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Old Wednesday, June 02, 2010
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Arrow Repetitive questions of Islamic History & Culture

@Last Island

LAST ISLAND can you please take out the repetitive questions of Islamic history as you have taken out in other subjects please.

It would also help other members of the forum who have selected
Optional;ISLAMIC HISTORY
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Paper-I



CIVILIZATION



•
The Byzantine civilisation was the one of the major civilisation of its time, explain its major acievements and the causes of its downfall?(2013)
• Give an analytical study of Socio-political and economic conditions of Peninsula of Arabia at the advent of Islam.(2012)

• Comment on the moral, social and political conditions of the world at the advent of Islam.(2011)

•
Point out the major world civilizations at the dawn of Islam, with special emphasis on their intellectual activities and socio-political institutions.(2010)

• “The Arabian in general and Beduin in particular is a born democrat”. (P. K. Hitti). Keeping this statement in view, discuss socio-political condition of Arabia before Islam.(2007)

• Critically analyze the intellectual, economic, religious, political and social state-of-affairs of the world before the advent of Islam. How did Islam bring about reformative change in the situation? (2007)

• The advent of Islam resulted in a new socio-political, economic and religious revolution in the history of world.Discuss.(2005)

• Write a comprehensive note on the social, economic, religious and political state of affairs of the pre-Islamic world and highlight the revolutionary changes brought by Islam in human thinking and behavior.(2003)

• Give a brief best meaning sketch of the socio-political conditions prevailing in the Byzantine and the Sasanian empires on the eve of the advent of Islam. What was the significance of Islam in the context of those conditions? (2002)

• Give a brief outline of the history and the civilization of ancient Babylonia. .(2001)


HOLY QURAN AND SUNNAH

• Eplain with the help of Quranic verses that Quran encourages research by the study of Universe?(2014)

• What Limitation has Quran set upon speech and writing? In what respect does the Islamic concept of Literature differ from that of the non Muslims.(2010)

• The Holy Quran and Sunnah set forth the path for believers in the quest of knowledge Discuss the examples.(2009)

HIJRAH


• HIJRAH was the turning point in the history of Islam. Discuss




MEDINA

• Explain the impact of Mithaq-e-Madina in that divergence living state of society of Medina and how it can be employed now? Discuss.(2013)

Give a critical study of Pact of Medina and discuss its importance in the then society of Medina.(2012)



CONQUEST OF MAKKAH

• Never in the annals of history any conquest has been so peaceful as the conquest of Makkah. Please explain.

• The conquest of Mecca was in fact a peaceful revolution. Explain with reference to its importance in the history of Islam:(2000)



PROPHET MUHAMMAD (SAWW)

• How can we say that Prophet Muhammad's last sermon was the first charter of Human rights(2014)

• Critically examine the effects of the teachings of the Holy Prophet PBUH on Arabia.(2011)

• Teachings of the Holy Prophet laid the foundations of a new and revolutionary world order. Comment.(2010)

• The Holy Prophet peace and blessing be upon him, gave a charter for the welfare of humanity, discuss the salient feature of that charter.(2009)

• Discuss the steps taken by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) to ensure peace and tranquility in a society of acute anarchy at Madina.(2007)

• Write a note on Mithaq-i-Madina and Sulh-i-Hudaibiyya and highlight how Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) opted for peaceful solution of the crises ahead of him? (2006)

• Write a detailed note on the difficulties and suffering the Holy Prophet and his companions had undergo during Makkan period.(2005)

• Write a comprehensive essay on the teaching of the Holy prophet(SAWW)?(2005)

• Highlight the last 23 years of Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). In way of the complete study as a preacher of Islam in view of Holy Quran and Sunnah. (2004)

• Explain in light of Mithaq e Madina, Sulah Hudaibiyya and Conquest of Makkah that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was a peacemaker and not a warmonger.(2003)

• Discuss the achievements of the Holy Prophet (Peace Be upon him) as a Social Reformer.(2001)


POLITICAL SYSTEM

• Highlight the causes and the consequences of “expansion policy” during the Pious Caliphs.(2012)

Trace the origin of Shura in Islam and give a brief account of its working under the pious caliphs. (2011)

• In what respect Islamic political system is different from western secular democracy, theocracy and monarchy?(2010)



ECONOMIC SYSTEM

• Determine the basic characteristics of Economic System of Islam.



