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Old Sunday, April 17, 2011
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Default History of English literature

The english Romantic movement was the movement in literature toward the end of 18 century and continued till thirties of 19 century.It can be roughly dated from 1780 and intended round about 1830.Politically,the earlier groups(words worth,coleridge and Scott)were opponents of French revolution(1st generation of poets).They expressed their sympathetic interests in a national idealism,peasants.The second group/generation of Romantic poets(byron,shelley and keats) breathe a spirit of moral revolt;they refuse to recognise any tradition.

Art is the creation of beauty.Romantic poets had yeering for eternal beauty,passing fo strange ,mysterious and uncommon.classical art on the otherhand create beauty which is orderly marked by sense of balance.

Elements and themes;

1.escapism.
2.past memories/nostalgia.
3.love for nature,beauty.
4.super natural elements/meta physics.
5.persuits for truth and beauty.
6.love for rural life.
7.medievalism.
8.Transiency vs eternity.

These are the major themes that help in critical appreciation.

Poetry with regard to its division of generation was initiated by william wordsworth and his friend sameul Talyor coleridge.Both became friends in late 90s of 19th century.coleridge contributed and collaborated with wordsworth in "Lyrical ballads".both of these have passing for nature,autobiographical memories and nostalgia of past and love of childhood.wordsworth recovers the memory of vital moment in his childhood,

FAIR SEED TIME HAD MY SOUL,AND I GREW UP.

FOSTERED ALIKE BY BEAUTY AND BY FEAR;

Returning to recollections of his own childhood,and his hatred to urbanization,industrialization can be seen in these lines.

THESE BEAUTOUS FORMS

THROUGH A LONG ABSENCE HAVE NOT BEEN TO ME,

AS A LANDSCAPE TO BLIND MAN'S EYE;

BUT OFT IN LONELY ROOMS,AND MID THE DIN,...

Viewing the vast landscape of imagination one must find "territory of memory",dream,of stranged birds ,phantom ships,Arctic seas,caverns..."The Ancient Mariner",is alike a Arabian tale where all moves in weird and unexpected sequence.The story revolved round shooting of Albatross and weird way in which the bird avenged.

DAY AFTER DAY,DAY AFTER DAY,
WE STUCK,NOR BROTH,NOR MOTION.
AS IDLE PAINTED SHIP
UPON A PAINTED OCEAN.

The stress on " day, nor" stressing the lametation and moaning.That termed as pecifism and pessimism.When dogmas undauntedly refuted,than man have to suffer via nature and forms.The supernatural elements in "kubla khan","christabel" vivify the imagination with its touch of Hallucination.The above quote represent the coleridge poetic philosophy.

The second generation of poets was followed by Keats,shelley and lord Byron.keats the flower of this age stands near to skakespeare as being proximal to "shakespearen blending of objectivity and imagination"Keats could have attained shakespearen hieghts if he survived after 22.The so young but mature in his work have also inspired by Edmund spenser.

HEARD MELODIES ARE SWEET,BUT THOSE UNHEARD

ARE SWEETER;THEREFORE YE SOFT PIPES,PLAY ON:

NOT TO THE SENSUAL EAR ,BUT MOER ENDEARED,
PIPE TO THE SPIRIT DITTIES OF NONE.
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Default Renaissance age.

Queen Elizabeth was the last reminiscence of Tudor dynasty.To settle the score of illegitimate-being he liberalised the religion and sided rising rebellions by protestants.

Main features.

1.movable type printing press.
2. Nicholas copenicus-solar theory(founder of solar system.
3.Jhon-dee and "deism".
4.invention of telescope.
5.sir Francis Darke-circumnavigation of globe.

Themes.
1.virginity.as a theme(queen remain virgin)
2.witch-craft and superstitions.
3.translation of greeks.
4.ambition and yeering for nacromancy.
6.black death.
7.danger from ottomans.
8.Humanism.


Age of drama.

Shakespearen plays types.
1.history plays.
2.comic plays.
3.tragedies.

Famous for his tragedies...

Eloboration of themes in shakespearen plays.

WHAT A PIECE OF WORK IS A MAN,
HOW NOBLE IN REASÖN,
HOW INFINITE IN FACULTIES,
IN FORM AND MOVING HOW
EXPRESS........
The BEAUTY OF WORLD,THE PARAGON OF ANIMALS..."

