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Old Wednesday, March 04, 2015
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Default Islamic History Part I Notes

World Civilizations At The Dawn of Islam

Byzantine Empire:
One of two empires ruling over Near and Middle East on eve of Islam.

Name: Byzantine Empire was Eastern Roman Empire.

In 324 Ad Constantine I tranfered the capital of Roman Empire from Nicomedia To the Greek Town of Byzantine.
He named the new Capital "New Rome" that latter called Constantinople.
Later Roman Emperor Theodosius divided empire in two sons in 345 AD so Empire got separate recognition.

Location: it consisted of Syria,Palestine, Egypt and a part of Europe

Capital: Constantinople
Byzantium was a Greek city on Bosporus
Constantine the Great made it the capital and later it was named as Constantinople after his name

Economic Conditions:
Geographically at crossroads of the east and west
It became a trading center ,also house industries.
It was an affluent city provided Christendom with innumerable products in gold,silk,perfumes,carpets,leather goods,textiles.

Social Conditions:
Greek official language
Colourful life
center of social and cultural activities .
It was known far and wide for for its places,gardens,fountains,stablesfilled with costly horses.
Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city in the middle ages.

Religious Life:
Theodosius (379-395 AD) made Christianity the official religion
Emperor was master of both political and religious affairs.
He claimed divine right to Rule.

Political Conditions:
It was absolute monarchy under the guise of the republican form of government.
Heraclius (610-641 AD) : called as creator of Medieval Byzantine
Syria and Egypt freed from Sassanian empire

Sassanid Empire:

Empire was founded by Ardashir I lasted from 224 AD to 651 AD.
Sassanian dynasty in 226 AD-
The battle of Hormuz laid foundation of Sassanian empire;

It Encompasses the present Iran,Afghanistan,Iraq,Syria,Armenia,Georgia,Centra l Asia,and Persian Gulf.

Ardshir:Present day Firouzabad in Iran:

Religious Conditions:
Zaroastrianism was the state religion.
Besides Zarostrianism Christianity was also recognized by Yezdgir .

Social Conditions:
Petty rulers,landlords constituted a privileged class.

Intellectual Conditions:
The Sassanid kings were enlightened patrons of lettere and philosophy.
Khusro I had translated works of Plato and Aristotle into Persian and read himself.
The Art flourished tremendously in Sassanid Empire and influenced Islamic Culture and Architecture in the years to come.

Political Conditions:
The Sassanid Empire was absolute Monarchu with the Shehnshah being absolute and ultimate ruler.

Decline and Downfall:
After a series of wars with the sassanids the muslims brought the downfall of the empire in the 651.Ad
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Default Arabs Before The Advent Of Islam(Jahiliya Period)

Arabs Before The Advent Of Islam(Jahiliya Period)

Political Conditions:
Absence of central government.
Tribal Wars on petty issues unending bloodshed, barbarism.
Nomadic Bedouins were land pirates.
They plundered their neighbours,caravans.
Political power depended solely on availability of man to kill or be killed.

Moral Conditions:
War,Women and Wine were the three absorbing passions of the Arabs.
Before Islam Arabs were indulged in all vices,drinking,debauchery,Robbery,murder,infantici de.
Polygamy and Polyandry were in vogue.
Prostitution was a recognized profession.
Women had no inheritance in property.

Social Conditions:
For them existed only tribe and family but no Arab nation.
No sense of Subordination.
Fabric of society had collapsed
Chaos,Disorder,violence was rampant.
Building a civilized and rule based society was regarded by them as hindrance to their freedom.
Slavery was permanent in Arab Society.
Slaves were treated most inhumanly.

Religious Conditions:
Indulged in Idolatory and nature worshiping.
No belief in one God and hereafter.
The house of Kaaba had become the house of Idols
It had 360 Idols

Economic Conditions:
Barren Soil and non navigable rivers and dry climate made cultivation of Arab impossible.
Poverty ridden Arabs used to infanticide.
Bedouins mainly reared flock and cattle.
Camel acted as ship of the desert.
In Trade Makkah was the great commercial center.
From here silk ,leather, corn,weapons were supplied.
Barter system was in vague.