HAZRAT ABU BAKR(R.A)

• Explain the basis on which Hazrat Abu Bakar (RA) became a Khalifah/Caliph and pen down his role as a protector of Islamic way of life.(2013)

• Estimate the role of Hazrat Abu Bakr, as a protector of Islam.

• Highlight the achievements of Hazrat Abu-Bakr Al-Siddique as the first caliph.(2002)


HAZRAT UMAR(R,A)

• Discuss the administrative policies of Hazrat Umer.How can we apply this policy in Pakistan?.(2014)

• Estimate the character and achievements of Hazrat Umar Farooq R.A as a statesman..(2011)

• Write a comprehensive note on the administrative/management and reforms of Hazrat Umar Farooq as caliph with particular focus on how his principles can be practiced in today's world? .(2009)

• Highlight the character of Hazrat Umar and the expansion of muslim domain during his caliphate.(2005)

• Highlight Hazrat Umar Faruq as a pioneer of the concept of welfare state.(2003)

• Narrate the achievements of Hazrat Umar (R.A.) as a conqueror and as an Administrator.(2001)


HAZRAT USMAN GHANI (R.A)


• Give a critical study of the causes and consequences of the political and ideological differences raised after the assassination of Hazrat Usman Ghani?

ALL CALIPHA

• Give an account on the expansion of the Islamic state during the period of Orthodox Caliphs.



OTTOMANS


• Explain the salient features of admnistrative policy of Ottomon.(2014)

• Give an account of the fall and disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and describe its similarities with present Muslim's rule?(2013)

• Give an analytical study of the central administrative structure of the OTttoman Sultans.(2012)

• Asses the claims of Suleman the magnificent to be the greatest of the Ottomans Sultan.(2011)

• Critically evaluate the ottomans administrative reforms with special reference to tanzimat. (2010)

• Give an account of the conquest of Europe by the Ottomans.(2009)

• Enumerate the various causes of the decline and disintegration of the Ottoman Caliphate and also describe its aftermath.(2007)

• Write a comprehensive note on the salient features of Ottoman Turks inarch towards Europe.(2004)

• Discuss the salient features of the administration under the Ottoman Sultans.


ABBASID


• Write in detail the measures taken by Abbasids for progress of science in the beginning of their reign?(2014)

• Describe the scientific and literary advancement of Abbasid Period and how it can be revived in at present?(2013)

• “MUTAWAKKIL, the NERO of the ARAB was responsible of the decline of the Empire”. (2012)

• Briefly describe the scientific and literary progress of the Muslims during Abbasid period. (2011)

How did the Abbasid Court patronize the philosophical, scientific and literary progress?(2009)

• Write an Essay on the scientific and literary progress of the Muslims during the Abbasid Period. (2007)

• Highlight the contribution of the Abbasids towards education, people's welfare and culture.(2006)

• Abbasid period was the golden period for the progress of the different sciences and art discuss.(2005)

• Write a detailed note on the Agricultural Prosperity during the regime of Ahbaside? (2004)

• Write an administrative policy note on Judicial System during the period of Abbasid(2004)

• Write a note on the contribution of the Abbasids towards education.(2003)
• Explain the progress of philosophy during the Abbasid Caliph with special reference to three (3) most celebrated philosophers of that period.(2002)

• Briefly describe the scientific and. literary progress of the Muslims during Abbassid Period.(2001)

• Briefly describe the scientific and literary progress of, the Muslims during the Abbasid period.(2000)