The theme here is an expressiön of Humanism and qualities as human being.shakespeare optimising the man faculties.In some plays he have showed pessimism and in some optimism.like wise he was quitessential in objectivity and some plays were exuberance of his subjectiviy.so there in his character dilemma is an expression.christopher Marlowe was an other dominant feature.He clearly vivified his autobiography in his plays.The renaissance was the blend of classicsm and Romanticism.
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Default Post colonial literature

post colonial literature

"post modernism is a cultural ,technological and sociological ressistance/movement against modernity."

characteristics of literature.

1.post world war scenerio.
2.reaction against Enlightenment.
3.distinction between high and low culture.
4.subjectivism.
5..colonial reaction.
6.Diaspora.
7.identity crisis
8.migration pull.
9.sexism.
10.Reaction against Marxism.
11.linguistic ingenuity.


major authors and writers.

Pakistani writer:
1. ahmed Ali.
2.attia hussain.
3.Zulfikar Ghose.
4.hanif kureishi.
5.sara suleri.
6.Adam zameenzad
7.Tariq Ali.
8.Muneeza shamsie.
9.kamila shamsie.
10.mohsin hamid.
11.Tariq naqvi.
12.bina shah.
13.Alamgir hashmi.
14. ameer hussain.
15.Nadeem Aslam.
16.sorraya .y.khan.
17.uzma aslam khan.
18.muhammad hanif.

Indian(famous)
Arudhth roy.

Budhist.
bepsi sidwa

english.
fanön.

Egyptian.
Edward said.

African.
Tonni morrison.

Major themes of age.

1.irony,playfulness,black humour.
2.intertextuality

the term coined by julia kristeva to designate the various relationships that a given text may have with other text.
1.anagram
2.allusion.
3.adaptatiön.
4.translation.
5.parody.
6.Pastiche.
7.imitation.

Theories of strucuralism and post structuralism that refer to other texts(or to themselves as texts)rather than to external reality.some critics are of opinion that the ubiquity of term "intertextuality"in post modern criticism has crowded out terms and nuances.Irwin laments that intertextuality has eclipsed allusiön,as an object of literary study while the latter term's clear definition.Linda hutcheon argues that excessive interest in intertextuality obscure the role of the author,because intertextuality can be found "in the eye of the beholder"aod does not necessarily entail a communicator's intentions.

Pastiche.

A literary work composed from elements borrowed either from various other writers or form of particular author.the term can be used in a derogatory sense to indicate lack of originality,or more neutrally to refer to work that involve a deliberate and playfully imitative tribute to othe writers.it differs from parody in using imitation as a form of flattery rather than mockery,and from plagiarism in its lack of deceptive intent.

METAFICTION.

It fiction about fiction;or more especially a kind of fiction that openly comments ön its own fictional status.in a weak sense,many modern novels about novelists having problems writing their novels.the go beyond occasional apologeitc addresses to the reader.it often undermine the authority of the author ,for unexpected narrative shifts,to advance story in a unique way,for emotional distancd,or to comment on act of story telling.

STERNE"TRISTAM SHANDY".

Poioumena.
It is a term coined by Alastair Fowler to a specific type of meta fictiö in which story is about process of creation.It include"central metaphor" for this process

TEMPORAL DISTORTION.

The term in modern narrative refer fragmentation and nön linear narratives are central features in both modern and post modern literature.It is a fiction for irony sake.

Magic Realism.
Latin American literary movement that arose in the 1960s,the term has been attributed to cuban writer"Alejo cargentier".it is ammalgamation of realist portrayals of myths,creating a rich ,frequently disquieting world that is at once familiar and dream like.

TECHNOCULTURE AND HYPERREALITY;
technoculture was popularized bye editors constance Penley and Andrew Ross.it refers to the interactions between,and politics of,technology and culture.Hyperreality means the way consciousneess defines what is actulay real in a world where a multitude of media can radically shape and filter an original event or experience."late capitalism"implies that society has moved past the industrial age and into informatiö age.

PARANOIA;
this term excessively used in post modern/cultural literature.;the belief that there's an ordering system behind the chaos of the world.

MAXIMALISM.
The term used to encompass all factors under a multi-purpose umbrella term like expressionism.This is also called hysterical realism

MINIMALISM;
focussed on surface descriptions where readers are expected to take an active role in the creation of a story.it is opp. To maximalism.these authors hesitatd to use adverbs,adjectives and meaningless details.
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Hey, I've done my masters in English Literature and the paper seems too easy to me.... but the thing which does not let me opt this subject is the well known rumor that this subject does not give good marks as compare to other subjects... Have anyone any idea what are the maximums of this subject???? please...
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Originally Posted by Kashif Abbas Hashmi View Post
Hey, I've done my masters in English Literature and the paper seems too easy to me.... but the thing which does not let me opt this subject is the well known rumor that this subject does not give good marks as compare to other subjects... Have anyone any idea what are the maximums of this subject???? please...
Kashif Sb. indeed this has been a widely discussed issue while we consider English Literature as a possible option. I think, on this forum there are a number of threads dedicated to this discussion and you may find more than sufficient opinions that would help make your mind.

