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Default Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A)

Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A)

Name and parentage of Abu Bakr

Hadrat Abu Bakr, as-Siddiq, (R.A.) was born in 573 A.D. at Mecca.
Thus he was two years younger than the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
He belonged to a respectable and noble family, the Bani Tamim, a branch of Quraish Tribe.
His lineage joins with that of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) six generations before. His name was Abdullah.
After his conversion to Islam he received the title of "As-Siddiq" (The Truthful).

Life before Islam

Since his boyhood, Hadrat Abu Bakr was a quiet and sincere man.
He was very honest and truthful. Because of his sterling character
he was the closest friend of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) since his youth and,
the friendship proved to be life-long. He was a soft hearted man and keenly felt others sufferings and miseries.
He used to help the poor and the needy, the distressed and the downtrodden.

Even before embracing Islam he did not like most of the customs of the days of ignorance and never drank any liquor.

His main profession was trade.
He also accompanied the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in some of his trade missions.
Because of his honesty people trusted him and often kept their money as a trust with him.
His nobility and truthfulness soon made him a rich trader. Actually these qualities were soon to serve the noblest cause of Allah.

First man to accept Islam

Hadrat Abu Bakr was a firm friend of the Holy Prophet and knew him better than any other man.
His honesty, nobility, truthfulness and trustworthiness, had great attraction for Abu Bakr.
When the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) disclosed to him secretly about the revelation of Allah,

Abu Bakr accepted it immediately without having the slightest doubt.
In this way he was the first adult free man to believe in the Holy Prophet's Mission, and became his confidant.

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) once spoke about this,
"When I invited people towards Allah, everybody thought over it and hesitated, at least for a while, except Abu Bakr
who accepted my call the moment I put it before him, and he did not hesitate even for a moment.
" When he accepted Islam, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) was very pleased.

Da'wat (Invitation) towards Allah

As soon as he had accepted Islam he started the work of Da'wat (Invitation towards Allah) first secretly and
then openly when it was so allowed by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
First he went to ‘Uthman, Talha, Zubair and Said.
Next day he went to 'Uthman bin Maz'un, Abu'Ubaidah, Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf and some other prominent Quraish.
They accepted Islam at his hands.
In the first instance eight prominent figures accepted Islam at the hands of Hadrat Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (R.A.).
Among them was Hadrat Uthman, the third Caliph of Islam.
In this way he was the first Muslim, after the Holy Prophet, to preach Islam and to invite people towards Allah in a very fruitful way.
The main reason for his success was his popularity among the Meccans because of his honesty, nobility, trustworthiness, good morals and fair dealings.

Hardships for Da'wat (Invitation) towards Allah

Even though he was so much respected yet he was not spared, and disbelievers of Mecca did their best to harass him.

When the number of Muslims reached 39, Abu Bakr (R.A.) asked the permission of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) to invite people openly.
On his persistent request the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam) gave his consent and all of them went to Haram (the Holy Mosque or Ka ‘bah) for Tabligh (Preaching).
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) gave a Khutbah (Sermon) which was the first ever delivered in the annals of Islam.
Hadrat Hamzah accepted Islam the same day.
When disbelievers and idolators from amongst Quraish heard it they fell on the Muslims from all sides.

Miscellaneous services for the cause of Islam in Mecca

Hadrat Abu Bakr served Islam in numerous ways.
The Quraish cruelly persecuted a number of slaves who had accepted Islam and made life difficult for them.

Muslim slaves were the worst sufferers at the hands of non-Muslim masters.
Hadrat Bilal (a negro), one of the best known in the galaxy of Companions of the Holy Prophet, was one among such slaves.
His master Umayyah bin Khalf lashed him at night and made him lie on the burning sand during the day because of Bilal's conversion to Islam.
Hadrat Abu Bakr bought him freedom and Bilal became a free Muslim.

Other Muslim slaves who were bought by Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.), and made free were,
‘Amir bin Fuhairah, Nazirah, Nahdiah, Jariah, Bani Momil and Bint Nahdiah etc. (R.A.).

Before Hijrah Hadrat Abu Bakr spent lot of money on new converts.

Abu Bakr gets the title of As-SIDDIQ

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) had Mi'raj (Ascension) in the IOth year of his Mission.
He narrated his Ascension to the people in the morning.
Some of them came to Abu Bakr and said, "Have you listened to your friend (the Holy Prophet)? He is claiming that he visited Jerusalem and the Sublime
Throne in the heavens last night and talked with Allah Almighty. Would you believe it?"
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) immediately replied. "If he said so then it is an absolute Truth".
They again said, "Do you believe that he visited all these places and came back within a small part of night?" He again replied.
"Of course I believe in it and I believe in the things which are farther than it, i.e., the news of Hell and Paradise".
For this the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) named him as-Siddiq i.e.,
the most Truthful and sincere person in Faith not having even slightest doubt. Of course Abu Bakr's faith was so

One of the Two in the Cave

When the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam decided to migrate to Medina, Abu Bakr was the only companion with him.
He carried all his money, about five to six thousand Darhams, and started in the night with the Holy Prophet.
They lay hidden in the cave of Thaur for three days. The Holy Qur'an describes it as follows

"When the disbelievers drove him out; he had no more than one companion. They were two in the cave.
And he said to his companion: "Have no fear for Allah is with us". Then Allah sent down His peace upon him". (9:40)

Abu Bakr's slave 'Amir bin Fuhairah tended the flocks of goats near the cave during the day and supplied them fresh milk in the night.
After three days when Quraish stopped the search of the Holy Prophet, ‘Amir bin Fuhairah (Abu Bakr's slave) brought two she-camels and both started for Medina.
Thus, of all the companions, Abu Bakr (R.A.) had the honour of accompanying the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in the most critical days of his life.
He proved to be most trustworthy on all occasions.

Hadrat Abu Bakr at Medina

He reached Quba (a place near Medina) with the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and stopped there.
The Medinites were anxiously waiting for the Holy Prophet. At Quba there was a warm welcome.
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) stopped at the place of Bani 'Amr bin 'Auf at Quba.
Multitudes of people came there to see the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and most of them mistook Hadrat Abu Bakr as the Holy Prophet.
On seeing this Hadrat Abu Bakr stood up and spread a sheet over the head of the Holy Prophet to protect from him the scorching rays of the hot sun.
Then the Medinites recognised the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).

On reaching Medina he fell ill because of the change of climate and got high fever.
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) prayed for him and he was restored to health.
At the time of establishing brotherhood bond between an immigrant from Mecca and a Medinite Muslim the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam)
took into consideration the position in the society of the two persons.
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) became the brother of Hadrat Haritha bin Zubair, a noted and respected Medinite.

Participation in the Holy Wars

He fought in almost all the battles along with the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
In the first battle of Islam at Badr he was with the Holy Prophet like a shadow.
His own son, who had not embraced Islam by that time, was fighting on the side of Quraish.
After he accepted Islam he said to Abu Bakr one day, "Dear father! I found you twice under my sword at Badr but I could not raise my hand because of my love for you".
"if I had got a chance", Abu Bakr replied, "I would have killed you".
It was Abu Bakr's suggestion on which the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) decided to release the prisoners of war after taking ransom.

In the battle of Uhud when some of the Muslims were running away,
Abu Bakr was firm and when the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam) was brought on the mountain after being injured, he was with him.

Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) was the first companion to accept the peace plan of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) without any hesitation at Hudaibiyah
when all the Muslims insisted upon fighting. Even a Muslim like Umar (R.A.) hesitated to accept the treaty with the non-believers of Mecca
but Hadrat Abu Bakr fully supported the Holy Prophet's decision.

On the occasion of Tabuk expedition Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) brought everything that he possessed.

When the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) asked him, "What did you leave for your family?" Abu Bakr (R.A.) said,
"I have left for them Allah and his Prophet".
Even Hadrat Umar (R.A.) admitted that he could never hope to surpass Abu Bakr (R.A.) in his sacrifice for the cause of Allah and Islam.

Amir (Chief) of Al-Hajjul-Akbar (9 A.H.)

It was the 9th year of Hijrah when the first Haj took place.
The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) had then returned from Tabuk expedition
but he was so busy that he could not himself attend the Hajj pilgrimage.
He sent Hadrat Abu Bakr as-Siddiq as his deputy to lead the Hajj caravan to Mecca.
Among others in the Hajj caravan were Hadrat Sa'd bin Abi-Waqqas, Jabir, and Hadrat Abu Hurairah (R.A.).

The Holy Qur'an calls this Hajj pilgrimage as "Al-Hajjul-Akbar" (The Great Hajj) because it was the first ever Hajj in the history of Islam and was the beginning of a new era of Islamic period and constitution.
Hadrat Abu Bakr taught the people the Hajj rites and rituals and gave a historic sermon (Khutbah) on the Sacrificial Day before the congregation.
Hadrat 'Ali followed him and proclaimed severance of all connections with the heathen world.


Imam of Holy Prophet's Mosque

Since his arrival at Medina the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) himself led the Salats at his mosque all the time.
This was really a high office and was not given to anybody in the presence of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
A few months after his return from the Farewell Pilgrimage (AI-Hujjatul-Wida’) in IO A.H., the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) fell ill.

A time came when he was unable to move and could not go to the Mosque to lead the Salat.
He had to appoint someone as the Imam and this honour fell to the lot of Abu Bakr.
Abu Bakr's daughter, lady 'A'isha (Radiallahu Anha) was one of the most beloved wives of the Holy Prophet Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam).
She knew that Hadrat Abu Bakr was a soft hearted man and it would be rather hard for him to replace the Holy Prophet(Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in the Salat.
So she pleaded with the Holy Prophet (Sallailahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) to excuse Hadrat Abu Bakr from this duty
but the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) did not change his decision even though he was requested three times.

During those days once Abu Bakr was not present at the time of congregational Salat. Somebody asked Hadrat Umar to lead the Salat.

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) after hearing the voice of Hadrat Umar enquired about the Imam and when he found that Abu Bakr(R.A.) was not leading he was annoyed and said, "Nobody will lead the Salat besides Ibn Abu Qahafa (i.e. Hadrat Abu Bakr)".

Then Abu Bakr (R.A.) was called but by that time Hadrat Umar had completed the Salat. The Salat was repeated by the order of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and Abu Bakr (R.A.) led it.

During his sickness, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) once felt some relief and went for Zuhr Salat,
supported by Hadrat ‘Ali and Hadrat ‘Abbas (R.A.). His face beamed with joy and full satisfaction on seeing Abu Bakr leading the Salat.
Sensing the presence of the Holy Prophet, (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) Abu Bakr wanted to step back but the Holy Prophet stopped him and sat down by his side.