• Write essay on Any One of the following

i- Baghdad under early Abbasids
ii- Philosophical progress of the Muslims during the Abbasid period


UMMAYADS

• Abdul Malik Bin Marwan was the real founder of Umayyad Dynasty. discuss(2014)

• Discuss the nature and the importance of the reforms of Abdul Malik Bin Marwan.(2012)

Discuss the causes of collapse of the Umayyads.(2006)

• Highlight the central and provincial administrative structure of the Umayyad.(2005)

• Discuss the emergence of the Umayyad with special reference to the role of Amir Muaviya.(2002)

• Bring into light the administrative reforms of Ahdul Malik. Do you agree with the view that he was the real founder of the Umayyad Dynasty. Give reasons.(2001)

• Critically analyse the political, social and military institutions under the Byzantine empire before the rise of Islam. Discuss their influence on the Umayyad Caliphate. (2000)

• Bring into light the administrative reforms of Abdul MaIik. Do you agree with the view that he was the real founder of the Umayyad Dynasty? Give reasons.(2000)

KHARJITES

• Who were the Kharjites? Discuss their political and religious ideas.
• How did the Shi’a and Khawarij emerge? Compare their beliefs and political thoughts.(2003)
• Write a comparative note on the situations during which the Khawarij and the Shiites emerged. Also compare their beliefs.



MISCELLEOUS

• How foreign policy can be made withhelp of Prophet relation with the other states?(2014)

• The Muslim civilisation gave a new religious and socio-political order. Give a comparison with New World Order.(2013)

• Describe any Two of the following institutions of Islam in the light of teaching of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and how to put into service at present in the Muslims states?(2013)
(a) Judicail System (b) Economic Organism (c) Character building and social order

• Give a critical study of the intellectual development of the Saracens in Baghdad?(2012)

• Why do the Europeans call Sulaiman I, as Sulaiman the Magnificient?

• Write a comprehensive note on Deen-i-Islam which is defined as a missionary Religion. Account any three missionary movements which are very much relevant to South Asia in term of Sufisrn.(2004)

• What is polygamy? Describe the term Nisaa in view of behavior, value and characters of human life according to Islamic thought of School

• Write a detailed note on Pakistan’s relations with the United Slates.(2001)

SHORT NOTES

(2009)

1) Ashra Mubashra
2) Khulfa-i-Rashedin
3) Al-Muwatta
4) Ibn-Khaldun
5) Damascus Mosque
6) Dome of the Rock
7) Samarra

(2007)

(a) Hilf Al-Fadhul
(b) Khazraj
(c) Jabia Conference
(d) Bair Al-Hikmat
(e) Samarrah
(f) Al-Mu’atta


(2006)

(a) The Holy Prophet (SAW) as a Qazi/Judge
(b) Battle of Tabuk
(c) Ottoman Tanzimat
(d) Mamoon-al-Rashid



(2005)

a : the holy prophet as a teacher.
b: hazrat usman ghani
c: battle of siffin
d: waild bin adl malik

(2004)

(a) Hazrat Umar Farooque
(b) Hazrat Umer Bin Abdul Azia
(c) Mamoon Rash id


(2003)

(a) Asabiyya
(b) Jabr wa Qadar
(c) Nizam ul Mulk Tusi
(d) Amir Mu’awiya
(e) Ottoman Sultan Bayezid Yildirum’s conquests.
(f) Ottoman Tanzimat


(2002)

(a) Ai-Shu'ubiyyah
(b) Umar bin Abd-al-Aziz.
(c) AI-Mu'tazillah
(d) AI-Biru
(e) Character and achievements of Muhammad al-Faith (the conqueror) OR
(f) Character and achievements of Sulaiman the magnificent

(2000)

(a) Abdullah Bin Zubair.
(b) Battle of ZAB. "
(c) BARMAKIDS.2001
(d) ‘Muakhat’;
(e) Battle of Qadsiya;
(f) Foundation of Baghdad.