Intellectual Conditions:
The Arabs Excelled the whole world especially in their poetry,memory power and eloquence.
They had wild love for their language Arabic.

Stage was set :the moment was psychological for the rise of a great religious and psychological leader.
The prophet came as a mercy towards the creatures and raised the Arabs from a fallen state to the highest pitch of glory.
Pk Hitti.
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Default Significance of Islam as a Revolutionary Force

Significance of Islam as a Revolutionary Force

Religious Reforms:
Shift from polytheism to monotheism.
Belief in One God,prophethood,Hereafter.

Social Reforms:
-women status was raised, given share in the property.
Shift from tribal to egalitarian society.
-gambling, drinking and all unethical practices were banned
-equality among all social classes.
Blood thirsty enemies became brothers.
Best example at Medina
-principles were being followed, as Prophet himself was the role model being truthful and honest
-social justice started prevailing
-polygamy and polyandry were reduced to a great extent

Political Reforms:
Islamic Political system based on equality,liberty,fraternity.
tribes no more remained the centre of political power
-merit was followed in every aspect of life.
-Central authority was formed at Medina.
Foundation of world Empire.
Charter of human rights was given in last sermon of Holy prophet.
First Constitution was given by holy prophet in Median:
-treaties were signed on equal footing

Economic Reforms:
Prophet introduced best economic system
-social disparity ended to a great extent
Inheritance laws were established.
-zakat, sadqat were implemented
-economic reforms by Prophet himself then by caliphs......

Encouragement of Muslims to the pursuit of knowledge
The first positive impact of Islam in the world can be seen in the encouragement of Muslims to the pursuit of knowledge,
as prophet Mohammed said, the best form of worship is the pursuit of knowledge.

Intellectual Reforms:
Islam brought a revolutionary change in the pre Islamic intellectual domains.
Islam Promoted learning and education.
Arabs who were lizard eaters became the most civilized people on the face of earth.
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Default Chronology of Events in the Life of Muhammad (P.B.U.H)

I will Post Chronology of life of prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) later in this thread
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Default The significance of hijrah


Hijrah was one of the most important events and turning point in the history of Islam.
It is for this reason `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) adopted Hijrah date to calculate years.
Muslims chose Hijrah as the focal point to reckon their chronology.

While the noble task of Dawah Ilallah was going on in the society of Makkah all around and the opposition was getting momentum in its wake day by day,
Rasulullah (S) started his human efforts to find out a headquarter for the Islamic Movement. This was the need of the time.

He was constantly in search of such a place.
Later on, after the death of Khadijah ® and Abu Talib, Rasulullah (S) himself traveled to Ta'if with his beloved companion Zaid bin Harith ®
in the tenth year of Prophethood with the same mission but could not succeed. He was treated roughly by the street monkers of Ta'if and was bleeding profusely.

However, Allah (SWT) prepared Madinah for Rasulullah (S) and his companions to migrate.
Madinah was inhabited by two Arab tribes, Aus and Khazraj and the three tribes of Jewish origin were situated at its outskirts.
The Arab used to hear form the Jews of Madinah that a Prophet is to come and when he comes, they will take revenge from others under his command.
On the eleventh year of Prophethood, some Arab brothers from Madinah came to Makkah for Hajj.
They heard about Prophethood of Rasulullah (S).
They realized that he (S) is the same Prophet of Allah about whom the Jews are in waiting, They meet Rasulullah (S) and entered into Islam.
They took the lead over Jews.
On return, Musa'b bin Umair ® accompanied them to Madinah to teach them about Islam and the Qur'an.
Through the magnificent Dawah efforts of Musa'b bin Umair, Madinah was conquered for Islam.
Next year 72 person came from Madinah.
They made a covenant with Rasulullah (S) and invited him to come to Madinah.
This was the Second Covenant of Aqabah.


No pattern of a collective life before
In the social aspect when the first revelation was made to Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)
a period of twelve (12) years was devoted by him to inculcate religion in the minds of individuals
while no pattern of a collective life based on true religious concepts could be presented to the world.

