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Old Monday, August 01, 2016
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Default Criminology notes

INTRODUCTION: A crime is a breach of a statutory duty, it is also known as an offence. When a person does a crime his liability is determined the elements of crime. Which are guilty intention and wrong act/ thus when these too constitute together and crime is performed.
The term crime denotes an unlawful act punishable by a state. The term crime does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes. The most popular view is that crime is a category created by law; in other words, something is a crime or offence (or criminal offence) is an act harmful not only to some individual or individuals but also to a community, society or the state. Such acts are forbidden and punishable by law.
Ideally, a human behavior cannot be called as crime unless at least seven characteristics are person, which are as under.
1 Harm should have been caused; mere intention is not enough.
2 The harm must be legally forbidden. anti social behavior is no crime unless prohibited by law.
3 There must be conduct, which brings harmful results.
4 'MENS REA' or 'criminal intent' must be present.
5 There must be fusion or concurrence of men sea and conduct. for example, if a policemen goes to a house to make an arrest and commit theft, he cannot be guilty of trespass through he would be guilty of theft.
6 The harm caused must be a natural consequence of a voluntary act. If one shoots at a person and the victim dies due to suffocation in the hospital while recovering form wound no murder.
7 There must be legally prescribed punishment.
The word criminology originated in 1890. The general meaning of the term is the scientific study of crime as a social phenomenon, of criminal and of penal instructions. Prof. Kenny analyzed that; criminology is a branch of criminal science which deals with crime causation, analysis and prevention of crime. Criminology as a branch of knowledge is concerned with those particular conducts of human behavior which are prohibited by society. It is, therefore a socio-legal study which seeks to discover the causes of criminality and suggest the remedies to reduce crimes. Therefore, it flows that criminology and criminal policy are interdependent and mutually support one another. Thus criminology seeks to study the phenomenon of criminality in its entirety.
The problem of crime control essentially involves the need for a study of the forces operating behind the incidence of crime and a variety of co-related factors influencing the personality of the offender. This has eventually led development of modern criminology during the preceding two centuries. The purpose of study of this branch of knowledge is to analyze different aspects of crime and device effective measures for treatment of criminals to bring about their re-socialization and rehabilitation in the community. Thus criminology as a branch of knowledge has a practical utility in so far as it aims at bringing about the welfare of the community as a whole.
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Pakistan is an islamic republic islam is the state religion, and the constitution requires that law be consistent with Islam.the country has an aera of 310,527 square miles abd population of 170 million.
The legal system of pakistan is derived from english common law and is based on the much amended 1973 constitution and Islamic law(sharia).the supreme court, provincial high courts and other courts have juridiction over criminal and civil issues.
"A generic term for the procedure by which criminal conduct is investigared , arrests made, evidence gathered, charges brought, defenses raised, trials conducted, sentences rendered, and punishment carried out."
"criminal justiceis the system of practices amd institutions of Govermnents directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalities and rehabilitation efforts. Those accused of crime have protections against abuse of investigation and prosecution powers."
Refers to the agencies of government charged with enforcin law, adjudicating crime, and correcting criminal conducts.the criminal justice system is essentially an instrument of social control: society considers some conducts dangerous and derstructive that it either strictly controls their occurrence or outlaws them outright. it is the job of the agencies of justice to prevent these behaviours by apprehending and punishing transgressors or deterring their future occurrence.Although society maintains other forms of social control, such as the family, school, and church, they are designed to deal with moral, not legal, misbehavior. it is only the criminal justice system in a legal system which has the power to control crime and punish criminals.
The main objectives of the criminal justice system can be categorized as follows:
To prevent occurance of crime.
Punish the transgressors and the criminals.
Rebabilitate the transgressors and the criminals.
Compensate the victims as far as possible.
Maintain law and order in society.
Deter the offenders from committing any criminal act in the future.