Last edited by Amna; Wednesday, January 21, 2015 at 01:51 AM. Reason: Updated
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PAPER-II



CONQUEST OF EGYPT AND NORTH AFRICA


• Describe the causes and consequences of early Muslim conquests of Egypt and north Africa.(2010)(2014)



NORTH AFRICA


• How did Islam penetrate in North Africa? Also give a brief introduction of North African Muslim Countries.(2007)

• How did Islam penetrate in North Africa? Also give a brief introduction of North African Muslim Countries.(2007)



NORTH AFRICA –AMR BIN AL’AAS TO UQBA BIN NAFI


• In which period of the history Islam was introduced in North Africa? Describe the conquests of these lands from Amr Bin al’Aas to Uqba bin Nafi.(2006)

• 1. How the North Africa was conquered? Describe the conquest of North Africa in brief from 'Amr Bin al-Aas to Uqba Bin Nafi.(2001)



SPAIN


• Enumerate the various causes which led to the success of Abur Rahman Addakhil in Spain.(2014)

Give a brief sketch on "Evolution of Knowldge specially in the field of Science and Wisdom" in Muslim Spain.(2013)

• Give a study on "Evolution of Knowledge and Wisdom"in Muslim Spain.(2011)

• Discuss the main features of Muslim contributions to philosophy in Spain with brief notes on any three important philosophers of that period (2010)

• Write a note on the Muslim's contribution in Spain in natural or social sciences.(2009)


• “The fine arts were not neglected and the Spanish Arabs excelled their Christian neighbours both in sculpture and paintings.” Elucidate.(2003)

• Andalus was the greatest seat of learning and research during the Muslim rule. Describe some of the major political and philosophical contributions of the period and of its glory.(2003)

• Describe some philosophical and political writings in Anadalus.(2002)

• "The fine arts not neglected and the Spanish Arabs excelled their Christian neighbors both in sculpture and, painting." Discuss.(2002)

• Examine the political and dynastical factors leading to the' final collapse of the Muslim rule in AI-Andalus.(2001)



HAKAM II


• Estimate Hakam II as a patron of art and literature.(2014)



TARIQ BIN ZIYAD AND MUSA BIN NUSAYR


• What fate did Tariq Bin Ziyad and Musa bin Nusayr meet after invasion of Spain? (2009)

• Explain the reason of the conquest of Spain at the hands of Arabs, especially mentioning the arrival of Tariq Bin Ziyad in that country.(2001)





RENAISSANCE OF EUROPE

• The scientific and literary progress of the Muslims in Spain and Sicily laid the foundation of renaissance in Europe. Discuss with evidence. (2010)

• The scientific and literary progress of the Muslims in Spain and Baghdad laid the foundation of renaissance in Europe, discuss with evidence. (2009)

• 2. Discuss the Chief features of Muslim contribution ta Philosophy in Spain with brief notes on any three important philosophers of that period.(2004)

• It is claimed that the RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION movements in Western and Southern Europe were indebted to the Muslim learning in Spain. Please substantiate.(2004)

• "Spain was the torch of Europe. The Arzos were the bringers of light to Mediaeval Europe." Elucidate.(2002)

• How Islam was introduced in Africa and Spain? Discuss with reference to the period ‘of Islamic history starting from the times of Hazrat Umar, the second caliph of Islam up to the times of ‘Walid bin Abdul Malik, the. Ummayyad caliph.(2000)

• What kind of Muslim administration and society developed in Spain during the Umayyad governors of Spain (‘714-756 .AD). Discuss.(2000)

• Critically evaluate the Muslim contribution in ‘the field of architecture, music, painting, pottery and calligraphy under the Muslim rules of Spain.(2000)

• What were the reasons for the downfall of the Muslim Rule in Spain? Discuss.(2000)