After the Salat the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) gave his last address:

"Allah offered one of His servants the choice of the life on this earth and a life with Him. But the servant accepted the latter".
Hearing this tears came out of Abu Bakr's eyes and rolled down to his beard.
He thought of the inevitable separation from his Beloved Master (the Holy Prophet).
Most of the people did not understand the meaning of Holy Prophet's address and they were surprised at Abu Bakr's crying.

Early in the morning of the last day of his life, the Holy Prophet's condition became suddenly better for a while.

As the apartment was just adjoining the Mosque, he raised the curtain and observed the Muslims busy in Salat under the Imamat (leadership) of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.).
A smile lit up the pale face of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
Seeing the sign of the Holy Prophet's recovery the people in the Mosque lost control over themselves in sheer delight.
They might have fallen out of the file but the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) asked Hadrat Abu Bakr to lead the Salat and he went inside and let the curtain fall

News of the Death of the Holy Prophet

When Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) found the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in a better condition in the morning of the last day of his life,
he went a few miles outside Medina to meet his wife Hadrat Kharjah bint Zuhair (Radiallahu anha).
After hearing the news of the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam),
he immediately returned and saw great rush at the gate of the Mosque.
He did not talk to anybody and went straight to Hadrat ‘ A’isha’s apartment where the Holy Corpse was lying.
After taking permission he entered the apartment and kissed the Holy Face, tears rolling out of his eyes.
Then he remarked, "May my parents be sacrificed for you. I swear by Allah that death will never come twice to you.
You have tasted the death which was destined for you and now you will get no other." He covered the Holy Body with a sheet and came to the Mosque.

A multitude of people was crying in the Mosque.
Hadrat Umar (R.A.) was in a strong emotional state and was shouting that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) had not died.
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) tried to calm him but Umar did not pay any attention to him.
Noting the delicacy of the situation, Hadrat Abu Bakr stood in another corner of the Mosque and gave his most effective and historical address.
All the people gathered around him. He said:

"O People! If any one of you worshipped Muhammad (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) he should bear in mind that Muhammad is dead.
But those who worshipped Allah should know that He is Alive and will never die.

Allah says in the Holy Qur'an: "Muhammad is only a Messenger of Allah.
There came down a number of Messengers before him.
Then would you turn back from Islam, if he dies or is killed?"

The address of Hadrat Abu Bakr touched the hearts of the people.
Hadrat Umar also cooled down.
Hadrat 'Abdullah says, "It seemed that the verse of the Holy Qur'an to which Abu Bakr referred was just revealed, although we had recited it several times in the past"

Abu Bakr chosen as the First Khalifah

The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) did not nominate his successor and left the choice of his deputy or viceroy (Khalifah) to his Ummah (followers).

There were two groups of Muslims in Medina viz., Muhajirin (the Immigrants from Mecca), and Ansar (Helpers i.e., Medinites).

"Saqifah-i-Bani Sa'idah"

After the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam),
Ansar (Medinites) gathered in a big Hall of Medinah known as "Saqifah-i-Bani Sa'idah" to discuss the appointment of a Khalifah.

Hadrat Abu Bakr and Hadrat Umar with other prominent Muhajirin (Immigrants) were in the Mosque.

When they were informed about the gathering of Ansar, Hadrat Abu Bakr and Umar also went there accompanied by a number of eminent Muhajirin like Hadrat Abu 'Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah.

Since Hadrat 'Ali and Hadrat Zubair (two prominent figures among Muhajirin) were not present at the spot, they could not go to the gathering.

Much discussion was going on in the gathering of the Ansar about the selection of a Khalifah.

Some of the leading Ansar wanted a Khalifah from amongst the Ansar.
When Hadrat Abu Bakr heard it, he said. "We acknowledge the sacrifices of Ansar for Islam.

You really deserve to have a Khalifah from amongst yourselves, but Arabs will not agree on any "Amir" (Chief of other than a person from the Quraish."
Hearing Hadrat Abu Bakr another Ansari, Khabab bin Mundhar stood up and said,

"Let there be two Amirs (Khalifahs) then, one from amongst Quraish and another from amongst Ansar."

On this Hadrat Umar stood up and said, "This is not at all possible. There would be great confusion because of two Amirs.
" Hadrat Khabbab bin Mundhar did not agree with Umar and there was a hot talk between them.

Hadrat Abu 'Ubaidah tried to cool them down.

Then another Ansari Hadrat Bashir bin an-Nu'man (R.A.) stood up and said, "The Holy Prophet belonged to the Quraish tribe.Quraishites have preference over others. All the Arabs would agree on them. Therefore a Khalifah must be from amongst them.

We do not want any dispute with Muhajirin in the matter of Khilafat.
We the Medinites are Ansar (Helpers) and we would prefer to remain Helpers of Allah and His Holy Prophet (Sallaliahu'alaihi wa Sallam).

" Another Ansari Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit (R.A.) also supported this view and said, "There should be a Khalifah from amongst Muhajirin (Quraishis).
We Medinites were Ansar (Helpers) of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and would remain Ansar (Helpers) of his Khalifah as well."
A number of Ansar then supported this view, and there was general satisfaction in the council over the selection of a Muhajir (Quraishi) Khalifah.

Seeing this Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) stood up and said, "I propose the name of Umar and Abu'Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah for this post.
Select anyone of these two men as your Khalifah.
" But both of them refused and Hadrat Umar said,
"Abu Bakr is the best of all of us because Allah has mentioned him in the Holy Qur'an saying:

"The one amongst two in the cave" (9:40).

He further said, Abu Bakr excelled at every occasion during the life of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).

He deputised the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) in leading Salats,

he was appointed the Chief of Haj caravan.

As such he is the fittest person to be the Khalifah.
" Hadrat Abu Bakr still hesitated but Umar (R.A.) and Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit Ansari held his hand and took pledge of loyalty (Bai'at).
Then Hadrat Abu 'Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah and Hadrat Bashir bin an-Nu'man Ansari also took pledge of loyalty at his hands.
Seeing this people from all the sides rushed to pledge loyalty to Abu Bakr (R.A.) as the first successor of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam).

Next day a general pledge of loyalty (Bai'at) was taken by the Muslims in the Mosque of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
Thus Hadrat Abu Bakr assumed the greatest office, after the office of prophethood, and became the first Khalifah of Islam.
He gave his first address as a Khalifah in the mosque after the general

"Bai'at""0 people! I have been selected as your Trustee although I am no better than anyone of you.
If I am right, obey me. If I am misguided, set me right. Of course truth is honesty and a lie is dishonesty.
The weakest among you is powerful in my eyes until I do not get him his due, Insha-Allah (If it should please Allah).

The most powerful among you is the weakest in my eyes until I do not make him pay due rights to others Insha Allah.

Allah sends down disgrace on those people who give up Jihad in the path of Allah.Allah surely sends down calamities on such people who indulge in evils.

"I ask you to obey me as long as I obey Allah and His Messenger (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam). If I disobey Allah and His Messenger you are free to disobey me. Now come and offer Salat."

In his short address, Hadrat Abu Bakr showed the role of an exemplary Khalifah of Islamic Government.
No doubt Islamic Government means: "Government of Allah and His Prophet, by His obedient servants for the benefit of the people in this world and in the Hereafter."

About thirty three thousand people took pledge of loyalty (Bai'at) at the hand of Hadrat Abu Bakr in the mosque.

The selection (or Election) of Hadrat Abu Bakr is a pointer towards Islamic Democracy and furnishes example for selection of a Leader for Ummat-i-Muslimah (Muslim Community) till the Day of Judgement.


Problems faced by Hadrat Abu Bakr As-Siddiq as a Caliph

After the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam), the Arabs were on all sides rising in rebellion.

Apostasy and disaffection raised their heads.
Christians and Jews were filled with unrest.
Some Muslim tribes refused to pay Zakat to the Caliph for "Baitul Mal" (the Public Treasury).
Some disbelievers declared themselves to be prophets. There were many problems and much confusion.
Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) faced all these with unparalleled courage and the highest degree of Iman (Faith)
which is the characteristic of a "SIDDIQ".
At this place I would like to point out that "SIDDIQIAT" is the highest stage of Iman (Faith) and "Tawakkul" (Trust in Allah)
after prophethood as pointed out in the following verse of the Holy Qur'an

"All those who obey Allah and the Prophet are in the company of those upon whom Allah has shown favours - of the Prophets, "Siddiqin" (The Sincere), "Shuhada" (The Martyrs), and "Salihin"(The Righteous Muslims): Ah! What a beautiful company." (4:69).

In the following lines I would like to mention the main problems faced by Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (R.A.) in brief.


Usamah's Expedition

The freed slave of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) and his adopted son, Hadrat Zaid bin Harith (R.A.) was martyred at the hands of Syrians (Romans) at Mautah in 8 A.H.
A few weeks before his death the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) appointed Hadrat Usamah (R.A.), the son of Zaid
to lead an expedition against Syrians in order to avenge the death of his father, Zaid.
When Hadrat Usamah was about to leave, the news of the demise of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) came and
the departure of the army was postponed.
After being chosen as Caliph, the first task before Abu Bakr (R.A.) was to send out this expedition.

As a matter of fact, it was the most critical time in the history of Islam.
The entire peninsula was in a state of unrest and disorder.
Some of the new converts thought Islam would come to an end with the Holy Prophet's life.
Many of the tribes had entered the fold of Islam only a short time before and were not firm in Islam.
About this the Holy Qur'an has already predicted

"The wandering Arabs (Bedouins) say: We have (firm) faith. Say (to them O Muhammad): You believe not (firmly),
but rather say "We submit", for the Faith has not entered into your hearts." (39:14).

At the same time news came to Medina that apostates under the command of some false prophet were planning to invade the town.
Hadrat Abu Bakr(R.A.) was really facing a difficult situation.


In the circumstances, the companions approached him to withdraw the expedition of Hadrat Usamah bin Zaid.

In their opinion it was unwise to send troops out of Medina because they were needed at home.

Here was the test of Abu Bakr's (R.A.) faith in following the ways of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).

He got through in his test and proved to be the most firm among all of his companions including Hadrat Umar.
Abu Bakr (R.A.) said he could never alter the decision taken by his master (the Holy Prophet).
He firmly replied to his companions, "How can I fold up the flag which was unfurled by the Holy Prophet himself?

" When Muslims saw that Hadrat Abu Bakr was firm they requested him to change the command of Hadrat Usamah
because he was too young and inexperienced -- not yet twenty, thus was not fit to lead the expedition.