Islam considered personal affair
The status of the Muslim individuals in Makkah Mukarramah gave rise to the misconception
that Islam, or believing in, the Noble and in the prophet was one's personal affair;
it pertained only to the hereafter and had nothing to do with collective life.

Few Families were entirely Muslims
The situation in Makkah Mukarramah during the earlier part of the Prophet's (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) career was
that in a house-hold while the father was a believer, the son was an infidel,
or the wife a believer and the husband an infidel.
There were only a few houses where the.
It was only after Hijrah that people began to see clearly that Islam is a way of life

which pays attention to and reforms every facet of human existence,
giving directions regarding almost every moment of one's conscious time.
The Hijrah also made the Arabs in particular, to see as to what was a Muslim house-hold and a Muslim society.
Hence, only after this event the world could see the aspect of social decency and decorum under Islam.

Foundation of a Muslim State Political freedom

The third reason which made the Hijrah a very important event is the political freedom for the Muslims.
Before Hijrah the Muslims had no say in any matter, internal or external.
They were a minority against whom the hearts of the majority were full of enmity -
the Muslims were an insignificant part of a set of dominating unbelievers in Makkah Mukarramah.

Beginning of a new civilization, a culture and a history

In physical terms, Hijrah was a journey between two cities about 200 miles apart,
but in its grand significance it marked the beginning of an era, a civilization, a culture and a history for the whole mankind.
Islam progressed not only from the physical Hijrah, but because Muslims took Hijrah seriously in all its aspects and dimensions.

When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) made the Hijrah from Makkah to Madinah,
he did not just transfer his residence or took shelter in another city, but as soon as he arrived in Madinah
he began the transformation of that city in every aspect.

It is important for us to study and reflect on the things that he did in Madinah.
There are many lessons for us in that history and we can learn many things for our life.

Reforms Brought by Holy Prophet In Madina

1. Masjid (Mosque): The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) first established a Masjid for the worship of Allah.
He himself worked in carrying the stones and building that small, humble but most powerful structure.
This was the beginning, but soon other Masajid (mosques) were established in Madinah.

2. Madrasah (Islamic school and educational institution for the community):.
The first school under the supervision of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was the school of Suffah.
Later many other schools were opened. According to Maulana Shibli Numani,
there were nine schools opened in Madinah alone in the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).

3. Unity Formed: He established brotherly relations between the Muhajirun (Muslims who migrated from Makkah) and the Ansar (residents of Madinah who helped the Prophet and his Companions). Masjid andMadrasah were not enough; what was also important was to have good relations between Muslims.
They should have their brotherhood on the basis of faith, not on the basis of tribes as they used to have prior to Islam.

4. Intercommunity and Interfaith Relations: Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) also established good relations with other communities living in Madinah.
There was a large Jewish community as well as some other Arab tribes who had not accepted Islam.
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) prepared a Mithaq (a covenant or a constitution) for relations between these communities.

5. Cleaning the City: Yathrib (previous name of Madinah) was a dirty city.
When the Sahabah (Prophet's Companions) came from Makkah to Madinah, many of them got sick and did not like that city.
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked them to clean the city and remove its dirt and filth.
`Aishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: “We came to Madinah and it was the most polluted land of Allah.
The water there was most stinking. (Al-Bukhari, 1756)

6. Water System in the City: The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) asked the Sahabah to dig wells in different parts of the city.
It is mentioned that more than 50 wells were opened in the city of Madinah and there was enough clean water for every one.

7. Agriculture and Gardening: The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) encouraged the Sahabah to cultivate the land and make gardens.
He told them that any one who would cultivate any dead land, would own it.
Many people started working and cultivating and soon there was enough food for every one.

8. Poverty Eradication:
In a short period of time it happened that there were no poor people in Madinah.
Every one had enough and the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to give gifts to coming delegations.

9. Safety, Security, Law and Order:
Madinah became the safest city in the world.
There were very few incidents of theft, rape, drunkenness or murder and they were immediately taken care of.
In short, Hijrah teaches us that wherever Muslims go, they should bring goodness to that land.
Muslims should work for both moral and material goodness of the society.