IMAM MALIK MUWATTA

• Discuss socio economic reforms of Abdul Malik.(2011)

• How Did Imam Malik's Muwatta leave a strong impact in spain, Discuss?(2009)




QASR AZ ZAHRA AND AL HAMBRA


• Write comprehensive note on Muslim architecture in Spain with special reference of QASR AZ ZAHRA and AL HAMBRA (2010)

• Write a comprehensive note on Muslim architecture in Spain, with special reference to some of the important buildings of Cordova and Granada.(2006)
• Give an account of the conquest of Spain; who made it a stable and prosperous Muslim state? (2009)





ABD-UL-RAHMAN AL-DAKHIL


• How did ABD-AL-RAMMAN AL-DAKHIL conquer Spain? Highlight his contribution to social welfare of the people of the country?(2005)

• The battle which gave Abdur Rehman Ad dakhil the throne was fought at Masarah proved a second MARJ-RAHAT (Ameer Ali) (2010)

• Analyze the character of Abdul Rahman III as a man. an administrator and a patron of art and literature.(2002)





ABDUR REHMAN II


• Estimate the Reign of Abdur Rehman 2 in the History of Spain.(2011)





ABDUR REHMAN AL NASIR



• Give critical study of the character and achievements of Abdur Rehman Al Nasir of Muslim Spain.(2011)

• Abdur Rehman al nasir was unquestionably the ablest and most gifted of all the Umayyad sovereigns who have ruled in Spain. Discuss. (2010)




WALID BIN MALIK


• Discuss Expansion of Islamic Empire Under Walid Bin Malik.(2011)




ABBASIDS


• . Write a comprehensive note on the nature and importance of Abbasid institutions, with special reference to Bait-ul-Hikmah and its impacts on society.(2013)

• What is the historical significance of Samarra as Capital of the Abbasids?(2009)




IBN-E-KHULDUN


• Write detailed notes on the life and work of Ibn-e-Khaldun(2012)

• Highlight the achievements of Ibn-e-Khuldun and Ibn-e-Rushd.(2007)

• Ibn e Khuldun is known as one of the most authentic Muslim historian of his time. Describe his contribution in historical field.(2003)

• Critically analyse the-contribution of Muslims of Spain to 'History' with special reference to the Works of Ibn Khaldun.(2001)

• The advancement of Europe in the field of Sciences is based on the achievements of Muslims in their golden era. Discuss.(2007)

• Write Essay on any one of the following.(2010)
1-Cairo under Fatimids (2010)
2-Cordova under Umayyads (2010)




UMMAH

•The role model for Muslim rulers may be as under:-(i) Monarchy (ii)Khilafat (iii) Democracy

Which one is most practical and suitable to solve major problems of contemporary Muslim Ummah in the light of Islamic teachings? (2013)

• "The down fall of Muslim Community", how do you consider it as blessing or loss for mankind? Discuss it in detail.(2013)

• Estimate the colonial impact on Muslim society under European rule.(2012)

• Why the Muslim Ummah is lagging behind today in the field of Science and Technology? (2007)

• What are, in your view, the main problems of the Muslim Ummah of today? And what are their solutions? (2006)

• How do you perceive the future scenario of the present conflict between the western policy makers and the muslims? (2005)

• What are the Problems of the Muslim world of today and who is to he blamed for that? What is the remedy? Please discuss. (2001)




EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION



• What do you know about the influence of Muslim Sicily on the European Civilization? Please write in a scholarly manner.(2006)



MODERN CIVILIZATION


•What is meant by Civilisation and Culture and how it affects and also analyse the foundation of modern civilisation?(2013)





MUSLIM CIVILIZATION

• Give a detailed study of Origin and Characteristics of Islamic Civilization.(2012)

• "The Civilization of Medieval Islam grew and blossomed as one of the brilliant civilizations of humanity". Discuss.(2012)

• Define Civilization and Culture and describe the contributions of Muslim Civilization towards the different human societies.



