwar and Kamal-ul-Mulk. Ultimately Sarwar invited anger of the Sultan who got him killed with his followers.
  • There began another series of rebellions and conflicts. Mahmud Khalaji of Malwa encouraged by these conditions and invited by some high officials invaded Delhi.
  • Muhammad Shah sought the help of Buhlul Lodi, the Chief of Sarhind, who came with a large army. In the course of the battle, however, Muhammad Shah started negotiations for peace, but Buhlul attacked and dispersed the Khalajis.
  • Muhammad Shah praised Buhlul for his help but he himself wanted to seize the throne.
  • In 1443 Buhlul attacked Delhi but failed and withdrew to Sarhind.
  • At this time the authority of the Sultan was defied by practically every chieftain now. During these circumstances Muhammad Shah died in 1444.
  • Muhammad Shah was succeeded by his son Ala-ud-din Alam Shah. The territories of the Sultanate had now shrunk within a distance of ten miles from Delhi to Palam. The whole of Punjab was in the control of Buhlul.
  • Buhlul made another failed attempt in 1447.
  • Alam Shah shifted his court to Bada’un to avoid the pressure of the
  • Lodis.
  • Delhi was left in the charge of the wazir, Hamid Khan.
  • Trouble, however, continued and Hamid Khan finally invited Buhlul to Delhi and made him the commander of the army.
  • In 1451 Buhlul Lodi got rid of Hamid Khan and himself ascended the throne. Alam Shah was allowed to retain Bada’un until his death in 1478.
  • Like the present days Afghans have always been coming down from the Sulaiman ranges to the plains of Indus in search of employment or pastures or trades.
  • Buhlul Lodi’s grandfather Bahram came to Multan early in the reign of Firuz Shah and settled in Multan where he accepted services under Malik Mardan Daulat.
  • Bahram’s son, Islam Khan Lodi, distinguished himself in the service of Khizr Khan, when he was the governor of Multan. Khizr Khan appointed Islam Khan Lodi as governor of Sarhind.
  • Islam’s borther, Malik Kala, was Buhlul’s father. Malik Kala died early and the child Buhlul was brought up by his uncle Islam Khan and later married his daughter to him.
  • After the death of Islam Khan Buhlul became governor of Sarhind.
  • Buhlul seized the throne on Delhi in 1451 and his coronation was held on April 19, 1451.
  • Buhlul assumed the title of Sultan Adul Muzaffar Buhlul Shah Ghazi.
  • At that time his territories included only the region from Delhi to Lahore.
  • The tribal dissentions were not conducive for the growth of the monarchy.
  • The Shariqs considered themselves successors to the Saiyids because of their relationship with them.
  • Most of the Afghans recruited by Buhlul were from Roh.
  • In 1451 Multan declared its independence under the Langahs.
  • He left his son Bayazid in Delhi and himself marched to Multan in 1451.
  • Buhlul’s absence from Delhi provided an opportunity for Mahmud Sharqi to press for his claim to the throne of Delhi. He was encouraged by an invitation from a section of the nobility at the capital.
  • Mahmud Sharqi’s wife was a Princess of the Saiyid family. She also instigated him to capture Delhi.
  • In 1452 Mahmud Sharqi arrived in Delhi with a large army.
  • Buhlul’s mother-in-law Bibi Matto dressed the women of the palace in male attire and stationed them on the parapet of the fort to make a show that it was not short of soldiers.
  • Mahmud Sharqi had a strong army and could have succeeded but his general Daraya Khan Lodi betrayed him.
  • Meanwhile Buhlul Lodi came rushing from Multan and inflicted a crucshing defeat on Mahmud Sharqi.
  • Their conflict continues over the possession of Etawah and Shamsabad. Mahmud Sharqi had imprisoned Qutb Khan Lodi, brother-in-Law of Buhlul, in Shamsabad.
  • Mahmud Sharqi died in 1457 and his son Muhammad Shah succeeded him as Sultan in Jaunpur.
  • The queen-mother of Jaunpur, Bibi Raji concluded a truce with Bahlul on the condition that Sultan Mahmud’s territories should be held Muhammad Shah ( son of Mahmud Sharqi) and Sultan Alauddin Shah Alam’s possessions should belong to Buhlul.
  • This was not an advantageous truce for Buhlul because Qutb Khan Lodi was still a prisoner at Jaunpur and he made no gains in territory.
  • Muhammad Shah soon fell a victim to a fratricidal quarrel and was killed by the agents of his brother Hussain Sharqi, who now became Sultan of Jaunpur.
  • In the meanwhile Buhlul had captured Muhammad Shah’s brother Jalal Khan.
  • Hussain Sharqi negotiated exchange of two royal prisoners.
  • Both the paries attacked each other whenever found an opportunity.