Hearing this Hadrat Abu Bakr was much annoyed and said, "Do you want me to dismiss a man appointed by the Messenger of Allah?"

At last the army led by Hadrat Usamah left after three weeks of Holy Prophet's death.

The young commander of the army was riding a horse and the great Caliph was walking by his side.

After forty days Hadrat Usamah returned to Medinah with a great victory, the victory of Abu Bakr's (R.A.) firm Faith.

The success of Usamah's expedition also opened the eyes of those who thought Islam was dying out after the demise of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).

Some of the tribes again came back to Islam which they had left.


Abu Bakr, a Saviour of Islam

As-Siddiq al-Akbar took the office of Caliphate (Khilafat) at the most crucial and critical moment of Islamic history.
He gave Islam a new life after the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam). Islam, in its infant stage,
when he was entrusted with the responsibility to Caliphate, was threatened by rebellions, rise of false prophets and apostasy movements.
He crushed all the futile powers because of his unshakeable faith.
No amount of difficulties could make him deviate from the Sunnah (Path) of the Holy Master.
He brought unity among the Muslims and crushed all the rebellions.
In view of his great service for the cause of Islam at that critical moment when there was a lot of confusion,
Abu Bakr (R.A.) may rightly be called the Saviour of Islam.

It was in the time of Abu Bakr that Islam started to cross the Arabian borders.
A major part of Iraq came under his rule and Muslim armies had captured many important cities of Syria.
Thus Islam, the religion of whole mankind, started to be a world religion in his period.

Collection of the Holy Qur'an

One of the greatest services rendered to Islam by Abu Bakr (R.A.) was the collection of the Holy Qur'an.
There were hundreds of Huffaz (i.e., those who committed the whole Holy Qur'an to memory) among
the Companions during the life-time of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam)
but it had not been compiled in book form though its memorisation continued even after the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
In various battles which took place against rebels and false prophets, a number of Huffaz Companions were martyred.
In the battle against Musailimah al-Khad-dhab about seventy Huffaz had died.

It then occurred to HadratUmar (R.A.) that necessary steps should be taken
to preserve the Holy Qur'an intact in its original form against every kind of danger and it was not wise to depend exclusively upon those who had learnt it by heart.
Therefore, he urged Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) to put it in black and white in the form of a book.
Other Companions also agreed with Umar’s opinion but Hadrat Abu Bakr hesitated in the beginning
because it was not done by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
However after some discussion he agreed to it and appointed Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit (R.A.)
for this work who was hesitant at first but later, he changed his mind and started the work.
Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit was the best qualified person for this work because he had acted as an amanuensis to the Holy Prophet.,
and was one of the Companions who had learnt the Holy Qur'an directly from him.
Moreover, he was also present on the occasion when the Holy Prophet recited the whole of the completed Holy Qur'an to angel Gabriel.
Hadrat Zaid bin Thabit adopted the same order of the various chapters of the Holy Book as was revealed to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
In the compilation of the Holy Book a number of prominent Companions assisted him.
The compiled copy of the Qur'an was kept in the house of Umm ul-Mu'minin, Hadrat Hafsah (Radiallahu 'Anha) who was one of the wives of the Holy Prophet and daughter of Hadrat Umar.
It was proclaimed that anyone, who desired, might make a copy of it or compare with it the copy one already possessed.

The collection of the Holy Qur'an in a book form was not an act against the Sunnah (Ways) of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam),
because the Holy Qur'an declares itself "A BOOK" at a number of places e.g., in the very beginning it says
"This is the Book........." (2:2)

During his caliphate Hadrat 'Uthman sent copies of the same compilation of the Holy Qur'an, collected during the period of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.), to various places of his caliphate.

In this way we see that Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) kept doing the great work of his Holy Master (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
With unshakeable faith and full courage he had struggled to the utmost.
Islam is for ever grateful to its greatest hero, the next to prophets, for the great services he rendered to it.
Hadrat Abu Bakr's caliphate lasted for only two years, three months and ten days (according to Islamic calendar).


Illness of Hadrat Abu Bakr and Umar's Nomination

It was the 7th Jamada-ul-Akhira, 13 A.H. that As-Siddiq al-Akbar fell ill. He had a severe fever.
When the illness took a serious turn he called the "Shura" (Advisory Council) to consult about his successor, the second Caliph.
Since he had seen some confusion after the demise of the Holy Prophet for the selection of a Caliph, he preferred to let the Muslims decide the matter in his presence.
Following were the leading figures present in the Shura:Umar, 'Uthman,'Ali, 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf, Mu'adh bin Jabal, Ubaiy bin Ka'b, Zaid bin Thabit (Ridwanullah 'alaihim Ajma'in) and other leading Muhajirin and Ansar. According to some historians he first consulted some of the most prominent Companions before calling the meeting of the General Shura about this.
Among these persons were 'Uthman,'Abdur rahman bin 'Auf and Usaid bin hadir etc. (R.A.) Hadrat Abu Bakr put his proposal for Hadrat Umar to be the second Caliph.
All of them agreed with the proposal except for an objection by some of the Companions about his strictness.
That was the only ground on which Hadrat'Ali and Talha (R.A.) also did not agree with Hadrat Abu Bakr.
But Abu Bakr(R.A.) rejected their plea on the ground that the burden of Caliphate would make him milder.
Since there was no opposition to Hadrat Abu Bakr's view, Hadrat Umar was declared to be the next Caliph and all the Companions,
including Hadrat'Ali and Hadrat Talha, agreed to it.

At this point I would like to point out that the decision of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) for the selection (or election) of Hadrat Umar
in his presence during his life was purely based on his "Ijtihad" (Personal Judgment of a Jurist) as explained by him after his nomination of Umar (R.A.) was recorded.

As a matter of fact it was the need of the time and Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) was totally right in his "Ijtihad".

The proof of this is also the "Ijma’” (Agreement) of the Companions on his proposal to select a Caliph while he was still alive.

Although the appointment (election) of the Caliph did not take place in the same way as it happened with Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.),
it was not un-democratic in the sense that the nomination of Hadrat Umar took place after fair consultation with the "Shura".

Hadrat Abu Bakr never wanted anything which would make Islam weak after him.

He knew what had happened after the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam) the repetition of which was to be avoided.
The strength of the Muslim community lay in unity and that had to be preserved at any cost.
For these reasons Hadrat Abu Bakr(R.A.) wanted an agreed person to be nominated as his successor in his presence.

Therefore he took a decision by "Ijtihad" for the nomination of a Caliph after due consultation.

After the "Shura" (Advisory Council) had agreed on Hadrat Umar, Hadrat Abu Bakr asked Hadrat 'Uthman (R.A.) to write the will

"Bismillah-irrahmanir-Rahim (In the name of Allah, most Gracious, most Merciful)-
This is the declaration which is made by Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah while he is about to leave for the next world.
At this time even a non-believer starts to believe, and even a great sinner returns to faith, and a disbeliever begins to trust in Allah.
I appoint Umar bin Khattab as the Caliph (Khalifah). You must follow his orders and obey him.
I have done everything good for the sake of Allah, for His Holy Prophet and for the welfare of His Religion and Muslims
and for myself in appointing him (Umar as the Caliph). I hope that he would be honest and just but if he changes his ways, and becomes unjust,
I would have no responsibility, as I do not have the knowledge of the unseen. Everybody is responsible for what he does."

Afterwards he went up to his balcony with the help of some persons and addressed a big gathering of Muslims:
"O my brothers! I have not appointed any of my relations or brothers as a Caliph,
I have chosen the best person among you. Do you agree on this'? All of them replied in the affirmative.
Then he called Umar (R.A.) and talked with him for a long time and gave him words of parting advice.
Some of them are as under

"O Umar always fear Allah. An optional deed is not accepted unless the obligatory deed is done.
The weight of your goodness would be heavy on the day of Judgement if you followed the Right Path in this world.
The deeds of the persons who followed wrong Path in this world be having no weight on the Day of Judgement.
They will have a terrible time. Make the Holy Qur'an and Truth your guide for success. Umar if you follow the path I propose for you, I will surely be by your side..........".

As-Siddiq al-Akbar passes away

After a fortnight's illness, As-Siddiq al-Akbar passed away at the age of 61 on Tuesday, the 22nd Jamadal-Akhira, 13 A.H. (23rd August 634 A.D.).
As-Siddiq al-Akbar left behind a noble example of selfless service.
He lived and worked for the sake of Islam to his last breath, but sought no reward.
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Default Hadrat Umar (R.A.) as the Second Caliph of Islam

Hazrat Umer (R.A)


Hadrat Umar (R.A.) as the Second Caliph of Islam

As described in connection with the life of Hadrat Abu-Bakr, during his illness he consulted the "Shura" about the next "Khalifah"
and then gave his decision in favour of Hadrat Umar (R.A.) who took the charge of Caliphate after the death of Hadrat Abu Bakr (R.A.) on 22nd of Jamadi-uth-Thani 13 A.H. (23rd Aug. 634 A.C.).

Umar the pioneer of the Islamic Democracy

The constitution of Islamic caliphate during the time of Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was based entirely on the Islamic democratic system.
All matters were decided after consultation with the "Shura"(The Council of Advisors).
He remarked, "It is essential for a "Khalifah" to consult his "Shura".

Muslims and non-Muslims were treated alike.

Islamic Republic based upon "Shura"

As stated before all matters were decided after consultations with the "Shura", the Advisory Council during his time.

There were three main types of "Shura".

The first "Shura" consisted of very prominent and popular Companions like:
Hadrat Uthman, Ali, 'Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Mu'adh bin Jabal, Ubayy bin Ka'b, Zaid bin Thabit, Talha and Zubair (Raziallah Anho).
They were permanent members of the "Shura".
All the important matters were decided in consultation with these persons. This "Shura" could be named as the Higher Advisory Council.

The second "Shura" was the General Advisory Council which consisted of many companions from amongst the Ansar and Muhajirin (Raziallah Anho).
The Companions who participated in the battle of Badr were given priority in this "Shura".
All matters of general interest were discussed with this "Shura".
In this "Shura" were also included the chiefs of various clans and tribes.

The third type of "Shura" ranked in between the Higher and the General Advisory Councils.
It consisted of some selected Companions among the Muhajirin and Ansar.
Matters of special interest were put before the "Shura"

Whenever a "Shura" was called everyone of its members was fully allowed to give his opinion without any fear or hesitation.


Provincial Administration

Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) divided the whole Islamic Khilafat (i.e. Islamic State into various provinces each with a capital.
The following were, the provinces and their governors in 23 A.H., i.e. near the end of Hadrat Umar's Caliphate.