WESTERN RENAISSANCE



• Highlight Muslim contribution in the Western Renaissance movement.(2005)

• Western Civilization is in a state of clash with Islamic Civilization for increasing its influence (your view should be based on arguments in Yes/No) (2007)



EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE

• "The conquest of Spain was a beacon of knowledge to the Europe." Discuss.(2012)

• How ~the Muslim’ universities and seminaries in Cordova, Granada ‘and Baghdad contributed towards bringing intellectual revolution known as European Renaissance in 15th and 16th centuries A.D.? Discuss.(2000)

• Please discuss how the European Renaissance and Reformation took its spark from the universities and Seminaries of Qurtuba and Baghdad? (2006)




UMAYYAD RULE

• Highlight nature and importance of Ummayed institutions and society.(2011)

• Write a note on the causes of the collapse of the Umayyad rule and the emergence of the Muluk al-Twaif In spain.(2005)

• Explain the causes and events of the expansion of Muslim rule in Spain during the Umayyad's period.(2004)



OTTOMAN


• Highlight the main reasons and causes of Ottomans empire for their expansion and service towards Islam after the fall of Baghdad.(2013)

• Highlight the main reasons of Ottomans as becoming, "the sick man of Europe".(2012)

Describe the character and achievements of Muhammad al-Fatih, The Ottoman.(2006)

• Critically evaluate the Ottoman administrative reforms with special reference to their tanzimat.(2005)

• Enumerate the principal mosques erected by the Ottomans in their capital city of 'Istanbul*.(2004)

• “Within three hundred years of the greatness of Sulyman, the Ottoman Empire lay bankrupt, decrepit and rotting.” Give reasons of the disintegration of Turkey.(2003)




SAUDI ARABIA

• Analyze the Political and Religious Policies of King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia?

• Describe the ways and means through which a bridge may be made between the Muslim and Western Societies for Co-existence.(2007)




SAYYID JAMALUDDIN


• Sayyid Jamaluddin Afghani spent his life for the cause of Muslim awakening and unity in the Islamic world. Please discuss.(2006)

• Describe the role of Syed Jamaluddin Afghani for the cause of Muslim awakening and unity.(2003)




HARUN AL RASHID + MAMUN ALRASHID

• Give an analytical study of the Muslims contribution in social science in the reign of Haroon and Mamun..(2011)


• Harun al Rashid and mamun Al Rashid contributed a great deal towards different disciplines of the knowledge substantiate with historical fact.(2005)


IBN SINA


• Write detailed notes on the life and work of the Ibn-e-Sina (2012)

Write a note on the life and academic contribution of the Ibn sina(Avicenna)and Ibn rushd(averroes)(2005)

• The way the scholarly works of Ibn Sina (Avecena) brought revolution in European medical sciences should be thoroughly analysed.(2000)


IBN SAUD

• Write a comprehensive note on the contribution of Ibn Saud in the establishment of a modern Islamic State in the Middle East.(2003)




Kamal Ataturk

• “Out of a moth-eaten and depleted empire, Kamal Ataturk created a nation throbbing with life and activity. There were certainly glaring manifestations of dictatorship in some aspects of his ascendency, but he was a fervent believer in the sublime destiny of his people whom posterity will remember as one of the greatest national heroes.” In the light of this statement, analyze major achievement of Ataturk.(2003)


CALLIGRAPHY AND POTTERY

•Calligraphy is considered the greatest Muslim art in which they have achieved incomparable success. Give your opinion. (2014)

• Discuss the contribution of the Muslims in the filed of pottery and calligraphy.(2002)




ARCHITECTURE


Give analytical study of the evolution of Muslim Architecture in Spain with special reference of:(2014)

i. The great mosque of Cardova
ii. Qasr-uz-Zahra
iii. Giralda of Seville
iv. Al-Hamra



