Mahmud of Ghazni
Invasion of Ghazni Mohammed:
Until the rise of the west, India was possibly the richest country in the
world. Such acountry presented an irresistible target for the ravening
Mongols and their descendentswho settled in present day
Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan
all withincomparatively easy reach of north-western India.
The northwest was, at this time, a mish-mash of warring kingdoms,
more interested insending scores with their neighbours than in unifying
against the Mongols. It is thenunsurprising that Mahmud Ghaznavi's
armies so handily defeated those of the Indiankings.
Born in 971 AD,
was the eldest son of
the king of Ghazni (in present day Afghanistan). When Subuktagin
attacked King Jaipala of Punjab,Mahmud fought for his father in the
Though Mahmud was the eldest son of his father, it is said that in his
last days,Subuktagin was not happy with Mahmud. So, when Subuktagin
died in 997 AD, hisyounger son Ismail became the king of Ghazni. Ismail
reigned only for a little time. Verysoon, Mahmud defeated him and
became the king.
Mahmud began a series of seventeen raids into northwestern India at
the end of the 10th century. Nonetheless, he did not attempt to rule
Territory exceptfor Punjab, which was his gateway to India.
His first expedition was directed against the frontier towns in 1000 AD.
His second expedition was against Jaipala, the
Hindushahi king of Punjab whomhe defeated in the First
Battle of Waihind. Jaipala could not survive the shock of humiliation and
he burnt himself to death.
He was succeeded by his son,Anandpala in 1002 AD.
In his sixth expedition, Mahmud defeated Anandpala in the II
Battle of Waihind(1008). Anandpala had organized a confederacy of
rulers of Ujjain, Gwalior,Kalinjar, Kannauj, Delhi and Ajmer, but the
alliance was defeated.
In his other expeditions, Mahmud plundered Nagarkot,
Thaneshwar, Kannauj,Mathura and Somnath.
His sixteenth expedition was the plunder of Somnath temple (dedicated
to Shiva)in 1025 AD, situated on the sea coast of Kathiarwar.
After looting the Somnath temple, when Mahmud was going back to
Ghazni, theJats had attacked his army. So, to punish the Jats, he
returned and defeated themin 1026.
The objective of Mahmud's expeditions was to plunder the riches of
temples and palaces and was not interested in expanding his empire to
However, he later annexed Punjab and made it a part of his kingdom,
just to have easy access.
He patronized 3 persons:a.
Firdausi (Persian poet, known asHomer of the east) who wrote
Alberuni (a brilliant scholar from Central Asia) who wrote Tahqiq-I-
Utbi (court historian), who wrote Kitab-ud-Yamni
Medieval of India
712 Arab conquest of Sind.
736 Founding of Dhillika(the first city of Delhi).
740 Defeat of the Pallavas by the Chalukyas.
c. 750 Pala dynasty founded by Gopala in eastern India.
c. 757 Defeat of Chalukyas by Rashtrakutas.
c. 800 Shankaracharya, the philosopher.
814 - 80 Reign of Amoghavarsha the Rastrakuta king.
c. 840 Rise of the Pratiharas under king Bhoja.
c. 907 Parantaka I establishes Chola power in south India.
985 - 1014 Rajaraja I extends Chola power.
997 - 1030 Raids of Mahmud of Ghazni in north-western India.
1023 Northern campaign of Rajendra Chola
1030 Alberunni in India
c.1050 Ramanuja, the philosopher
1077 Embassy of Chola merchants to China
1110 Rise of Vishnu-vardhana and Hoysala power
1192 Prithviraja Chauhan defeated by Muhammad Ghuri at the battle of
1206 Establishment of the Slave Dynasty under Qutb-ud-din Aibak.
1211-27 Reign of Iltutmish.
1265 Reign of Balban.
1288, 93 Marco Polo's visits to south India.
1296-1316 Reign of Ala-ud-din Khalji.
1302-11 Malik Kafur's campaigns in south India.
1325-51 Reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq Ibn Batutah in India.
1336 Founding of the kingdom of Vijayanagar.
1345 Founding of the Bahmani kingdom.
1357 Firuz Shah Tughluq in power.
1414-50 Rule of the Sayyids at Delhi.
1411-41 Ahmad Shah ruling in Gujarat.
1421-31 Cheng-ho's visits to Bengal.
1451 Accession of Buhlul Lodi at Delhi
1440-1518 Kabir, a leader of the Bhakti movement.
1469-1539 Nanak, a leader of the Bhakti movement.
1485-1533 Chaitanya, a leader of the Bhakti movement.
1481 Assassination of Mahmud Gavan.
1498 Arrival of the Portuguese in India.
1509 Rana Sanga of Mewar in power.
1509-30 Krishna Deva Raya, king of Vijayanagar.
1526 The First Battle of Panipat.
1530 Humayun succeds Babur.
1539 Dearh of Guru Nanak Dev ; Sher Shah defeats Humayun and
becomes emperor of Delhi.
1555 Humayun recovers the Delhi throne from Eslam Shah, successor of
1556 Death of Humayun Accession of Akbar. Akbar defeats Hemu at the
second battle of Panipat.
1564 Akbar abolishes Jiziya or poll tax on Hindus.
1565 Battle of Talikota-An alliance of Muslim rulersin Deccan defeats
and destroys Vijayanagar Empire.
1571 Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri by Akbar.
1576 Battle of Haldighat.Akbar defeats Rana Pratap Singh of Mewar.
1582 Akbar proclaims Din IIahi or Divine Faith an attempt at
synthesising Hinduism and Islam.
1597 Akbar completes his conquests Death of Rana Pratap.
Then which of the favours of your LOARD will ye deny!
sis for the sake of practice why don't you answer this question "Explain ghaznivi's character ? real motive of ghaznavi was political , religious or economical in his invasion in sub-continent . Comment ?"
Even don't post the answer if you don't want to but filter out points to answer this question in your mind stay blessed and good going
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