  • In 1479 Hussain Sharqi attacked Delhi. Buhlul at that time conclded peace with him. But when Hussain Sharqi, unware of Buhlul’s intentions, was going back he was attacked by the army Bhlul and purshed him upto Jaunpur.
  • Hussain Sharqi fled to Bahraich. The region around Jaunpur was occupied by Buhlul Lodi.
  • Buhlul appointed Mubarak Khan governor of Jaunpur.
  • Hussain Sharqi made an unsuccessful attempt to recover Jaunpur but eventually fled to Bihar in 1479.
  • Buhlul appointed his son Barbek ruler of Jaunpur. He subdued Kalpi, Dholpur, Bari and Alapur.
  • In 1486-87 Buhlul Lodi undertook an expedition against the Raja of Gwalior and forced him to pay tribute.
  • On his return journey to Delhi, Buhlul fell seriously ill at Milauli, fifteen miles north of Sakti and died in July 1489.
  • Buhlul Lodi nominated his son Nizam Khan as his successor. Nizam Khan ascended the thron on July 17, 1489 with the title of Sikandar Shah in the palace of Firuz Shah.
  • Sikandar Shah had to first deal with his own family members. He won over his younger brother Alam Khan by giving him governorship of Etawah.
  • Sikandar Shah tried to avoid a clash with his elder brother Barbek but as he refused to accept his suzerainty he marched against him and defeated him at Qanauj.
  • Sikandar Shah reinstated Barbek as governor of Jaunpur with some trusted officers who were to watch his activities.
  • His nephew, Azam Humayun son of Bayazid, was in Kalpi. When Sikandar Shah marched against him he fled away. The Sultan appointed Mahmud Khan Lodi as governor of Kalpi.
  • The Sultan then proceeded towards Gwalior, whose ruler Man Singh acknowledged his supremacy.
  • Bayana, including its dependency of Agra, was also occupied and was entrusted to Khan Khanan Farmuli. After that the Sultan returned to Delhi.
  • Shortly after these campaigns the Bachgoti Rajput Zamindars headed by Juga rebelled and Barbek Shah fled from Jaunpur. The Sultan pursued the rebels and defeated them.
  • Juga joined Hussain Sharqi who had advanced to Chaund. The Sultan defeated Hussain in a battle and drove him back to Bihar.
  • Hussain Sharqi once again marched to Banaras but was again defeated.
  • Hussain Sharqi now crossed into Bengal and spent the rest of his life as a prisoner of Sultan Ala-ud-din Hussain Shah.
  • In 1494 Bihar and Tirhat came under the sway of Sikandar Lodi.
  • In 1495 Sikandar Lodi marched against Sultan Ala-ud-din Hussain Shah of Bengal. Ala-ud-din wisely negotiated with Sikandar. A treaty was concluded by which both parties agreed to respect each other’s territories. The ruler of Bengal promised not to harbour the enemies of the Delhi Sultanate.
  • In 1495 Sikandar went to Sambhal where he stayed for 4 years. From here he sent several expeditions to suppress rebellions of provincial governors. Gwalior and Dholpur were subdued.
  • Sikandar realized the importance of Agra as a place of strategic importance and decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Agra.
  • In 1504 he laid the foundations of the city of Agra.
  • Sikandar fell ill and died in November, 1516.
  • Sikandar Shah was poet of considerable merit and wrote poetry with the pen-name of Gulrukh. He was fond of recitals on the shahnai.
  • Sikandar Shah revived the system of dak chowkis through relay of horses.
  • At the time Sikandar’s death the princes and other royal people were in Agra. They unanimously elected his son Ibrahim Lodi as Sultan but their experience of Sikandar Lodi as strong ruler taught them to be cautious and they decided to divide sovereignty between Ibrahim and his brother Jalal in order to guard their own interests.
  • It was agreed that Ibrahim Lodi would occupy Delhi and Agra and the boundary of his Kingdom would extend upto boundary of the former kingdom of Jaunpur.
  • Jalal Lodi was to rule from Kalpi to Jaunpur with his capital at Jaunpur.
  • The Afgan tradtion was averse to a centralized monarchy.
  • Sultan Ibrahim was crowned in Nov. 1517.
  • The governor of Rapri Khan Jahan Nuhani remonstrated with the nobles for the blunder they had made in dividing the Kingdom. Under his influence the nobles now decided to invite Jalal to Agra to discuss the whole issue again.
  • Ibrahim accordingly sent a farman to Jalal asking him to come to Agra. At the same time he sent farmans to the nobles and officers of the eastern region to throw off their allegiance to Jalal promising profuse presents to each of them.
  • Apprehending further troubles Ibrahim put into prison his other brothers.
  • Jalal was taken completely unware.
  • Jalal refused to go to Agra. He assumed the title of Sultan Jalal-ud-din and had the khutbah read and coins struck in his own name.
  • Ibrahim held a second coronation in December, 1517.
