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Old Thursday, January 15, 2015
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A brief discussion

Forest Ecology:
Forest ecology is the science of how organisms interact with each other, interact with the environment of a forest ecosystem.

It consists of following two branches.

1: Tree Ecology or Forest Autecology
2: Forest Synecology


1: Tree Ecology or Forest Autecology: It refers to the study of relationships that exist between an individual forest tree and environmental factors or the study of response of a tree to environmental stresses.

It generally includes discussion on following two topics i.e; environmental factors and adaptations.

1: Environmental Factors: Like other living organisms trees are alos influenced by environmental factors. These factors are too numerous to be counted. Each one of these factors have three levels. Minimum level is one below which trees can not survive and maximum level is one above which trees cannot survive. Optimum level is ideal and at this level trees growth is maximum. The importance of these factors keeps vary. It depends on tree species, their age or growth stage and the season of the year etc.
These factors are grouped into following five classes:-

(1) Climatic Factors (light, temperature, humidity and precipitation etc.)
(2) Edaphic factors (soil, texture, structure drainage and available nutrients.
(3) Physiographic Factors( Slope, aspect, altitude, latitude etc.)
(4) Biotic Factors (trees, crops, insects, livestock, man, etc.)
(5) Pyric Factors (wild fire, controlled burning)
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2: Adaptations:[COLOR="Black"] Living organisms gradually modify themselves and re-adjust in response to changing environment. This process of gradual re-adjustment in response to changing environment is called evolution.[/COLOR]It is based on repeated arrangement of existing genes and sudden alterations in genes at the time of sexual reproduction as well as on natural selection. The end result of evolution is expressed in suitable adaptations. These adaptations are
1: Morphological adaptations
2: Physiological adaptations
3: Behavioral adaptations


Some examples of these adaptations are as follows.
Morphological Adaptations:
(1) Extra ordinary thick bark of chilpine stem which protects it from fires
(2) Thrones on the branches of kikar which protects its branches from browsing.
(3) Absence of green leaves in karir and in Farash which reduce loss of plant water through transpiration. Green slender branches function as leaves.

Physiological Adaptation:
(1) Remarkable drought tolerance of Jhand , Van etc
(2) Tolerance of excessive salt by salt bushes Sufaida, Farash etc.
(3) Production of toxic chemicals by roots of Walnut which weaken and ultimately kill the roots of neighbouring plants.


Behavioural Adaptations:

(1) Folding of leaves of Siris at night to furthur cut down transpiratory losses.
(2) Mass flowing of bamboos only after every 15-20 years whenever conditions are optimum.
(3) Coppicing capability of Toot, Sufaida and Shisham which allows them quick recovery against a fatal mechanical injury or browsing or fire.
(4) Shade tolerance of toot which allows it self to grow under the high shade of Shisham.
(5) Bird migration is also a behavioral adaptation.
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Synecology

It includes 13 topics

1: distribution
2: Density
3: age or Size Distribution or Sex Ratio
4: Diversity
5: Succession
6: Competition
7: Mutual Cooperation
8: Population/ Community Growth Rate
9: Survival
10: Organization
11: Food Chain
12: Nutrient Cycling Or Biogeochemical Cycling
13: Forest Ecosystem
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MorningLark View Post
Yes I am ready for combined studies from tomorrow on wards.

Following are topics.

1: Ecology & General Silviculture
2: Forest Statics , Mensuration , Research Method
3: Forest Management & Economics
4: Water Shed Management
5: Range Management
6: Forest Surveying and Engineering
7: Forest Policy, Law And Protection
8: Forest Biology, Wildlife and Natural Parks


Today Lets prepare Forest Ecology
Salam bro,

Thank you! Are these topics enough for preparation? I've just started preparing from the book written by Masood A. A. Qureshi
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Old Thursday, February 19, 2015
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I found a.a qureshi as have too much info not needed
Wat you people say?

Sent from my Nokia_XL
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Old Sunday, February 22, 2015
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sabeera View Post
I found a.a qureshi as have too much info not needed
Wat you people say?

Sent from my Nokia_XL
just check the past papers.
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