Before Hijrah, it was all trial and tribulation and after Hijrah, Allah (SWT) shower His blessings on Muslims all around.
Muslims should observe the first of Muharram as a unique day of the Islamic History,
which opened the gates of success for the Ummah 1400 years ago.
So that is the reason it is called a turning point of Islam
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Default Charter of Madinah

Charter of Madinah

Throughout the history of the world, all countries and nations operated under certain laws promulgated by their founders/rulers. From the codes of Hammurabi to the constitutions of today, treaties have evolved significantly over centuries.

First written constitution In History

Many historians consider the English Magna Carta to be the first written constitution; however, according to the research of Dr. Muhammad Hamidullah, one of the most eminent Muslim researchers and scholars of the 20th century, the Charter of Madina (Mithaq-ul-Madina) was the first constitution written by mankind.

The Charter of Medina precedes the American constitution of 1787 and the English Magna Carta of 1215.

The Background Of the Charter of Madinah

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) delivered the message of Allah in Makkah for about 13 years in the face of staunch opposition.

In 622 A.D. he finally moved to Yathrib (Madinah) together with his followers after receiving an invitation from the Arab tribes of Yathrib.
At that time, Yathrib was a pluralistic society composed of people of different religions with a large population of Jews. These tribes were engaged in bitter quarrels and often went to war over disputes that had been going on for generations. There were 12 tribes of Arabs divided between Aws and Khazraj and ten Jewish tribes including Banu Nazeer, Banu Quraiza and Bani Qainuqa.

The continuous state of anarchy in Madinah eventually forced the residents to seek options for peace. They agreed to make a prominent tribal chief, Abdullah ibn Ubay bin Salool, their king so that peace and harmony could be achieved. Around this time, Prophet Muhammad (SAW) arrived in Madinah and the tide turned against Abdullah bin Ubay. Since the Prophet was viewed as a respectable, honest and trustworthy person, he was requested to head the soon to be city-state of Madinah.

Creation of the Charter

After assuming a central role in Madinah, the Prophet recognized a few pressing needs, which included:

•Determining the rights and responsibilities of the local population as well as the immigrants from Makkah

•Making agreements with the non-Muslim population of Madinah, especially the Jews, to ensure peace and harmony

•Creating a strategy and plan to defend the city against invasions

•Making resources available for the immigrants to make a living
The strong need to create a centralized government in Madinah to end the prevailing anarchy culminated in the creation of the Charter of Madinah.

The text of the charter has been preserved in its entirety by the scholars Ibn Ishaq and Abu Ubaid.

It is divided into two parts;

the first part deals with the rules and regulations for Muslim immigrants (Muhajiroon) and Muslim natives (Ansar) and the

second part deals with the rights and responsibilities of the Jews of Madinah.

This charter contains 47 clauses,
which laid the foundations of a sovereign nation-state comprising of Muslims, Jews and Pagans, having equal rights and responsibilities under a common citizenship.

Many historians believe that the charter was developed in two stages:

the first part was written before the battle of Badr and

the second part about relations with Jews, after Badr, when Muslims had gained a much stronger standing.

The salient features of this charter include:

•All parties included in the charter, i.e. Muslims, people of the book (Jews and Christians) and pagans, had freedom to practice their religion

•All citizens of the state had equal rights and responsibilities and were protected against excess and oppression

•A system of financial aid was developed within each tribe and between tribes.

Communal funds were set up which were used in times of financial need such as to pay ransom or blood-money

•In the event of a war or hostile attack from outsiders on one tribe, all tribes of Madinah (signatories of the charter) were required to come to the aid of the defending tribe

•In the event of a dispute among the signatories, Prophet Muhammad (SAW) was the final authority for settling the dispute

•The Quraysh of Makkah were to be boycotted commercially by all signatories and nobody was to extend any support to them

Significance of the Charter of Madinah

It is a landmark document, not only in Muslim history but also in the constitutional history of the world. This charter transformed all aspects of life in Madinah including political, religious and social life. Its biggest achievement was bringing belligerent tribes together to form a polity and establishing long term peace among them. It put an end to the prevailing anarchy and protected the life, liberty, property and religious freedom of all people included in the accord. It created a state where equal rights and responsibilities were truly provided for all citizens. The charter of Madinah replaced the traditional tribal kinship with a new social order and created a nation state with a new social fabric.