The probation of offenders oddinance 1960 was promulgated by thepresident of Pakistan to cater to the needs of first time offenders who can be rehabilitated under the supervision and proper guidance of the probation officer without being sent to prison.
In the words of Ahuja ram(1979), probation is the postponement of final judegment or sentence in a criminal case, giving the offender an opportunity to improve his or her conduct, often on conditions imposed by the court and under the 1 guidance and supervision of an officer of the court. Probation can be considered as a formative and flexible program for the first time offender because it overcomes rigidity of imprisonment.
The probation of offenders ordinance(1960), section 5 empowers judiciary/courts to place certain offenders on probation not more than 3 years who are eligible to release on probation.After release of offender on probation , the Reclamation and Probation (R&P) department in the province is to supervise, monitor and rehabilitate them in community.Probation and Parole officer plays the key role in the whole process of probation system from release of offenders to successful rehabilitation.
The courts empowered to release offenders on probation;
  1. High courts
  2. Session courts
  3. Judicial Magistrate 1st class
  4. Any other Magistrate especially empowered in this regard
After hearing the arguments of the prosecution and defence, if the the court feels the case fit for probation, then it orders the probation officers to submit (SIR) that includes the following information about offender:
  1. Character
  2. Antecedent
  3. Commission and nature of offence
  4. Home surrounding and other circumtances
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MEANING OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: Delinquency is a kind of abnormality.When an individual deviates from the course of normal social life, his behaviour is called "delinquency".
When a juvenile, below an age specified under a statute exhibits behaviour which may prove to be dangerous to society and to him he may be called a 'Juvenile delinquent'.each state has its own precise definition of the age range covered by the word 'Juvenile'.
DEFINITION: Cyril Burt defines delinquency as occurring in a child "when his antisocial tendencies appear so grave that he becomes or ought to become the subject of official action".
Frienlander says, "Delinquency is a juvenile misconduct that might be dealt with under the law."

WHO IS A JUVENILE DELINQUENT:Juvenile delinquent are those offenders including boys and girls who are normally under 16 years of age.A juvenile delinquent is a young person incorrigible,or habitually disobedient.Acts of delinquency may include:
  1. running away from home without the permission of parents,
  2. habitual truancy beyond the control of parents,
  3. spending time idly beyond limits,
  4. use of vulgar languages,
  5. wandering about rail-road, streets,market places,
  6. committinf sexual offences,
  7. shop-lifting and stealing etc.

Juvenile justice is the area of criminal law applicable to person who at the time of commission of an offence have not attained the age of 18 years. The main goal of a juvenile justice system is rehablition rather than punishment for juvenile criminal behaviour: to avoid the stigmatisation resulting from a criminal convication and the phenonmenon of reoffendring.
It is not possible to know exact number of prisoners, including children, in jails at any given time simply because the number changes daily as some prisoners are released and new ones are brought in.However, in dec 2011, there were 1,421 children in Pakistan's jails.only 165 of these had been convicted nad the remaining 1256 children were still under trial.
SPARC is working to creat awareness about the plight and needs of children in conflict with the law, about Pakistan's juvenile justice systemand about the international guideline and agreements concerning juvenile justice.Trian relevant authories about their responsibilities under the juvenile justice system ordinance 2000 and about children right.
Although there are a number of laws and consituttional guarantees for the protection of the rights of children accused or convicted of crime, in reality they are seldom upheld.Juvenile prisoners, the majority of whom are under trail, are among the worst off in Pakistan.Immediately following arrest and during police remand, children suffer in police custody and are maltreated by the police authority.Thet are denied access to legal aid, their relatives and are not kept separate from adult.while in prison, children are subjested to gegrading and inhuman treatment and punishment.Sadly, the juvenile inmates in prisons faces problems such as extreme overcrowding, malnutritution,physical,mental,and sexual abuse and a lack of medical care.
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Parole refers to the early release of good conduct prisoners or offenders who have completed mandatory period of substantive sentence as required under the good conduct Prisoner’s Probational release Act,1926 that provides for release of good prisoners on conditions imposed by the government. This is commonly known as conditional release or Parole release.
PAROLE PROCEDURE: Good conduct Prisoner’s Probation Release Act, (1926) empowers the executive (home secretary) of the province to release certain offenders on parole who are eligible to be released on parole. This is commonly known as conditional release on parole. This act provides the release of chance offenders with good antecedents and prison record with a view to remove them from the society of hardened criminals in jail. There are to be engaged in suitable environments under the supervision of parole officers of the R&P department in their respective province. The paroles are employed with approved employers of R&P departments on fixed wages and under specific terms and conditions.
SELECTION OF PRISONERS ELIGIBLE FOR PAROLE RELEASE: The cases of prisoners who are likely to be released on parole may be taken up by the Assistant Director R&P department in the following ways:
1. On application of the prisoners
2. On application of the relatives or friends of the prisoners
3. On recommendation of the superintendent of jail
4. The Assistant director and Parole Officer visit jail for selection of prisoner suitability to be released on Parole.

1. Supervision and rehabilitation of offenders placed on parole
2. Visit jails and arranges interview of good conduct prisoners with the Assistant director R&P department
3. Consult history tickets, remission sheets, warrant etc of prisoners
4. Assists prison administration in preparation of rolls of selected prisoners for parole release
5. Receive prisoners on parole, find their suitable employment, solve problems
6. The duties of parole officers are assigned to Probation officers in many districts of Pakistan as there is shortage of parole staff in R&P department of each province.