1. Hijaz with Makkah as its capital; Governor -- Nafi' bin Abu Harith.
2. Syria with Damascus as its capital; Governor-- Mu'awiyah bin Abu Sufyan.
3. Iran with Basrah as its capital; Governor -- Abu Musa al-Ash'ari.
4. Iraq with Kufa as its capital; Governor -- Mughirah bin Shu'bah.
5. Egypt with Fustat as its capital; Governor -'Amr bin al-'As.
6. Palestine with Jerusalem as its capital; Governor -- 'Alqamah bin Majaz.
7. Jazirah (i.e. Mesopotamia) with Hims (Hems) as its controlling capital; Governor -- 'Umair bin Sa'd.
8. The central province of Arabia with Medina as its capital.

The title of a Provincial Governor was "Wali",
who was the chief administrator and generally the supreme commander of the armed forces of that province.

In each province there were usually following officers besides the Governor:

The Treasury Officer (Sahib-i-Baitul-Mal;
the Revenue Collector (Sahib-i-Kharaj);
the Chief Police Officer (Sahib-i-Ahdath);
the Judge (alQadi).
In those provinces where the governor was not holding the office of the commander of armed forces,
a separate commander was appointed.

Usually the officers were appointed after consultation with the "Shura" (the Advisory Council).

The provinces were divided into districts.
Each district was administered by an officer called 'Amil.


The Khalifah was the religious head of the State
Not only the Khalifah the Governors were also great scholars of Islam.


Judiciary

The judicial functions were entrusted to Qadis (Judges).
A Qadi was completely free of the executive administration.
On a number of occasions the Khalifah (Hadrat Umar) himself appeared before a Qadi to defend himself in some cases.

"Umar was the first ruler in Islam", says Amir Ali, "to fix salaries for judges and to make their offices distinct from the executive officers."

Department of Education

Hadrat Umar took special interest in imparting Islamic knowledge to the Muslims.
The Holy Qur'an was compiled in a Book form during the period of Hadrat Abu Bakr on Umar's (Raziallah Anho) insistence.
He established schools for teaching the Holy Qur'an in all the conquered territories.

Such schools were located in the Masjids.

A number of writers like Ibn-i-Jauzi (see "Sirat Umar") have mentioned that the teachers of such schools received good salaries.

It was compulsory for every Muslim to memorise sufficient part of the Holy Qur'an especially
Surahs al-Baqrah;an-Nisa,al-Ma’idah; an-Nisa, al-Ma'idah, al-Hajj and an-Nur (Chapters, 2, 4, 5, 22 and 24 of the Holy Qur'an).
In these Surahs Islamic laws and principles are described elaborately.
To know basic Islamic laws was compulsory.

Thus the concept of compulsory education was introduced at a time when nobody knew about it.

The students memorising whole of the Qur'an by heart were given scholarships and other facilities.

Introduction of Islamic Calendar

Construction of Masjids and establishment of Schools

He founded a number of schools.
Masjids were used for giving religious instructions.
A number of Masjids were built by Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho).
He asked the governors of various provinces, specially of Syria to build at least one Masjid in each city or town.
In Kufa a separate Masjid was built for every clan.
According to some historians he built four thousand Masjids.

The Haram (Masjid-ul-Haram) in Makkah was too small for the increasing Muslim population.
He extended it and built a wall around it in order to separate it from the township.

He covered the Ka'bah with very costly Egyptian cloth instead of ordinary cloth.

The Masjid of the Holy Prophet was also extended.


Police Department & institution of prisons

To keep order inside the State, a police force was necessary.
Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was the first Muslim Head of State who established the Police Department.

There was no jail in Arabia before Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho).
He bought five houses in Makkah and used them as prisons.

The Bait-ul Maal (Public Treasury) and Revenue Administration

A Public Treasury (Bait-ul-Maal) was for the first time established by the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu'alaihi wa Sallam) in the form of a common fund for the benefit of the general public.
During the time of Hadrat Abu Bakr (Raziallah Anho), a house was purchased for the purpose.
During the caliphate of Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) the Bait-ul Mal was immensely enlarged.
He reorganised the entire system on a very sound and just basis.
In Medina there was the central Treasury and regular accounts were kept.

Following were the main sources of revenue

(i) Jizya (Indemnity or Defence Tax);
(ii) Zakat(Poor Tax);
(iii) Khiraj(Land Tax);
(iv) 'Ushr (Special land Tax);
(v) Booty(Income from the conquered places)
(vi) Tax on non-Muslim merchants or traders (because they did pay Zakat).


Public Works Department

Construction of office buildings and erection of new cities
Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) built a number of offices for various needs.
The construction of prison in Makkah and Baitul-Mal in Medina has been mentioned before.
The Treasury houses were also built in various provinces.
The construction of the building of Treasury House (Bait-ul-Mal) was supervised by a Persian engineer Rozbah who used the same type of cement in the building as was used in the palaces of the Persian Emperors.

Rest-houses and police posts
A number of rest-houses for travellers were also built.
Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) also built many new roads and bridges.
The road between Makkah and Medina was broadened and a number of rest-houses and police posts were built on this road.

canals were constructed

As described above a number of canals were constructed for irrigation and for supply of fresh water.
A nine mile long canal was constructed in Basrah which brought water from the river Tigris.
Hadrat Sa'd bin Waqqas built a canal in Kufa.
He constructed a number of canals for irrigation purposes.
120000 labourers were employed in Egypt alone.

Survey of Lands in Iraq

Special care of Agriculture
Agronomy was the main source of income during those days.
Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) took special care of the welfare of agriculture and the farmers.
As stated before he dug a number of canals for irrigation.
A number of gardens were planted on his order.
He made a law under which no Muslim could acquire land from the natives of the soil in the conquered territories.
However land could be purchased. He supported both Muslim and non-Muslim farmers.

Personal care of the Public and stipends to disabled persons and the poor

A number of new cities were founded.

BASRAH :
KUFA:
FUSTAT:
Mosul and Jizah
Jizah was built after the victory of Alexandria in Egypt.


Military Reforms:

Regular Army

One of the biggest achievements of Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was to keep regular armies of the State.

For the first time in the history of Islam all irregular armies or mercenaries were divided into clear-cut classes of regular and irregular armies.

The army personnel was well paid and their families also got allowances.

Separate registers for regular and irregular armies were maintained.

In order to keep military tradition of the Muslims, Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) did not allow the army personnel to hold land in the conquered territories,
which might have impaired military prowess of Muslim soldiers.


Central cantonments were built in the following places:

Medina,
Kufa,
Basrah,
Mosul,
Fustat,
Damascus,
Hims (i.e. Hems),
Jordan, Palestine (Jerusalem), and
Ramla.

Besides the Commanding officer, the army had Translators, Doctors, Surgeons and Detectives.

No regular military personnel was allowed to do business or agriculture.

It was compulsory for every soldier to be trained in swimming, riding, and walking bare-footed besides other military training.

The army was generally divided into cavalry and infantry.

Each central cantonment had at least four thousand horses for the cavalry.

Stables were provided with big pastures.

Special care was taken of the horses.

There were big granaries in cantonments to supply food to the military personnel.

Special arrangements were made to protect the frontiers.

One million equipped soldiers were present in all the regular and irregular armies.

This was done after the Muslims had conquered the Persian Empire and a major part of Byzantium.


Review of Hadrat Umar's service to Islam

The period of Hadrat Umar's caliphate undoubtedly is the "Golden Age" of Islam in every respect.
It was Umar under whose rule Islam became a world power and the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantine (Eastern Roman) crumbled before the arm of Islam.
Within ten years of his glorious rule, the whole of the Persian Empire, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and a part of Turkey came under the banner of Islam and the nations entered the fold of Islam.

He was not only a conqueror but also an exemplary administrator who originated an efficient system of administration,
and thus he was the real founder of political system of Islam .

He enforced Divine Law (Shari'ah) as the code of a newly formed International Islamic State;

he safeguarded the internal safety by introducing the police force:
he gave stipends to the poor;
he constructed cantonments and forts for the safety of Islamic armies;
he founded new cities for the growth of Islamic culture and civilisation;
he improved agriculture and economics of the Islamic State;
he founded the educational system in an Islamic State;
in brief he was the founder of a great Islamic State.



Hadrat Umar (R.A.) as a great scholar

He was a great Jurist and Theologian of Islam.
A full volume could be complied out of the verdicts and judgements given by Hadrat Umar (R.A.).
As a matter of fact he opened a new door of Ijtihad'
"(Disciplined judgement of a Jurist) in the history of Islamic Law and Jurisprudence,
and settled a number of disputable cases during his caliphate.


Freedom of Opinion

Actually Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was the founder of ISLAMIC DEMOCRACY based upon the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (Sal Allaho Alehe Wassallam).

The words of the Holy Prophet are very true

"IF THERE WERE TO BE A PROPHET AFTER ME HE WOULD HAVE BEEN UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB." (Tirmidhi)

AND

"AMONG THE NATIONS BEFORE YOUR TIME THERE HAVE BEEN INSPIRED PEOPLE (WHO WERE NOT PROPHETS), AND IF THERE IS ONE AMONG MY PEOPLE HE IS UMAR". (Bukhari and Muslim)

Character

He was a very pious Muslim.
His success lay in two things-
fear of Allah and
his love for the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).

He never used even oil from the Bait-ul-Mal (Public Treasury) to burn a lamp at night for his personal needs.

Whenever he finished the official work he put off the lamp.

He used to patrol in the city at night to find out the needs and requirements, and conditions of the people.

He did not hesitate to take his wife to work as a midwife for a poor woman.
The salary he got from the Bait-ul-Mal was so low that it was hardly enough for him and his family's needs.
Hadrat Umar was the most just ruler in the Islamic History.
All the citizens, including the Caliph himself, were equal before law.
In short he was the best example of an ideal character, and was the greatest "Khalifah" of Islam after Abu Bakr (R.A.).
He selflessly devoted his whole energy for the cause of Islam.

Muslims will always be indebted to him for his great achievements.

Martyrdom of Hadrat Umar (R.A.)

The glorious rule of Hadrat Umar (R.A.) came to an end with his death on Wednesday the 27th of Dhil Hijjah, the year 23 A.H. (643 A.C.) when he was 61 years old.
There was a Persian slave of Hadrat Mughirah bin Shu'bah, named Abu Lu' Lu' Firoze.
One day he complained about the burden his master had imposed upon him.
The complaint was not genuine, hence Hadrat Umar (R.A.) ignored it.
Next day, early in the morning when Hadrat Umar (R.A.) went to Masjid to perform Fajr Salat,
the slave who was hiding in a corner, attacked him with a dagger and stabbed him six times.
People overpowered the assassin but he slew himself with the same dagger.