Dr. Hamidullah writes in his book, The First Written Constitution,

” … this new constitution … brought with it very important, and … to Arabia at least — very revolutionary change and improvement, by providing the people with a central public institution for seeking justice, in place of everyone seeking it with the power of his own hand or, at best, that of his family. This epoch-making innovation … brought an end for all times to the chaos of tribalism and which laid the basis for a wider institution, viz a State.”
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Treaty of Hudaibiya:
Prophet of Islam prefered Global Peace & Unity over conflict

QURAYSH had tried to destroy Islam but had failed.
The number of Muslims grew and their armies increased from three hundred at the battle of Badr, seven hundred at the battle of “Uhud, to three thousand at the battle of the Trench.After the annual fast of Ramadan, the Prophet (pbuh) had a dream which indicated that the Muslims should go to Mecca for the pilgrimage.

One thousand and four hundred Muslims got ready to go with him on the Lesser Pilgrimage called ‘the `Umra’.

They dressed in white and went unarmed to show Quraysh that they had come to make the pilgrimage and not to fight.

When Quraysh heard that the Prophet (pbuh) was on his way, they sent troops with Khalid ibn al-Walid to stop the Muslims from entering the city.
To avoid meeting this small army the Prophet (pbuh) changed his route and led the men through rugged mountain passes.
When they reached easier ground he told them, ‘Say, we ask Allah’s forgiveness and we repent towards Him ‘At Hudaybiyah, south of Mecca.
the Prophet’s camel knelt down and refused to go any further. T
he Muslims thought she was either stubborn or tired,

but the Prophet (pbuh) said:

‘The same power that once stopped the elephant from entering Mecca is now stopping us!’ He then ordered them to make camp, which they did, although they all hoped they would travel on to the sacred Ka’bah the following day.

Messengers were sent to Quraysh to tell them that the Muslims had come only for the pilgrimage, to worship Allah at the Holy Ka’bah, and that they wanted to enter the city peacefully.

But Quraysh took no notice.

Bait_E_ Radwan

Finally, the Prophet’s son-in-law, ‘Uthman ibn Affan, a wise and respected man, was chosen to go, and the Muslims settled down to wait and see what news he would bring back.
After they had waited a long time, the Muslims became very worried. At last they decided that he must have been killed.
A state similar to that of Revelation then came upon the Prophet (pbuh).
He gathered the Muslims around him under an acacia tree and asked them to swear their allegiance to him, which they did.
This pact, which is mentioned in the Koran, became known as the Bait_E_ Radwan (which means Paradise).

Shortly after, `Uthman ibn Affan returned and the Muslims were relieved to see that no harm had come to him.

Some Meccan warriors tried to attack the Muslim camp but were captured and brought before the Prophet (pbuh), who forgave them when they promise to stop attacking the Muslims.

Treaty Of Hudaibya

Soon after this, official messengers came from Quraysh and talks began for a peaceful settlement.
A man called Suhayl ibn ‘Amr was sent by the Meccans to work out a treaty.
When the Prophet (pbuh) asked ‘Ali to write ‘In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful’, on the top of the page, Suhayl objected, saying ‘Write only: bismik Allahumma (in Thy name, O Allah). I don’t know him as al-Rahman (the Most Gracious), al-Rahim (the most Merciful).’
The Prophet (pbuh) agreed and dictated: ‘This is a treaty between Muhammad the Messenger of Allah and Suhayl ibn ‘Amr.’ ‘Stop!’ cried Suhayl, ‘I don’t believe that you are Rasulallah (the Messenger of Allah). If I thought you were Allah’s Messenger, I wouldn’t be fighting against you, would I?’
Calmly, the Prophet (pbuh) agreed that he should be referred to in the treaty as Muhammad’, son of ‘Abd Allah. The Muslims were very upset at this, and ‘Umar furiously cried out, ‘Are you not Allah’s Messenger, and are we not Muslims? How can we accept such treatment when we are right and they are wrong? This will make people laugh at our religion!’
But the Prophet (pbuh) knew what was best and the Treaty of Hudaybiyah was signed.