INTRODUCTION: The anti-social activities of person of the upper strata in their occupations, which have come to be known as “white collar” crimes, have been given their due importance in the recent past only after the pioneering work done by.
A non-violent crime that is committed by someone, typically for financial gain. The typical white collar criminal is an officer worker, business manager, fund manager or executive. Forensic accountant, auditors and whistle blowers identify and report white collar crimes.
1. Bank fraud
2. Blackmail
3. Bribery
4. Cellular phone fraud
5. Computer fraud
6. Counterfeiting
7. Credit card fraud
8. Currency scheme
9. Embezzlement
10. Environmental schemes
11. Extortion
12. Money laundering
13. Insurance fraud
14. Investment schemes
15. Securities fraud
16. Tax evasion

The rise of white collar criminality in many countries has coincided with the progress made in those countries in the economic and industrial fields. It is hardly surprising that the two processes should go together considering that most of the white collar crimes are directly, or indirectly, connected with the, production and distribution of wealth.
During the last thirty years, the country has seen the execution of various five-year plans involving a huge expenditure by the government for the various nation-building activities. Corrupt officers, businessman and contractors never had it so good. No doubt the country did make some progress, but a big chunk of money earmarked for development projects has been pocketed by the white collar criminals.
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Organized crime
Introduction: The object of organized criminals is to wrest exorbitant profits from society by any possible means and the objectives is sought to be achieved by making available illegal goods and services to the consumers, who may need such goods and services, and in a number of other ways. Organized crime is thus the product of a self-perpetuating criminal conspiracy involving the ruthless exploitation of the social, political and economic institutions of the society.
DEFINITION OF ORGANISED CRIME: Defining the concept of organized crime and its methods of committing crimes has been a source of controversy in legal and criminological debate throughout the 20th century. The term “organized crime” is that it denotes a process or method of committing crimes, not a distinct type of crime, nor a distinct type of criminal.
The most global definition of organized crime is the UN definition that is broad enough to cover the different forms of organized crime around the world. Organized criminal In Article 2(a):
• a group of three or more persons that was not randomly formed;
• existing for a period of time;
• acting in concert with the aim of committing at least one crime punishable by at least four years' incarceration;
• In order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit.
1. Gang criminality
2. Racketeering
3. Syndicate crime
• Size which engages itself in continuous crime over a long usually indefinite period of time.
• It has a tendency to dominate, through political clout or corruption, the law enforcement agencies.
• The organization is generally highly centralized; the authority is vested in one or just a few members of the group.
• Criminal organizations adopt measures to protect the group and to guard against the preservation of their activities. To this end, arrangements are made with doctors, lawyers, policemen, judges, politicians and government officials.


In criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation (i.e., a business entity having a separate legal personality from the natural persons that manages its activities), or by individual acting on behalf of a corporation or other business entity. Some negative behaviors by corporation may not actually be criminal; laws vary between jurisdictions.
DEFINITION: corporate crime is a crime committed by a corporation or business entity or by individual who are acting on behalf of a corporation or business entity. The law reform commission of New South Wales corporate crime as “Corporate crime poses a significant threat to the welfare of the community. Given the pervasive presence of corporation in a wide range of activities in our society, and the impact of their actions on a much wider group of people than are affected by individual action, the potential for both economic and physical harm caused by a corporation is great.”
1. Bribery
2. False claims

THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF CRIMINOLOGY: The field of criminology began with the classical school of criminology. The classical school views human behaviour as rational and assumes that people have the ability to choose right from wrong.
The classical school of criminology was developed by Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham in response to the primitive and cruel European justice system that existed prior to the French revolution of 1789. Basically, the 18th century was classical school.
1. Viewed human behaviour as essentially rational in nature;
2. Felt that people had the ability to choose right from wrong;
3. Believed that the major element governing a person’s choice of action was the basic human desire to obtain pleasure and avoid pain.
Classical theory is based on following three assumptions:
1. All of us have free will to make a choice between getting what we want legally or illegally.
2. The fear of punishment can deter a person from committing a criminal act.
3. The community or society can control criminal and noncriminal behavior by making the pain of punishment and penalties more severe than the pleasure from criminal activities and their gain.
Cesare Beccaria
Cesare Beccaria and other members of the Classical school of criminology believed that criminal behavior could be minimized using the basics of human nature. The school was based on the idea that human beings act in their own self-interests. They believed that rational people enter into a social contract in which they realize that having a peaceful society would be in their most beneficial to themselves. The school sought to reduce crime through reform to the criminal punishment system, which they felt tended to be cruel and excessive without reason as well as an ineffective deterrent.
 A more rational approach to punishment.
 Utilitarianism: behavior is purposeful and not motivated by supernatural forces.
 Deterrence
 Punishment and sentences: proportional to the seriousness of the crime
The idea behind the Classical school's fight for swift trials and clearly defined punishments was that criminals were more likely to be deterred if they knew what type of punishment they would receive and how quickly. Members of the school believed that preventing crime was actually more important than punishing it, but by having a clear punishment system in place, criminals would use reasoning to deduce that crime would not be in their best self-interests. The classical school of criminology was accepted by European rulers in the late eighteenth century and is considered to have influenced the Western justice system.
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POSITIVE SCHOOL (sociological explanation)
In criminology, the positivist school has attempted to find scientific objectivity for the measurement and quantification of criminal behavior. As the scientific method became the major paradigm in the search for knowledge, the classical school’s social philosophy was replaced by the quest for scientific laws that would be discovered by experts. It is divided into biological, psychological and social.
Social positivism: In general terms, positivism rejected the classical Theory’s reliance on free will and sought to identify positive causes that determined the propensity for criminal behavior. Rather than biological and psychological cause, this branch of the school identifies “society” as the cause. Hence environmental criminology and other sub school study the spatial distribution of crimes and offenders. Meanwhile, Emile Durkheim identified society as a social phenomenon. External to individuals, with crime a normal part of a healthy society. Deviancy was nothing more than “boundary setting”, pushing to determine the current limit of morality and acceptability.
Positivist theory: The primary idea behind positivist criminology is that criminals are born as such and not made into criminal; in other words, it is nature of the person, not nurture, that result in criminal propensities. Moreover, the positive criminologist does not usually examine the role of free will in criminal activity.
Variations of positivist criminology: Today there are three major versions of positivist criminology: biological, psychological and sociological.
• Biological positivism locates the causes of crime within the individual’s physical makeup;
• Psychological positivism suggests the causes are in faulty personality development;
• Sociological positivism stresses certain social factors within one’s environment or surrounding culture and social structure.
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Juvenile court process
Pretrial, trial, and sentencing
1. How juvenile cases are handled: In a juvenile case, the victim does not bring charges against the accused. A crime is considered a wrong against the state, and the people of the state file charges. The country attorney represents the state, and filing a petition against the juvenile is charging him or her with a crime. In some situations, a law enforcement officer will issue a ticket, also called a citation.
A delinquent act is an act committed by a juvenile that would be a crime if committed by a person over age 18. When a juvenile has been charged with a delinquent act, the legal process is significantly different from the process used for adults.
2. Investigation and charging: a crime committed by a juvenile is investigated like any other crime. After the crime is reported, the officer conducts an investigation to decide if there is enough evidence to prove that the juvenile committed offense. If the officer believes that there is enough evidence, reports are sent to the County Attorney’s Office or a citation may be issued.
3. Detention: the police officer may be release the juvenile to the custody of a parent or guardian, place the juvenile in a shelter care facility, or continue and detention. The law requires that a juvenile be released from detention unless certain extreme circumstances exist. Most juveniles in detention must come before the court within 24 to 48 hours for a detention hearing.
4. Location of hearing: the hearing, described on the following page, may take place in different locations. A juvenile offender’s arrangement hearing, pre-trial hearing and trial occur in the country where the crime was committed.
5. Arraignment: At the arraignment hearing the juvenile will appear in the court and be asked to “admit” or “deny” the offense alleged in the petition. Juvenile are entitled to an Attorney and may apply for an Attorney to be appointed to represent.
6. Pretrial hearing: in some jurisdictions, the judge may order a pretrial hearing to decide issues of law before trail. Citizen witnesses are usually not called to testify at these hearings. A juvenile may admit at this hearing.
7. Trial: the judge or jury will make a determination that the petition is “proven” or “not proven”. If the judge find the petition has been proven the case proceeds to a disposition hearing.
8. Disposition: the disposition will depend on the offense, the juvenile’s attitude, the juvenile’s criminal history or the availability of appropriate service.
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Thanks a lot for your effort. Can you please compile notes for Section III, if convenient. Or an outline of what should the topics constitute. It would be much appreciated.
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Unhappy criminology syllabus topic

Salam to all,
in css syllabus of criminology i noted the topic:
basic concepts about understanding crime, criminality and criminal behavior
i want to know that are there some defined concepts for understanding crime, criminality and criminal behavior? or it means crime and deviance? please help me understanding this. what should i cover for this?
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