The injuries were so serious that the Caliph died the next morning.

Before his death the Muslims asked him about his successor,

He appointed a panel of six persons, Hadrat 'Uthma Zubair, Talha, Sa'd bin Waqqas and 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Auf (R.A.) to select a "Khalifah" from amongst them within three days after him.

He requested Hadrat Aisha (R.A.) for permission for his burial by the side of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu 'alaihi wa Sallam).
Though she had reserved that place for herself but on Umar's request she gave it to him where he was buried.

Achievements:

Hadrat Umar (Raziallah Anho) was the pioneer of modern civilisation to form a state based upon the Islamic democratic system,
the system which was incorporated in the West as late as 19th and 20th centuries.

He was the greatest democratic administrator whose example is unparalleled not only in the history of Islam but also in the history of modern civilisation.

A vast part of the Middle East, Persian Empire and Byzantium, was conquered during the ten years of his "Khilafat" (Caliphate) which he consolidated into a state governed by Islam i.e. laws.

"As an administrator", says Prof. K. Ali, a Muslim writer,
"he remained a model for all great Muslim rulers during the whole Islamic history".

Another famous historian, Amir Ali says,
"During the thirty years that the Republic lasted, the policy derived its character chiefly from Umar both during his life-time and after his death."
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Default Umayyad Caliphate

Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayads: The First Muslim Dynasty
Under their rule, which lasted from 61 to 750 AD, the early Islamic community was transformed into the most powerful empire of the day.

Rise of the Umayads

Muawiya, When Muhammad first began preaching his mesage, the Umayad clan comprised his greatest opositon.
They were the richest and most powerful clan in Meca, and they were threatened by the changes that Islam brought.
Muawiya, the firstUmayad ruler, was the son of Abu Sufyan, Muhammad’s most biter oponent.

Abu Sufyan embraced Islam after Muhammad’s forces marched on Mecca, and Muawiya joined his father and older brother, Yazid, in becoming a late convert to the new religion.

A younger son and scion of Muhammad’s enemy, Muawiya was not a likely candidate tobe the leader of the Islamic community.

But his skil and intelect, combined with a lot of luck, enabled him to build the first Muslim dynasty.

After his conquest of Meca, Muhammad gave many Quraysh elites, including
members of Muawiya’s Umayad family, high-ranking positons in his government.

Muawiya joined the army of his older brother Yazid in the conquest of Syria.
Yazid was granted governorship of Syria by Caliph Umar, and Muawiya continued to serve him.

In 640 AD, however, Yazid died of the plague, and Muawiya replaced him.

Muwaiya quickly set about turning Syria into his own power base.

He launched successful atacks against he Byzantines, which brought him great booty and respect from his soldiers.


Then, in 61 AD, Muawiya was proclaimed caliph.

Muawiya set about creating a strong and somewhat centralized government.
He moved the capital and administrative center of the empire from Medina to Damascus, Syria, his powerbase.


Military Expeditions and achievements:

He is credited with raising a highly-trained army of Syrian soldiers which was used
to expand Muslim authority east into Khorasan and west into North Africa.

In the east, the borders of the Muslim empire were expanded to Khorasan and the Oxus River.

The conquest of Tripolitania and Ifriqiyah led to the founding
of the garrison city Kairouan in 670 as a base for continuing forays into what is today Algeria.

Navy fleet of 4000 ships:

He established a big Navy fleet of 4000 ships
He also established naval factories in Syria and Alexandria.
He confined the naval strength of Byzantine in Mediteranian and
established supremacy of muslims naval force in Mediteranian.
Naval expeditions against the Byzantines and raids into Anatolia.

Muawiya also led excursions into Anatolia beginning in 672.
Muawiya also attempted to conquer the rest of the Byzantine Empire for Islam.

The Islamic conquests had ben temporarily interupted by the civil war, but Muawiya began them again.

He achieved some successes, but his ultimate goal was Constantinople.
which culminated in an unsuccessful three-year seige of Constantinople (674-677).
The Byzantines, aided by a new incendiary weapon known as Greek fire, defeated the Muslims.

Adminstrative Reforms

He retained the administrative structures left by the Byzantines and Persians
but consolidated his authority by appointing kinsmen to key posts.

Muawiya is credited with the creation of specialized bureaus, known as diwans,

to increase the centralization of the government;

two such diwans created to improve communications are the
diwan al-khatam, the chancellery,
diwan al-barid, the postal service.

He gave Christians, especialy former Byzantine oficials, positons in his own government,
using their expertise in governing the provinces, and adopting Byzantine financial and administrative systems.

He died soon after, in 680 AD.


Muawiya as a king: Founder of hereditary kingship


Monarchy hereditary kingship
Muawiya was the first man who transformed the Khilafat into a Mulk-republic to a kingship.
He once, said, "I am first king among the kings," He made caliphate a hereditary kingship by nominating his son Yazeed in 674 A.D to the throne.

His example of nominating the next caliph became a precedent and was followed by the subsequent Caliphs of Ummayyad dynasty.
Their practice was equally followed by the Abbassids and the later dynasties.
, he may be called the founder of hereditary kingship in the history of Islam.


Secular Autocratic form of government
The tribal democracy of his predecessors was gone for ever and Muawiya replaced it by his personal rule and
autocracy which his successors turned into the pattern of the Byzantine or Persian absolution.

Outwardly, Muawiya observed the forms and functions of the Caliphs.
Like the orthodox caliphs, he led the prayers on Friday, But unlike them, he kept himself aloof from the common Muslims.
He gave up the simplicity and accessibility of Orthodox Caliphs.

His palace was guarded by guarded by armed soldiers and when he appeared in the public, he was surrounded by his bodyguards.


Public treasury as his personal property

He regarded the public treasury as his personal property. He tackled all important problems in his personal capacity and had no connection with the Council of Elders.
Therefor, "the accession of Muawiya to the throne at Damascus heralded the end of Caliphate and the beginning of Kingship."

Nonetheles, their lack of descent from Muhammad, their controversial practice of handing down power from father to son, and their mistreatment
of non-Arab Muslims made them a controversial dynasty, a topic of debate among Muslims even to this day, and ultimately led to their fal.



Marwan

A new Umayad,Marwan, from a separate branch of the family, took the throne and oposed Ibn al- Zubayr, claiming power for the Umayads.
As a result, a civil war broke out between Marwan in Damascus and Ibn al-Zubayr in Meca.
This was the Second Arab Civil War, or Second Fitna.
Marwan did not survive long, ruling only about a year.
But was suceded by his son, Abd al-Malik, who would be remembered as perhaps the most important Umayad caliph.

The Reign of Abd al-Malik

Abd al-Malik became caliph after the death of his father Marwan I in 685, amidst the ongoing Second Fitna.
Within a few years, he dispatched armies on a campaign to reassert Umayyad control over the Islamic empire.
he was facing three distinct groups (the Kharijites, Shi'a, andAbd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr and his followers)
that were fighting amongst themselves and against Umayyad control.
Abd al-Malik consolidated Muslim rule and extended it,Abd al-Malik instituted many reforms such as:
Making Arabic the official language of government across the entire empire. As islamic empire had spread far and wide however the conquered areas were yet to adopt Arabic as the official language for official purposes. Thus it was Abdul malik who took measure for that and it promoted Unified Islamic culture and civilization.
he made it madatory medium of communication throught the Muslim Empire.

Al-Walid

Al-Walid ibn Abd al-MaliK or Al-Walid I (668 – 23 February 715)
who ruled from 705 to his death in 715.
His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana, Sindh, Hispania and against the Byzantines.
Walid continued the expansion of the Islamic empire that was sparked by his father, and was an effective ruler.



Sulayman in 715 AD

Al-Walid was suceded by his brother Sulayman in 715 AD.
Second Arab Siege of Constantinople
Sulayman began the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople, determined to end the Byzantine Empire
once and for al. This siege involved even more soldiers than the first, and was meant
to learn from the failures of the first siege.
While the atack semed unstopable, amixture of Byzantine trickery and bad weather hampered the Muslims.
The siege lasted over a year, but he Islamic forces were eventualy forced to give up, and many were
kiled as they fled, or drowned in a series of storms that wrecked the departing Muslim
flet. This would be the last atempt by the Arabs to conquer Byzantium.
From that point on, it was generaly held that he Islamic Empire would have to acept he
continued existence of the Byzantine Empire. They would continue to fight over land,
but neither would be able to completely conquer the other.
Sulayman was suceded in 717 by his cousin Umar ibn al-Aziz, who became
known as Umar II.


Umar ibn al-Aziz

He was the last great Umayad caliph.
Umar I was known for his piety, and he continued Abd al-Malik’s eforts to integrate Islam into the state.
He exempted new converts to Islam from having to pay the jizya tax
(which first-generation converts previously stil had to pay).
This encouraged many people of the empire to become Muslims.
His kind treatment of the mawali, non-Arab converts to Islam, made
him very popular, though his sucesors would not continue this policy.

Umar I built bridges to the Shites by ending the public cursing of Ali, and he avoided luxuries.
Instead of spending government money on himself, he gave generously to the poor and needy.
Umar II only lasted thre years in power, and he was folowed by a series of less capable rulers.




Umayyad Administration

One of Muawiya's first tasks was to create a stable administration for the empire.
He followed the main ideas of the Byzantine Empire which had ruled the same region previously, and had three main governmental branches: political and military affairs, tax collection, and religious administration.
Each of these was further subdivided into more branches, offices, and departments.

Provinces

Geographically, the empire was divided into several provinces, the borders of which changed numerous times during the Umayyad reign.

Each province had a governor appointed by the khalifah.

The governor was in charge of the religious officials, army leaders, police, and civil administrators in his province.
Local expenses were paid for by taxes coming from that province, with the remainder each year being sent to the central government in Damascus.
As the central power of the Umayyad rulers waned in the later years of the dynasty,
some governors neglected to send the extra tax revenue to Damascus and created great personal fortunes.
Government workers
As the empire grew, the number of qualified Arab workers was too small to keep up with the rapid expansion of the empire.
Therefore, Muawiya allowed many of the local government workers in conquered provinces to keep their jobs under the new Umayyad government.
Thus, much of the local government's work was recorded in Greek, Coptic, and Persian.
It was only during the reign of Abd al-Malik that government work began to be regularly recorded in Arabic.[47]

The Byzantine and Sassanid Empires relied on money economies before the Muslim conquest, and that system remained in effect during the Umayyad period.
Pre-existing coins remained in use, but with phrases from the Quran stamped on them.