My personal experience: I opted English Literature in 2010 and with Not-So-Much-Satisfactory preparation I managed to pass it and got 118 marks, encouraging me to opt it again in 2011, which I did gladly.

Regards
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Kashif Abbas Hashmi View Post
Hey, I've done my masters in English Literature and the paper seems too easy to me.... but the thing which does not let me opt this subject is the well known rumor that this subject does not give good marks as compare to other subjects... Have anyone any idea what are the maximums of this subject???? please...
to think low scoring and high is not accepted.if u are perfect than why not you 'll be able to get marks.i myself topped in part 1st and over all tenth position in my master.i did it in 2010.and its up to you.it suited me according to my requirement.
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Default post colonialism and Edward said.

Definition:
"writing of people culturally affected by imperialism and colonialism"

themes:
1.orients vs occidents.
2.white ethoncentrism/Racism
3.agressor vs agressee.


Models:
1.National/regional models.
---indigenous culture vs foreign---
2.Racial/ethnic models.
---diaspora,migration,identity crisis---
3.comparitive model.
---language impact and language change,national allegory---
4.hybridity /syncreticity model.
---first/third world way,master/slave,centre/periphery,colonizer/colonized,civilization/savagery.
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EDWARD SAID

said was born November 1,1935 jerusalem in what then palestine.He was an influential,often polemical cultural critic and public intellectual who frequently wrote about the Arab-israel conflict in the Middle East and actively national rights.the most celebrated amöng his works are "Cultural and imperialism " and orientalism " .

Chunks from history.

1. victorian age and colonialism.
--age in which "The sun never sets on the British Empire"
--mutiny.
--writers, Rider haggard,Rudyard kipling and joseph conard.
--chralotte Bronte,charles dickens,George eliot,domestic writers.
--childhood nostalgia,autobiography,social evil--main themes.
--william makepeace theckery -vanity fair,encompasses colonial Raj in india.

LITERARY INTERPRETATION,SAID AND POST COLONIAL LITERATURE.

1.the subjective response of writer toward imperialism and vehemancy of criticism by critics regarding subjectivity of literature.

2.pessimistic and negative interpretations.

3.exposure of hegemonic tendencies in literauure.
But said's view literature should be humanistic.

4.SAID's portrayal of west perception throught the prism of jane Austen and Kipling writing.On the othe side the interpretation of Asian writers Mulk raj Anand,Manohar Malgonkar ,tagore and Bharti.

CULTURE AND ITS VARIOUS IMPLICATIONS.

Culture,in anthropology,the patterns of behavior and thinking that people living in social groups learn,create and share.

1.phsycial characteristics of man make culture.
2.symbols as identity.
3.creativity.
4.inheritance.
5.language.,flag,dress,style,norms,folkways,mores.
6.Innate capacity of cultural acquisition.this is called cultural transmission.
7.Enculturation is a long process. As learning the intricacies of human language.
8.culture is shared.
9.Ethnocentrism and cultural Relativism.
--unshared culture leads to confusion and cultural shock.
And sharing of culture is called Ethnocentrism.Example,Nazi massacre of jews in 1940s.
--global culture and cultural shocks are due to cross-culture.

Social culture consist of,
1.Family
2.leadership.
3.ideology.
4.secularism or cultural shocks.

History of culture ,
it starts from The accounts of Greek Historian Herodotus who lived in the 400s bc.he travelled through persian empire,Asia and Africa.
--Muslim culture.
--Europeon culture.

Latest trends.
--ecology and economy
--culture materialism.
Two ways of culture interpertation.
---Emic,that conceived by natives.
---etic,concieved by foreign.
--"said " interpretated both types in literaure.

IMPERIALISM.
"The might' tendencies to control and maintain weak or inferior"
History...
1.Alaxander the great,
2.Roman empire.
3.Tamiurlaine.
4.european imperialism.
5.economic imperialism by IMF,WTO,WB.

MOTIVES BEHIND IMPERIALISM.
1.Karl Marx, conflict or clash of civilization.
2.hegemony.
3.security,power,prestige.

"Effects".
--exploitation,
--povety,
--social abuses.
--collaspe of organisations.
--cultural shock.
--diaspora.
ISLAMIC LAW AND WESTERN IMPERIALISM.0
--Imagined religious fanaticism/free world.
--independence movements/terrorism.
--Monarchy/democracy.