  • Ibrahim forsake the simple ways of his father and grandfather and appeared in the court and in public with pomp and grandeur.
  • Ibrahim marched with a large army against Jalal. Jalal avoided a direct fight and sought shelter with the Raja of Gwalior.
  • Ibrahim sent Azam Humayun Sarwani, governor of Karah, with army of 30,000 horsemen and 300 elephants to besiege Gwalior. Raja Vikramjit surrendered. Jalal Khan fled to Malwa and from there to the country of Gonds whose Raja handed him over to Ibrahim to win his favor.
  • The Sultan ordered him to be sent to prison but he was killed on the way.
  • Rana Sanga of Chittor took advantage of the civil war between Ibrahim and Jalal to make encroachments on the territory of the Sultan.
  • Ibrahim attacked the Rana who lost one arm and was wounded in the leg. But the Rajputs won a victory and Ibrahim’s army had to retreat leaving a scion of the Lodi family a prisoner in the hands of the Rajputs.
  • In 1518-19 Ibrahim sent Mian Makhan as command-in-chief together with important generals like Mian Khan Khanan Farmuli, Mian Ma’ru and Mian Hussain together with a large army to Rajputana.
  • Mutual distrust among the officers led to the defection of Mian Hussain who joined the Rana’s army.
  • The Afghans now made a renewed attack and inflicted heavy losses on the Rajputs. The Rana was wounded but escaped.
  • Ibrahim grew suspicions against Afghan nobles. He dismissed his father’s illustrious wazir Mian Buhwah and cast him to prison on the vague charges of disobedience.
  • The flight of Jalal from the fortress of Gwalior was attributed to the nobles and recalled Azam Humayun Sarwani and his son Fath Khan from Gwalior and cast both of them into prison.
  • These arbitrary proceedings on the part of the Sultan antagonized a large section of the nobles who in 1519 broke into open rebellion.
  • The first to rebel was the son of Azam Humayun Sarwani, Islam Khan Sarwani, whom the Sultan had deprived of the governorship of Karah-Manikpur.
  • Other nobles came to join and the whole of Awadh from Karah to Qanauj rose up in arms against the Sultan.
  • The rebels mustered 40000 cavalry, 500 elephants and a large army of infantry.
  • The Sultan selected the best available Afghan leaders and sent them with an army of 50,000 strong to suppress the rebellion.
  • The rebels were utterly defeated and Islam Khan was killed.
  • The victory emboldened the Sultan to intensifying his vindictive policy against the Afghan nobility. This policy led Daray Khan Nuhani, governor of Bihar, Khan Jahan Lodi and other Afghan nobles to again rise in rebellion.
  • After the death of Daray Khan Nuhani his son Bahadur Shah declared himself independent in Bihar with the title of Sultan Muhammad Shah.
  • The rebels numbering one hundred thousand horse rallied around Sultan Muhammad Shah.
  • The whole eastern region from Bihar to Sambhal submitted to Sultan Muhammad Shah who won several battles against the forces of the Sultan.
  • In desperation the Sultan Ibrahim called to court Daulat Khan Lodi, the governor of the Punjab, for consultation. But Daulat Khan Lodi apprehended danger. He sent his son Dilawar Khan to assess the situation.
  • Dilawar was shown the victims of royal wrath in prison, suspended from the walls and was warned of the impending fate befalling him and his father. The young man shuddered in fear and escaped to tell his father about his unhappy experience at the capital.
  • Daulat Khan Lodi sent his son to Kabul inviting Babur to come to his rescue and crush the power of Sultan Ibrahim.
  • At the same time Daulat Khan Lodi’ uncle Alam Khan, whom the dissatisfied Afghans wanted to raise to throne, also arrived in Kabul.
  • Babur led an expedition to Lahore in 1524, defeated the army of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi and occupied Lahore.
  • Contrary to the expecations of Daulat Khan Lodi, Babur instead of reinstating him, appointed his own administrator in Lahore.
  • Babur then entered into an agreement with Alam Khan promising to raise him to the throne of Delhi only retaining Punjab for himself. However, Daulat Khan Lodi and Alam Khan made common cause and with an army of thirty to forty thousand Afgans attacked Delhi but were defeated by Ibrahim Lodi.
  • Babur started from Kabul in 1525 and crossed Indus in December, 1525 with an army of 12000 only.
  • Babur easily occupied the Punjab. Daulat Khan Lodi again submitted to Babur who pardoned him.
  • Now Babur started for Delhi. Ibrahim came out with his army. Rana Sanga of Mewar had promised Ibrahim help against Babur but did not keep his promise.
  • The two armies met at Panipat on 21 April 1526. Ibrahim’s numerical superiority was no match for Babur’s superior generalship. Ibrahim was killed in the battlefield. Babur achieved a resounding victory and established the rule of the Chaghtai Turks commonly known as Mughals.
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