In addition to this, the Umayyad government began to mint its own coins in Damascus the first coins minted by a Muslim government in history. Gold coins were called dinars while silver coins were called dirhams.

Central diwans

To assist the Caliph in administration there were six Boards at the Centre: Diwan al-Kharaj (the Board of Revenue), Diwan al-Rasa'il (the Board of Correspondence), Diwan al-Khatam (the Board of Signet), Diwan al-Barid (the Board of Posts), Diwan al-Qudat (the Board of Justice) and Diwan al-

Jund (the Military Board)

Diwan al-Kharaj
The Central Board of Revenue administered the entire finances of the empire. It also imposed and collected taxes and disbursed revenue.

Diwan al-Rasa'il
A regular Board of Correspondence was established under the Umayyads. It issued state missives and circulars to the Central and Provincial Officers.
It co-ordinated the work of all Boards and dealt with all correspondence as the chief secretariat.

Diwan al-Khatam
In order to check forgery, Diwan al-Khatam (Bureau of Registry), a kind of state chancellery, was instituted by Mu'awiyah.
It used to make and preserve a copy of each official document before sealing and despatching the original to its destination.
Thus in the course of time a state archive developed in Damascus by the Umayyads under Abd al-Malik. This department survived till the middle of the Abbasid period.

Diwan al-Barid
Mu'awiyah introduced postal service, Abd al-Malik extended it throughout his empire, and Walid made full use of it.
The Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik developed a regular postal service.
Umar bin Abdul-Aziz developed it further by building caravanserais at stages along the Khurasan highway.
Relays of horses were used for the conveyance of dispatches between the caliph and his agents and officials posted in the provinces.
The main highways were divided into stages of 12 miles (19 km) each and each stage had horses, donkeys or camels ready to carry the post.
Primarily the service met the needs of Government officials, but travellers and their important dispatches were also benefitted by the system.
The postal carriages were also used for the swift transport of troops. They were able to carry fifty to a hundred men at a time.
Under Governor Yusuf bin Umar, the postal department of Iraq cost 4,000,000 dirhams a year.

Diwan al-Qudat (QAZI)

In the early period of Islam, justice was administered by Muhammad and the orthodox Caliphs in person.
After the expansion of the Islamic State, Umar al-Faruq had to separate judiciary from the general administration and appointed the first qadi in Egypt as early as 23H/643AD.
After 661AD a series of judges succeeded one after another in Egypt under the Umayyad Caliphs, Hisham and Walid II.

Diwan al-Jund

The Diwan of Umar, assigning annuities to all Arabs and to the Muslim soldiers of other races, underwent a change in the hands of the Umayyads.
The Umayyads meddled with the register and the recipients regarded pensions as the subsistence allowance even without being in active service.
Hisham reformed it and paid only to those who participated in battle.
On the pattern of the Byzantine system the Umayyads reformed their army organization in general and divided it into five corps:
the centre, two wings, vanguards and rearguards, following the same formation while on march or on a battle field.

Marwan II (740–50) abandoned the old division and introduced Kurdus (cohort), a small compact body.

The Umayyad troops were divided into three divisions: infantry, cavalry and artillery.

Arab troops were dressed and armed in Greek fashion.
The Umayyad cavalry used plain and round saddles.
The artillery used arradah (ballista), manjaniq (the mangonel) and dabbabah or kabsh (the battering ram).
The heavy engines, siege machines and baggage were carried on camels behind the army.

Social Organization

The Umayyad Caliphate exhibited four main social classes:
1. Muslim Arabs
2. Muslim non-Arabs (clients of the Muslim Arabs)
3. Non-Muslim free persons (Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians)
4. Slaves

The Muslim Arabs were at the top of the society and saw it as their duty to rule over the conquered areas.
Despite the fact that Islam teaches the equality of all Muslims, the Arab Muslims held themselves in higher esteem than Muslim non-Arabs and generally did not mix with other Muslims.
The inequality of Muslims in the empire led to social unrest. As Islam spread, more and more of the Muslim population was constituted of non-Arabs.
This caused tension as the new converts were not given the same rights as Muslim Arabs.
Also, as conversions increased, tax revenues from non-Muslims decreased to dangerous lows.
These issues continued to grow until they helped cause the Abbasid Revolt in the 740s.[49]

Non-Muslims Dhimmis.
Non-Muslim groups in the Umayyad Caliphate, which included Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians, and pagan Berbers, were called dhimmis.
They were given a legally protected status as second-class citizens as long as they accepted and acknowledged the political supremacy of the ruling Muslims.
They were allowed to have their own courts, and were given freedom of their religion within the empire. Although they could not hold the highest public offices in the empire, they had many bureaucratic positions within the government. Christians and Jews still continued to produce great theological thinkers within their communities, but as time wore on, many of the intellectuals converted to Islam.


Downfall Of Umayads:

The caliphate’s miltary prestige had ben damaged by the failure of the
second siege of Constantinople, and more defeats followed.


Spain was firmly under Muslim rule, but he Islamic invasion of France was crushed by the Franks under

Charles Martel at he Batle of Tours in 732 AD, halting Muslim expansion in Western Europe.

Islamic expansion in the Far East mostly halted as well.

The borders of the Islamic Empire became fixed, and in many ways the empire was already to big to effectively govern.


Abbasid Revolution

In 74 AD, a new civil war, called the Third Fitna, tore the Umayad caliphate
apart. In the end, the descendants of Abd al-Malik were wiped out, and power went to Marwan II, a grandson of Marwan I(by another son).

This civil war weakened the Umayad miltary and made it more susceptible to rebelion.
The major areas of rebelion against he Umayads were the eastern lands that
had once been the Persian Empire.
While the Umayad base of power remained in Syria, many Arabs in Iran were unhapy and felt overloked by the government.
In additon, non-Arab Muslims, called mawali, had inferior status to Arab Muslims underthe Umayads.
Only Muslim Arabs were first-claas citzens.

The largest group of mawali was the Persians, who lived in the eastern part of the empire.
These eastern lands were also home to a large number of Shites, and they believed that the Umayad caliphate was ilegitmate because it was not ruled by the family of Muhammad.
Members of Muhammad’s family—his uncle Abas’s line, known as the Abasidsstarted a rebelion.
The Abasids apealed to the disaffected Arabs of Persia, to the mawali of the region, and, thanks to their descent from Muhammad, to the Shites.
So a large confederation of enemies of the Umayads had come together under Abul`Abas as-Safah
The Abasids under as-Safah marched west, and met he Umayyad caliph
Marwin II at he Batle of the Zab. Marwin II was defeated and killed.

As-Safah captured Damascus and was proclaimed the new caliph.
He invited the remaining members of the Umayad family to a feast and had them slaughtered.
Only one member of the Umayad dynasty, Abd al-Rahman, escaped. Through a series of adventures and close calls, Abd al-Rahman made it o Spain, which declared itself independent from the Abasid caliphate.

Spain was to distant and independent for the Abasids to regain.
The Umayad Dynasty would continue to rule Islamic Spain until the eleventh century.
The rest of the empire, however, fell under the control of the Abasids.



CONCLUSION:

The Umayyad caliphate was marked both by territorial expansion and by the administrative and cultural problems that such expansion created.
Despite some notable exceptions, the Umayyads tended to favor the rights of the old Arab families, and in particular their own, over those of newly converted Muslims (mawali).
During the period of the Umayyads, Arabic became the administrative language.
State documents and currency were issued in the language.
Mass conversions brought a large influx of Muslims to the caliphate.
The Umayyads also constructed famous buildings such as the
Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem, and the Umayyad Mosque at Damascus.
According to one common view, the Umayyads transformed the caliphate from a religious institution (during the rashidun) to a dynastic one.
However, the Umayyad caliphs do seem to have understood themselves as the representatives of God on earth, and to have been responsible for the "definition and elaboration of God's ordinances, or in other words the definition or elaboration of Islamic law."
The Umayyads have met with a largely negative reception from later Islamic historians, who have accused them of promoting a kingship (mulk, a term with connotations of tyranny) instead of a true caliphate (khilafa).
In this respect it is notable that the Umayyad caliphs referred to themselves not as khalifat rasul Allah ("successor of the messenger of God", the title preferred by the tradition), but rather as khalifat Allah ("deputy of God").
The distinction seems to indicate that the Umayyads "regarded themselves as God's representatives at the head of the community and saw no need to share their religious power with, or delegate it to, the emergent class of religious scholars.
" In fact, it was precisely this class of scholars, based largely in Iraq, that was responsible for collecting and recording the traditions that form the primary source material for the history of the Umayyad period.
In reconstructing this history, therefore, it is necessary to rely mainly on sources, such as the histories of Tabari and Baladhuri, that were written in the Abbasid court at Baghdad.
Modern Arab nationalism regards the period of the Umayyads as part of the Arab Golden Age which it sought to emulate and restore.
This is particularly true of Syrian nationalists and the present-day state of Syria, centered like that of the Umayyads on Damascus.
White, one of the four Pan-Arab colors which appear in various combinations on the flags of most Arab countries, is considered as representing the Umayyads
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Default Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan
(686 To 705 AD) was the 5th Umayyad Caliph.

He was born in Medina, Hejaz.
Abd al-Malik was a well-educated man and capable ruler, despite the many political problems that impeded his rule.

The 14th-century Muslim historian Ibn Khaldun states:
"`Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan is one of the greatest Arab and Muslim Caliphs.
He followed in the footsteps of `Umar ibn al-Khattab,
the Commander of the Believers, in regulating state affairs".

Early life

Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan spent most of his early life in Medina with his father,
where he developed useful relationships with the religious circles of the city.
At 16, he was given limited responsibilities by Muawiya II.
In 683, he and his father were driven out of Medina by local rebels.
On the way to Damascus, he crossed paths with the Syrian Army entailed with the task of ending the rebellion.
He was responsible for the giving of useful advice and information that helped to end that problem.
His father was appointed to be caliph in 684, but was successful only in creating a feud between the northern and southern Arab tribes.

Campaigns in Iraq and Hejaz

Abd al-Malik became caliph after the death of his father Marwan I in 685, amidst the ongoing Second Fitna.

He ascended the throne when Umayyad rule was on the verge near to end.

Within a few years, he dispatched armies on a campaign to reassert Umayyad control over the Islamic empire.