Terms Of Treaty

1. In this treaty the two sides agreed to stop fighting for a period of ten years.
2. It was also agreed that the Muslims should go back to Medina immediately but that they could return the following year for the pilgrimage.
3. This pilgrimage would last three days.
4. In addition, the treaty allowed Muslims wishing to leave Islam and return to Mecca to do so.
5. It also permitted Meccans to leave and become Muslims provided they had the permission of their guardians.
6. The Muslims agreed to send any Meccan who did not have their guardian’s permission back to Mecca.
The majority of the Muslims were very disappointed when they heard the terms of the agreement and thought that it should not have been accepted.
They did not realize that this was in fact a great victory for the Prophet (pbuh), which Allah would later confirm in a Revelation.

Importance Of The Treaty

The agreement made sure that the following year they would enter Mecca peacefully, and in time would result in Muslims becoming stronger and more respected throughout Arabia.

At the time the treaty was signed the Muslims could not have foreseen that the number of people who would travel to Medina to become Muslims in following year would be greater than in all the years before.

Before the Muslims departed, they followed the Prophet’s example of making sacrifice and either shaving or cutting their hair.

Even though they were unable to visit the sacred mosque, their pilgrimage was accepted by Allah because it had been their true intention.

On the return journey to Medina, the ‘Victory’ chapter of the Koran was revealed to the Prophet (pbuh).

It begins:
In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
Surely We have given thee (O Muhammad) a clear victory,
That Allah may forgive thee of thy sin
That which is past and that which is to come,
And may complete His blessings upon thee,
And may guide thee on the right path,
And that Allah may help thee with mighty help.
(Koran xlviii.1-3)

Now most of those who left Mecca to join the Prophet (pbuh) without the consent of their guardians and were turned back by him as agreed, Did not in fact return to Mecca, but lived instead in groups along the seashore.Then they were joined by others who had left Mecca but these groups began to endanger Quraysh caravans which were passing by and disrupted their trade because of this, Quraysh told the Prophet (pbuh) that if he wanted to take these new Muslims, they would not ask for them to be returned.
The young men, therefore, joined the Prophet (pbuh) and the people in Mecca and Medina grew more at ease with one another.

The young men from the seashore were shortly followed by those Muslims who were still living in Abyssinia, and soon the numbers of believers in Medina had doubled.

About this time, Khalid ibn al-Walid, the great warrior who had defeated the Muslims at Uhud, set out from Mecca for Medina.

Along the way he met ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, the clever speaker who had pursued the Muslims when they fled to Abyssinia.
‘Amr, who had attempted to find asylum in Abyssinia, had just returned from that country, the Negus having urged him to enter Islam.
He asked Khalid, ‘Where are you going?’ Khalid replied, ‘The way has become clear.

The man is certainly a Prophet, and by Allah, I am going to become a Muslim.

How much longer should I delay?’ ‘Amr ibn al-As answered, ‘I am travelling for the same reason.

So they both traveled on to Medina to join the Prophet (pbuh).
The two men were, however, worried about meeting the Prophet (pbuh) because of having fought against the Muslims in the past.

Therefore, ‘Amr came before Allah’s Messenger he said, ‘O Prophet, will my past faults be forgiven and no mention made of what has gone before?’
The Prophet (pbuh) replied ‘Amr, Islam wipes away everything that happened before, as does the hijrah.’

A year after the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, the Prophet (pbuh) was able to lead two thousand pilgrims on the ‘Umra.

Quraysh vacated Mecca and watched the rites from the hills above the city.
The agreed period of three days was observed, after which the Muslims returned to Medina.
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Default The conquest of makkah



The truce of Hudaybiyah was broken by the Quraish when they sided with the tribe of Banu Bakr (with whom they had a pact to help one another),they attacked the tribe of Khuza'a who were the allies of the Muslims.

Three offers were given to Quraish:

Pay Blood money of the murdered
Quraish withdraw their support for Banu Bakar
It be announced that the treaty of Hudaibya has fallen apart.

Quraish went for third option but then regretted .