--
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Edward said's cultural imperialism...
Islam through western eyes.
The media have become obessed with something called"islam",which in their voguish lexicon has acquired only two meanings,both of them unacceptable and impoverishing.west called moslems terrorists and what muslims called them, "freedom fighter".so prejudice against islam followed by Ayotollah Rohullah khomeini.ANTI islamic rhetoric was dominated by media and its faulty policies.Edward said(died in 2003)described occidental reactions against Islam.First they called Islam "Mohammandanism",than "fundamentalism" ,and later called "Terrorism."Euro intellectuals examined islam through their passionate polemicist eye.Edward said showed his apprehensions regarding French occupation of Algeria in 1830,Napoleon Bonaparte's occupation of Egypt in 1798 in his essay on "Orientalism".Moslems now remained oil suppliers or potential suppliers..today Said's assumption can be varified as fundamentalism/resurgence of islam.From Zbigniew Brzezinski's vision of the "crescent of crisis" to Bernard Lewis's "return of islam",the picture drawn is a unanimous one.Islam is anti-human,anti democratic, anti -semitic, and antirational.

Media and Islam:

1.media and its influence on orients.Said assumed and predicted about Islam and west ambition.

jhon kucich:
"Said occupies a unique place in contemporary literary criticism,He is a much needed link among humanistic values and tarditions,theories of textuality and cultural politics"

SUMMARY OF TEXT:CULTURE AND IMPERIAKISM.

West populace has been increased by 45% and than 67% in late 19th century.America coined the term"Imperium" and hungry for overseas market and cheap labor.The connection between imperial politics and culture in the united states is astonishingly direct..He has drawn comparison of west intellectuality,of Burke,Ruskin,carlyle,james and Jhon stuart.

Direct colonialism was Britain domination Of Asia and Africa.Kilping represented this type in his short stories and novels.Their designs for cultural domination over east ,Asia is illustrated by David landes in his book,"The unbound prometheus"

"The decision of certain European powers to establish plantation,that is,to treat their colonies as continuous enterprises,was,whatever one may think of the morality,a momentous innovation"

The superamacy of America accounted or rooted in history.The race for expansion followed by Euro nations.The most powerful among them were France,Russia and Britaian.geographical proximity stimulated Russia imperialistic designs and for France and Britain it was search for spice,bullion that expanded their empires out of their own origin.The rift beween Normans and angles provide the model of cold war and bi-polor world.And fall of communism followed by victory Of industry and technology.He quoted the Joseph conard idea which being explored in the "HEART OF DARKNESS".what joseph poured is a notion of distinction;Roman expanded empire for looting and they are expanding to "civilize the world".france and Britain had to surrender their possessions after world war 2.
franz Fanon says,

"we should flatly refuse the situation to which the western countries wish to condemn us....
For centuries like foreign colonists have behaved in underdeveloped world like nothing more than criminals."

The movements started against economic imperialism was to change and reform the IMF. And That Demands were submitted by U.S.A.Noam chomsky pointed west will always maintain substantial control over global resources,human and material and benefit from this disppropportionately from this control.

Now decrease in U.S power leading a world of multipolar frame work.He used to explained this point of view fron Walter lipman,the American political journalist.America dominance over is was merely due to its military that on the other hand undermining the health,education and economic sectors.The "rotarian idealism" of 'kennan' employed America as guardian of western civilization.So he sided its Military expeditions.so America political doctrine in Asia,Africa followed the policy of isolationism,interventionism,anticolonialism,free trade imperialism.That followed In Gulf and South Asia and Brazil.
further he quoted Iqbal Ahmed who described the oligarchic character in Egypt and pakistan was due to assamilation of west educated persons .

According to him, operation in gulf being as due to multi pronged strategy;occupation and media.
imperialism followed by counter culture movements and decolonization.1980 was the decade of uprising which west called Decade of Islamization/Terrorism..on the other hand global culture increased Health issues(AIDS) AND use of Alcohal.These two paradoxial trends created "separatist identity,multiculturalism,minority discourse.All these cultural shocks induced what one called mass-uprising.

Lamentation regarding zion occupation and brutality in Lebonon created diaspora or Identity crisis.He critcized west policies in association of Israel specifically.According to Said Virginia woolf's a Room of One's own, suleman Rushdie's midnight's children and Toni Morrison's Tar baby and beloved marked with objectivity showing the crisis arises due mixed races suffered them badly.

Now, the outcome is "cultural hybridity",the most pathetic outcome of it is Humanism(no islam,no christianity,no regional identity),global identity.That was the gift to orients from occidents/orientals.
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