MISCELLIOUS




•During the colonial period of South Asia how Muslim Intellectuals perceived the different phases of their history in responding to the Western criticism.
(2014)

•Medieval Spain remarkable progress in medieval Science from 10th century to 12th Century, when reached its zenith. Give a critical review. (2014)

•Describe the impacts of Islam on Hinduism with special reference to unorthodox movement of Bhakti Cult.(2012)

• Give a short sketch of Arab Academies and their teachers in Baghdad.(2012)

• Explain the Political motives of American presence in Iraq and identify its effects in the region with special reference to Pakistan.

• "After the fall of Cordova. Chivalry founded a congenial home at Granada where it attained its highest development." Elaborate this statement and discuss the Mediaeval concept of Chivalry.(2002)

• Yusuf Bin Tashfeen gave a new life to the decadent" Muslim at a very crucial time. Please explain.(2001)




SHORT NOTES



Shah Wali Ullah Dehlvi (2013)
S. Ameer Ali (2013)
al-Hambra (2009)
Cordoba (2009)
Gibralter (2009)
al-Qairawan (2009)
Mudarites (2009)
Yamanites (2009)
Abdur Rahman-I(2009)
Hisham (2009)
Al-Hakam (2009)
Ziryab the musician (2002)
Battle of Zallaqa (2002)
ALGENERALIFFE (2002)
Battle of Ain Jallut (2002)
University of Cordova (2002)
Ibn Rushd (2001) (2000)
Ibn Zaidun (2001)
Al-Hamza .(2001)
Ai-Zahra.(2001)
Sulaiman Al-Qanuni.
Abdur Rahman I (2000)
Tariq bin Ziyad (2000)
Al Hakam II (2000)

Last edited by Amna; Thursday, January 22, 2015 at 03:22 AM. Reason: Updated
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Question AoA

From which books i can prepare "Major world civilzations at advent of islam"

Last edited by Silent.Volcano; Thursday, September 02, 2010 at 04:35 PM.
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Originally Posted by ibbi View Post
From which books i can prepare "Major world civilzations at advent of islam"
"Islamic History and Culture by K. Ali" is enough !!
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@amubin
please correct the spelling as it is written as MOHAMMAD
please write O not U in MOHAMMAD's spelling

& to others please place . between S.A.W
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Originally Posted by saadiya ali View Post
@amubin
please correct the spelling as it is written as MOHAMMAD
please write O not U in MOHAMMAD's spelling

& to others please place . between S.A.W
The exact pronunciation is Muhammad PBUH .. In Arabic each word equivalent to 'O' has a 'paish' on it and should be pronounced for example as 'Muu' and not at 'Mo' .. Similarly the words with 'Zair' are to be pronounced as 'I' and not as 'E' as in 'Yeh' .. It is common practice in Pakistan and India to pronounce Arabic wrongly and write spellings based on that pronunciation .. Simple reason is that we tend to pronounce Arabic as per Urdu accent .. For example in 'Baad e Sabaa' pronounced as 'Baaday Sabaa': this 'e' giving effect of 'a' is prevalent in Persian and Urdu and has nothing to do with Arabic ..

Similarly the argument that one should write S.A.W and not SAW is also flawed .. Remember SAW is an abbreviation and so is in all capitals .. The word people confuse it with is 'saw' (the tool) .. It is self evident that if one writes SAW in all capitals it is an abbreviation of something instead of a word ..

Regards ..
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which book is best scoring for this paper......plzzz help me
which book is best scoring for this paper......plzzz help me
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which book is best scoring for this paper......plzzz help me
Consult P.K Hitti and Mazhar ul Haq's books for Part 1 and Dozy for Part 2 .. For further guidance on Islamic History follow the link below:

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optio...c-history.html

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read ISLAM a short history by Karen Armstrong amazing book covers whole islamic history. this one has quality and is authentic. i loved this book
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