Abu Soofyaan ibn Harb realized this and did his best to revive the treaty,
but the Muslims had already realized that the kuffar were not to be trusted,and the treaty was never revived.
This was a victory for the Muslims.


On hearing the news that the kuffar had broken the truce Rasulullah prepared to leave for Makkah..

It was the 10th day of Ramadaan in the year 8 Hijri that an army of 10,000 Muslims marched towards Makkah.

The Muslims encamped at Mar-ur-Zahraan, a place a few kilometers from Makkah.
When the shepherds of Makkah returned in the evening they reported to the Makkans
that a huge army was encamped outside Makkah at Mar-uz-Zahraan.
Abu Soofyaan ibn Harb went to investigate .

During his investigation he met Hazrat Abbas (R.A.), the uncle of Rasulullah
who convinced Abu Soofyaan ibn Harb to have an audience with Rasulullah .

Abu Soofyaan ibn Harb the arch-enemy of Islaam who had instigated so many battles against the Muslims was now in the tent of the Prophet .
Rasulullah our Nabi offered him protection from any harm.

The Muslim army triumphantly entered Makkah without any bloodshed and the kuffar surrendered without an attempt to resist.

The city of Makkah was now at the mercy of Rasulullah and the Muslims.
Everybody was present in the courtyard of the Haram (sanctuary of the Ka'ba).
The enemies of Rasulullah and Islaam were helpless.

Rasulullah asked them: 'What do you expect at my hands?'.

The voices of their hearts rang out: 'Kindness and pity, gracious brother, gracious nephew'.

'Have no fear this day, May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy'.
Hinda, the wife of Abu Soofyaan ibn Harb, who had mutilated the body of Hazrat Hamza (R.A.)
came in the presence of Rasulullah covered in a veil. She accepted Islam.

Rasulullah purified the sacred House of Allah (Ka'ba) removing all its 360 idols and stones, reciting

Rasulullah also proclaimed that : 'sale of intoxicants and usury (Interest) is declared as Haraam'.

Effects of the Conquest:

Triumph of truth over falsehood
"Truth has come and Falsehood vanished and no more shall falsehood return" (Sahih al-Bukhari.)
The sanctuary of the Ka'ba contained such idols as Hubal, Latt and Manaat.
They saw their downfall for they were nothing but pieces of stones.
Now every nook and corner of Makkah witnessed and resounded with the call of Tauheed.
Beginning of new era in the preaching of Islam.
The day of rebirth of Humanity.
Establishment of new power in the world

It was indeed a unique conquest for Islam and triumph of Rasulullah 's unshakable faith in his sacred cause.
Witness our beloved Nabi now seated on mount Safa delivering his sermon to the multitude of people,
contrast this with his flight (Hijrat), stay in the Cave of Thoor and receiving wounds in the battles.
Now his faith in 'SURELY ALLAH IS WITH US' is the secret of his success in life and mission.

Rasulullah had left Madinah for Makkah with the Muslim Army on Wednesday 10th Ramadhaan 8 A.H. and
entered Makkah on the 20th of Ramadhaan and on that very day Makkah was conquered.
He remained in Makkah for about 10-15 days and thereafter returned to Madinah Tayibah.
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Default The last Sermon of the Holy prophet (P.B.U.H)

The Sermon of The Holy Prophet on His Final Pilgrimage to Ka'aba


The farewell Pilgrimage of the Holy Prophet may rightly be called the culminating point in his Prophetic career.

It was the sixty-third year of the Prophet’s life
the 10th of Hijra that he decided to perform Hajj,
which in history, goes by the name of Hajja-tul-Wada.

The Prophet’s mission, had, by this time, been completed to all intents and purposes. To a people steeped in ignorance, he gave light and inspired them with belief in

Five days before Dhu-al-hijjah, the Holy Prophet put on Ahram,
and set out to Makkah with more than 114,000 Muslims.

The Holy Prophet reached Makkah on the 5th of Dhu-al-Hijjah.

He Performed hajj Rituals:

on the 9th, after the Fajr, morning prayer, He reached to Plains of Arafat where he delivered the famous sermon which we have the honour to present below.