He was facing three distinct groups
(the Kharijites, Shi'a, andAbd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr and his followers)
that were fighting amongst themselves and against Umayyad control.

Al-Zubayr, was the more dangerous of the three as he had been named caliph in Mecca and other provinces were getting behind him.
Al-Malik bided his time for three years while they weakened themselves.
During this hiatus, al-Zubayr's brother Mus'ab defeated the Shi'a, in 687 which allowed them to commit a large force against the Kharijites.

Appointment of Al-Hajjaj:

Abd al-Malik then appointed one of his most able generals and administrators
who would later change the face of the Umayyad Empire,
al-Hajjaj bin Yousef to march against `Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr, the governor of Hejaz.

He first defeated the governor of Basra Mu'sab ibn al-Zubayr In Iraq,
He defeated the weakened army of Mus'ab by bribing many of his soldiers to switch sides and kill their leader.

He then turned his attention to the anticaliph, al-Zubayr.
He besieged Makkah in 692 with almost 12,000 Syrian troops.
He advanced unopposed as far as his native Taif, which he took without any fighting and used as a base.

The caliph had charged him first to negotiate with `Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr and to assure him of freedom from punishment if he capitulated,
but, if the opposition continued, to starve him out by siege, but on no account to let the affair result in bloodshed in the Mecca.
Since the negotiations failed and al-Hajjaj lost patience, he sent a courier to ask Abd al-Malik for reinforcements and also for permission to take Mecca by force.
He received both, and thereupon bombarded the Holy City using catapults from the mountain of Abu Qubays.
After the siege had lasted for seven months and 10,000 men, among them two of Abdullah Ibn al-Zubair's sons, had gone over to al-Hajjaj,
Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr with a few loyal followers, including his youngest son, were killed in the fighting around the Kaaba (Jumadah I 73/October 692).

Hajjaj's success led Abd al-Malik to assign him the role of governor of Iraq and give him free rein in the territories he controlled.

Hajjaj arrived when there were many deserters inBasra and Kufa.
He continually faced rebellions from the Kharijites, but was able to systematically put them down.
He promptly and forcefully impelled them to return to combat.
Hajjaj, after years of serious fighting, quelled religious disturbances,
including the rebellion launched by Salih ibn Musarrih and continued after Salih's death by Shabib.

These rebels repeatedly defeated more numerous forces and at their height entered Kufah.
However, Abd al-Malik's Syrian reinforcements enabled Hajjaj to turn the tide.

By 697, the Kharijites were no longer much of a problem.

Under Hajjaj, Arab armies put down the revolt of Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath in Iraq and Afghanistan from 699 to 704, and also took most of Turkestan.

Abd al-Rahman rebelled following Hajjaj's repeated orders to push further into the lands of Zundil.

After his defeat in Iraq, again achieved through Abd al-Malik's dispatch of Syrian reinforcements to Hajjaj, Abd ar Rahman returned east.
There one city closed its gates to him and in another he was seized.
However, Zundil's army arrived and secured his release.
Later, Abd ar Rahman died and Zundil sent his head to Hajjaj who sent it to Abd al-Malik.

These victories paved the way for greater expansions under Abd al-Malik's son Al-Marwan.
Hajjaj decided that the best way to rule Iraq was to treat them as enemy territory.

He built a new city, Wasit, which he used as a garrison city for his Syrian troops and also his private residence.


Campaigns in North Africa

Caliph Abd al-Malik was effective in increasing the size of the empire.
In Maghreb (western North Africa) in 686 a force led by Zuhayr ibn Qais won the Battle of Mamma overByzantines and Berbers led by Kusaila,
on the Qairawan plain, and re-took Ifriqiya and its capital Kairouan.

In 695, Hasan ibn al-Nu'man captured Carthage, with the help of the Berbers, and advanced into the Atlas Mountains.

A Byzantine fleet arrived, retook Carthage but in 698Hasan ibn al-Nu'man returned and defeated Tiberios III at the Battle of Carthage.

The Byzantines withdrew from all of Africa except Ceuta.
Hasan met trouble from the Zenata tribe of Berbers under al-Kahina.
They inflicted a serious defeat on him and drove him back to Barqa.

However, in 702, Abd al-Malik strongly reinforced him.
Now with a large army and the support of the settled population of North Africa, Hasan pushed forward.

He decisively defeated the Zenata in a battle at Tabarka, 85 miles west of Carthage.
He then developed the village of Tunis ten miles from the destroyed Carthage.

Around 705 Musa ibn Nusayr replaced Hasan.
He pacified much of North Africa, though he failed to take Ceuta.

Anatolia Policy

Taking advantage of internal disorder and civil war in muslim empire they thretened Islamic empire for some time Abdul malik paid one thousand Dinar to the Roman Empire
But In 692, al-Malik resumed fighting in Anatolia, and he captured border areas of Byzantine.

Reforms

Abd al-Malik consolidated Muslim rule and extended it,Abd al-Malik instituted many reforms such as:

1. Making Arabic the official language of government across the entire empire. As islamic empire had spread far and wide however the conquered areas were yet to adopt Arabic as the official language for official purposes. Thus it was Abdul malik who took measure for that and it promoted Unified Islamic culture and civilization.
he made it madatory medium of communication throught the Muslim Empire.

2.During his reign, all important records were translated into Arabic

3.Instituting a mint that produced a uniform set of Islamic currency which resulted in war with Byzantine Empire and defeat of the Romans

The Islamic currency was then made the only currency of exchange in the Muslim world.
Dinar:Gold Coins
Dirham:Silver Coins
Copper coins

4.Organized a regular postal service.Post was now carried on fast moving horses.It improved communication with center at Damascus

5.Many reforms in economy agriculture and commerce.


Art and architecture

He also built the Dome of the Rock and masjid ul Aqsa in Jerusalem.
He also built Grand mosque of Damascus.

Repairing the damaged Kaaba and beginning the tradition of weaving a silk cover for the Kaaba in Damascus.

He built a new city, Wasit, which he used as a garrison city for his Syrian troops in Iraq.

Dome of the Rock

When Abd al-Malik intended to construct the Dome of the Rock, he came from Damascus to Jerusalem.
He wrote, "Abd al-Malik intends to build a dome (qubba) over the Rock to house the Muslims from cold and heat, and to construct the masjid.
But before he starts he wants to know his subjects' opinion." With their approval, the deputies wrote back,
"May Allah permit the completion of this enterprise, and may He count the building of the dome and the masjid a good deed for Abd al-Malik and his predecessors.

" He then gathered craftsmen from all his dominions and asked them to provide him with the description and form of the planned dome before he engaged in its construction.

So, it was marked for him in the sahn of the masjid.

He then ordered the building of the treasury (bayt al-mal) to the east of the Rock, which is on the edge of the Rock, and filled it with money.
He then appointed Raja' ibn Hayweh and Yazid ibn Salam to supervise the construction and ordered them to spend generously on its construction.
He then returned to Damascus. When the two men satisfactorily completed the house, they wrote to Abd al-Malik to inform him that they had completed the construction of the dome and al-Masjid al-Aqsa.

They said to him "There is nothing in the building that leaves room for criticism."
They wrote him that a hundred thousand dinars was left from the budget he allocated.

He offered the money to them as a reward, but they declined, indicating that they had already been generously compensated.
Abd al-Malik ordered the gold coins to be melted and cast on the Dome's exterior, which at the time had such a strong glitter that no eye could look straight at it.
The two engineers Yazid ibn Salam, a Jerusalemite, and Raja' ibn Hayweh, from Baysan, were ordered to spend generously on the construction.
In his Book of the Geography,Al-Muqaddasi reported that seven times the revenue of Egypt was used to build the Dome.

During a discussion with his uncle on why the Caliph spent lavishly on building the mosques in Jerusalem and Damascus, al-Maqdisi writes:
O, my little son, thou hast no understanding.
Verily he was right, and he was prompted to a worthy work.
For he beheld Syria to be a country that had long been occupied by the Christians, and he noted there are beautiful churches still belonging to them,
so enchantingly fair, and so renowned for their splendour, as are theChurch of the Holy Sepulchre, and the churches of Lydda and Edessa.

So he sought to build for the Muslims a mosque that should be unique and a wonder to the world.
And in like manner is it not evident that Caliph Abd al-Malik, seeing the greatness of the martyrium of the Holy Sepulchre and its magnificence was moved lest
it should dazzle the minds of Muslims and hence erected above the Rock the dome which is now seen there.[7][8]

Death

The last years of his reign were generally peaceful. Abd al-Malik wanted his son al-Walid I to succeed him, ignoring his father's decree that Abd al-Malik should be succeeded by his brother, Abd al-Aziz. However, Abd al-Malik accepted advice not to create disturbances by carrying out this design. In the event, Abd al-Aziz died before Abd al-Malik. Abd al-Malik then had his sons Al-Walid and Sulayman, in that order, accepted as heirs to the throne. To history, Abd al-Malik is known as the "Father of Kings": his four sons succeeded him as the caliph one after another[9] though with Umar II, son of Abd al-Aziz succeeding Sulayman. Abd al-Malik died at al-Sinnabra in 705.
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Default Waleed bin abdul malik

WALEED BIN ABDUL MALIK

who ruled from 705 to his death in 715.

His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana, Sindh, Hispania and against the Byzantines.

Walid continued the expansion of the Islamic empire that was sparked by his father, and was an effective ruler.

His father Abd al-Malik had taken the oath of allegiance for Walid during his lifetime.
As such the succession of Walid was not contested.

Apex of Islamic power.

His reign was marked by endless successions of conquests east and west, and historians consider his reign as the apex of Islamic power.

CONQUESTS

Walid continued the Islamic conquests and took the early Islamic empire to its farthest extents.

Conquest of Spain 711
In 711, Muslim armies crossed the Strait of Gibraltar(Named After
Tariq Ibn Zayd) and began to conquer the Iberian Peninsula using North African Berber armies.

By 716, the Visigoths of Iberia had been defeated and Iberia was under Muslim control.

This would be the farthest extent of Islamic control of Europe (in 736, they were stopped in their expansion into Europe south of Tours, France).

Conquest of Sindh 712
Muhammad Bin Qasim a young commander defeated Raja Dahir in 712
In the east, Islamic armies made it as far as the Indus River in 712

under Walid, the Caliphate stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to India.

Central Asian Conquests
Qutayba ibn Muslim,
Khurasan's governor,
led forces extending the caliphate to the east.
Qutayba conquered
Bukhara in 709
Khwarizm in 712
Samarkand in 714,
advancing into Farghana and sending envoys to China.


Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf

He continued to play a crucial role in the organization and selection of military commanders in the East, serving as virtual viceroy there.

Like his father, Walid continued to allow Hajjaj free rein, and his trust in Hajjaj paid off with the successful conquests of Transoxiana and Sindh.

Musa ibn Nusayr and his retainer Tariq ibn Ziyad conquered Al-Andalus.

Hajjaj was responsible for picking the generals who led the successful eastern campaigns,

and was well known from his own successful campaign against Ibn Zubayr during the reign of Walid's father.

Others, such as Walid's brother Salamah, advanced against the Byzantines and into Adharbayjan.



Arabicization

It was also Walid that coupled Islamicization with Arabicization.

Conversion was not forced on conquered peoples; however, since non-believers had to pay an extra tax, many people did convert for religious and non-religious reasons.

This created several problems, particularly since Islam was so closely connected with being Arab.

Being Arab, of course, was more than an ethnic identity, it was a tribal identity based on kinship and descent.

As more and more Muslims were non-Arabs, the status of Arabs and their culture became threatened.

In particular, large numbers of Coptic-speaking (Egypt) and Persian-speaking Muslims threatened the primacy of the very language that Islam is based on.

In part to alleviate that threat, Walid instituted Arabic as the only official language of the empire.

He decreed that all administration was to be done only in Arabic.
It was this move that cemented the primacy of Arabic language and culture in the Islamic world.


Walid himself continued the effective rule that was characteristic of his father,

He developed a welfare system:

built hospitals, educational institutions and measures for the appreciation of art.


Religious Harmony

It was under the rule of Walid and his father Abd al-Malik
that Christians and Jews were granted the official title of "Peoples of the Book"
to underline the common monotheistic roots they shared with Islam.


Military Reforms
Walid paid great attention to the expansion of an organized military,
building the strongest navy in the Umayyad era,
it was this tactic that supported the ultimate expansion to Iberia.
His reign is considered as the apex of Islamic power.



PATRONAGE OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE

The long history of Islamic architecture really begins with Walid

In 691, Caliph Abd al-Malik ordered that the Dome of the Rock be built on the site where the Prophet Muhammad begun his journey to heaven (Meraj) on the Temple Mount.

About a decade afterward, Walid ordered the building of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Walid also began the first great building projects of Islam, the most famous of which is the mosque at Damascus.

This is also the period, however, in which Islamic court culture begins to germinate.
With the caliph as a patron, artists and writers begin to develop a new, partly secular culture based on Islamic ideas.

Walid himself was an enthusiast of architecture and he repaired and refurbished Masjid al Nabawi in Medina.

He also improved mountain passes and wells in Hijaz (al-Tabari).


CHARACTER

He was also known for his own personal piety,
and many stories tell of his continual reciting of the Qur'an and
the large feasts he hosted for those fasting during Ramadan.
Walid was succeeded by his brother Sulaiman and was buried in Bab al-Saghir cemetery in Damascus.
His grave is still present to this date.
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Default Omar bin Abdul Aziz

Omar bin Abdul Aziz

Omar bin Abdul Aziz, also known in history as Omar II, was the first revivalist Emir in Islamic history.

After Muawiya, the character of the Caliphate changed and dynastic rule was established.
The corruption of the Omayyads reached its crescendo with Karbala.
The Omayyads built lavish palaces, surrounded themselves with servants and maids, accumulated enormous estates,
treated the public treasury as their privy purse and lived like princes and kings.
There was no accountability for their wealth or for their actions.
The populace had no say in the affairs of the state.
The Caliph was not nominated nor could he be questioned.
The people were there merely to obey the strongman, pay taxes and serve in the armed forces.

Omar bin Abdul Aziz became the Emir by a coincidence of history.
When the Omayyad Emir Sulaiman (714-717) lay on his deathbed, he was advised that he could earn the pleasure of God by following the example of the early Caliphs and nominating someone besides one of his own sons as the next Emir.
He therefore dictated in his will that Omar bin Abdul Aziz, a distant cousin, was to succeed him and Omar bin Abdul Aziz was to be followed by Yazid bin Abdul Malik.

Omar bin Abdul Aziz was a man of polish and experience, having served as the governor of Egypt and Madina for more than twenty-two years.

He had been educated and trained by a well-known scholar of the age, Saleh bin Kaisan.
Before his accession to the Caliphate, Omar bin Abdul Aziz was a dashing young man, fond of fashion and fragrance.
But when he accepted the responsibilities of Caliphate, he proved to be the most pious, able, far-sighted and responsible of all the Omayyad Emirs.

Indeed, Omar bin Abdul Aziz set out to reform the entire political, social and cultural edifice of the community and to bring back the transcendental values that had governed the Islamic state in its infancy.

He started by setting a good example in his own person.
When news reached him of his nomination to the Caliphate, he addressed the people, “O people! The responsibilities of the Caliphate have been thrust upon me without my desire or your consent.
If you choose to select someone else as the Caliph, I will immediately step aside and will support your decision”. Such talk was a breath of fresh air to the public. They unanimously elected him.

Omar bin Abdul Aziz discarded his lavish life style and adopted an extremely ascetic life after the example of Abu Dhar Ghifari, a well-known companion of the Prophet.
Abu Dhar is known in history as one of the earliest mystics and Sufis in Islam who retired from public life in Madina during the period of Uthman (r) and lived in a hermitage some distance away from the capital. Omar bin

Abdul Aziz discarded all the pompous appendages of a princely life–servants, slaves, maids, horses, palaces, golden robes and landed estates–and returned them to the public treasury. His family and relatives were given the same orders.

The garden Fidak provides a good example.
This was a grove of palms owned by the Prophet.
The Prophet’s daughter Fatima (r) had asked for this garden as an inheritance but the Prophet had declined saying that what a Prophet owned belonged to the whole community.
Fatima(r) had pressed her claim before Abu Bakr (r) but Abu Bakr (r) had denied the request saying that he could not agree to something that the Prophet had not agreed to.
After the Caliphate of Ali (r), Fidak had been made a personal estate of the Omayyads.
Omar restored Fidak to the public treasury, as a trust for the whole community.

The Omayyads had no accountability to the treasury.
To support their lavish life styles, they collected enormous taxes from Persia and Egypt.
They compelled traders to sell them their merchandise at discount prices. The Emir’s appointees received gifts of gold and silver in return for favors.
Omar reversed the process.
Omar abolished such practices, punished corrupt officials and established strict accountability.

Some Omayyad officials, drunk with power, mistreated the conquered peoples.
Oftentimes, their property was confiscated without due process of law. Contrary to the injunctions of the Shariah, even though people in the new territories accepted Islam, they continued to be subject to Jizya.
Those who refused to pay the taxes were subject to harsh punishment.
Omar abolished these practices and ensured fairness in the collection of taxes.

Gone was the oppression of Hajjaj in Iraq and Qurrah bin Shareek in Egypt. The populace responded with enthusiastic support of the new Caliph. Production increased.
Ibn Kathir records that thanks to the reforms undertaken by Omar, the annual revenue from Persia alone increased from 28 million dirhams to 124 million dirhams.

Following the example of the Prophet, Omar bin Abdul Aziz sent out emissaries to China and Tibet, inviting their rulers to accept Islam.

It was during the time of Omar bin Abdul Aziz that Islam took roots and was accepted by a large segment of the population of Persia and Egypt.

When the officials complained that because of conversions, the jizya revenues of the state had experienced a steep decline, Omar wrote back saying that he had accepted the Caliphate to invite people to Islam and not to become a tax collector.

Omar bin Abdul Aziz was a scholar of the first rank and surrounded himself with great scholars like Muhammed bin Kaab and Maimun bin Mehran.
He offered stipends to teachers and encouraged education.
Through his personal example, he inculcated piety, steadfastness, business ethics and moral rectitude in the general population.

His reforms included strict abolition of drinking, forbidding public nudity, elimination of mixed bathrooms for men and women and fair dispensation of Zakat.

He undertook extensive public works in Persia, Khorasan and North Africa, including the construction of canals, roads, rest houses for travelers and medical dispensaries.

Omar bin Abdel Aziz was the first Caliph to commission a translation of the Qur’an from Arabic into another language.
Upon the request of the Raja (king) of Sindh (in modern day Pakistan), Omar bin Abdel Aziz had the Qur’an translated into the ancient Sindhi language and had it sent to the Raja (718 CE). To put this event into historical context, this was within ten years of the conquest of Sindh and Multan by Muhammed bin Qasim and the conquest of Spain by Tariq and Musa.

Omar bin Abdul Aziz was also the first Emir to attempt a serious reconciliation of political and religious differences among Muslims.

Since the time of Muawiya, it had become customary for khatibs to insult the name of Ali ibn Abu Talib (r) in Friday sermons.
Omar bin Abdul Aziz abolished this obnoxious practice and decreed instead that the following passage from the Qur’an be read instead:

“God commands you to practice justice, enjoins you to help and assist your kin and He forbids obscenity, evil or oppression, so that you may remember Him” (Qur’an, 16:90).
It is this passage that is still recited in Friday sermons the world over.

He treated Bani Hashim and the Shi’as with fairness and dignity.

He even extended his hand to the Kharijites.
According to Ibn Kathir, he wrote to the Kharijite leader Bostam, inviting him to an open discussion about the Caliphate of Uthman (r) and Ali (r).
He went so far as to stipulate that should Bostam convince him, Omar would willingly repent and change his ways.
Bostam sent two of his emissaries to the Caliph.
During the discussions, one of the emissaries accepted that Omar was right and gave up Kharijite extremism. The other went back unconvinced. Even so, the Caliph did not persecute the man.

Omar bin Abdul Aziz was the first Muslim ruler who moved his horizons from external conquests to internal revival.
He recalled his armies from the borders of France, India and the outskirts of Constantinople.

There were few internal uprisings and disturbances during his Caliphate. Islam had momentarily turned its horizons on its own soul, to reflect upon its historical condition and replenish its moral reservoir.

Faith flourished, as it had during the period of Omar ibn al Khattab (r). It is for these reasons that historians refer to Omar bin Abdul Aziz as Omar II and classify him as the fifth of the rightly guided Caliphs, after Abu Bakr (r), Omar (r), Uthman (r) and Ali (r).

But greed does not surrender its turf to faith without a battle.

The reforms of Omar II were too much for the disgruntled Omayyads and the rich merchants.
Omar II was poisoned and he died in the year 719, after a rule that lasted only two and a half years.
He was thirty-nine years old at the time of his death. And with him died the last chance for Omayyad rule.
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