O’ People! Listen to my words, for I do not know whether we shall ever
meet again and perform Hajj after this year.
Allah, the sole Creator, Master and Sustainer of the Universe.


O’ Ye people! Allah says, O’
people We created you from one male and one female and made you into
tribes and nations, so as to be known to one another.
Verily in the sight of Allah, the most honoured amongst you is the one who is most God-fearing.
There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab and for a
non-Arab over an Arab, nor for the white over the black nor for the black
over the white except in God-conciousness.
All mankind is the progeny of Adam and Adam was fashioned out of clay.

Rights Of Wives:
O’ people! Verily you have got certain rights over your women and your
women have certain rights over you. Treat the women kindly Fear Allah concerning women, for verily you have taken them on the security of Allah and have made their persons lawful unto you by words of Allah.

Prohibiting Exploitation:
Nothing of his brother is lawful for a Muslim except what he himself gives
willingly. So do not wrong yourselves.

O’ People! Every Muslim is the brother of every other Muslim, and all the
Muslims form one brotherhood. It establishes brotherhood among Muslims irrespective of the divergence of their geographical, racial and colour backgrounds and provides an outline of a social order, perfectly free from oppression and injustice.

Rights of Slaves
you feed them with such food as you eat yourselves,
and clothe them with the clothes that you yourselves wear.
All debts must be repaid,
all borrowed property must be returned.

Everyone is responsible for his own Deeds:
Beware! No one committing a crime is responsible for it but himself.
Neither the child is responsible for the crime of his father, nor the
father is responsible for the crime of his child.
Verily, the satan is disappointed at ever being worshipped in this land of
yours, so beware of him in your matters of religion.

Islam Perfected:
This day I have perfected for you your faith and completed my blessings upon you and have accepted for you Islam as Religion.(”Al-Quran)
O’ people! No Prophet would be raised after me and no new Ummah (would be formed) after you.

Verily I have left amongst you that which will never lead you astray, the
Book of Allah, which if you hold fast you shall never go astray.
And beware of transgressing the limits set in the matters of religion, for
it is transgression of (the proper bounds of) religion that brought
destruction to many people before you.

Behold! Worship your Lord;
offer prayers five times a day;
observe fast in the month of Ramadhaan;
pay readily the Zakat (poor due) on your property;
and perform pilgrimage to the House of God and
obey your rulers and you will be admitted to the Paradise of your Lord.

Let him that is present, convey it unto him who is absent, for many people
to whom the message is conveyed may be more mindful of it than the

And if you were asked about me, what would you say?"

They answered, "We bear witness that you have conveyed the trust (of
religion) and discharged your ministry of Prophethood and looked to our

Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) lifted his forefinger towards the sky and then pointing towards people said:
"O’ Lord: Bear Thou witness unto it.


The sermon of the Holy Prophet is not only remarkable for its eloquence,
but it contains a sublime message for the whole of the human race.

It was a declaration of Human Rights and moral values, a charter of Women Rights.

The world has not been able to lay down better principles of ethics and morality than those enunciated in it.

Every word of it breathes a spirit of magnanimity and aims at establishing righteousness and fair dealing among men on a workable basis.

It was the declaration of Finality of Syedna Muhammad's Prophethood, the religion was being perfected by this Final Message from The Creator to his creatures for all times to come.

To a disunited mass, engaged in perpetual warfare, he gave unity of thought and action.

He had revealed the love of God and His will to mankind and had given it a visible expression by founding a society on the basis of righteousness, piety and God-consciousness, the like of which is not to be found in the whole history of mankind.

In short, Syedna Muhammad had delivered to human race the final Truth with all its necessary implications.

The completion of His prophetic mission implied His departure from this earthly home to the heavenly abode.

The Holy Prophet had clearly visualised it.
He, therefore, decided to give the finishing touch to his massive work and imprint its salient points on the minds of his devoted followers so that they might always keep before them the system of life-values enunciated by Islam.

It was with this object in view that messages were sent to all parts of Arabia inviting people to join him in this great Pilgrimage.
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Well done dear, but try to write "critical analysis" your own view in the end of every topic. It will give you good score if you do so. Thank you so much!
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