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Old Sunday, June 19, 2011
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Default Repeated Questions of International Law

INTERNATIONAL LAW
  • Explain in detail the object, purpose and basis of international law. 2001
  • Define International Law. Do you agree with John Austin’s concept “International Law is not a true law, but a positive international morality”? Elaborate your answer with appropriate arguments.2005
  • What are the sources of International Law? Discuss any two of them in detail.2005
  • “International Law is a Law regulating the rights and duties of states and creating no rights and imposing no duties on individuals”. Do u agree with this statement? Why or why not? Argue.2006
  • John Austin says “International Law is not a real Law, but a positive International Morality.” Do you agree with him? Give arguments in support of your answer.2008
  • Give such a definition of International Law which could cover all the modern trends in it? 2010
  • "International Law is primarily concerned with the rights, duties and interests of states." Examine this statement with reference to the place of individuals and non-state entities is International Law. 2011
  • International law is a product of centuries - eleaborate the statement in view of the scientific development and codification of the law.2013
  • As a law based on common consent of states, international law should have more binding authority and less moral considerations . Discuss. Re-Exam 2013
  • "When all has been said it will be found that consent remains firmly the basis of international law, and there are as many, and only as many, sources of international law as there are ways whereby the consent of states can be expressed"? Discuss2014

SUBJECT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW

  • What does Subjects of international law mean? Discuss individuals as subjects of International Law. Elaborate your answer with the appropriate examples.2005
  • Briefly and precisely define SUBJECTS International Law. Do you agree that INDIVIDUALS can be considered as subjects of International Law? Give appropriate examples in this regard.2008
  • What is meant by 'Subjects of International Law'? Justify Individuals as the subject of International Law by giving appropriate examples. 2010
  • States continue to be the principal subjects of international legal relations but non-state entities too exert a great deal of influence on the legal system. Examine the statement with reference to rights and duties of international organizations under law.2013

NATIONALITY
  • Short Notes: Nationality 2000
  • Define nationality. What are neutral and neutralized states? 2001
  • Explain the various modes of acquiring and losing nationality. What is double Nationality and Statelessness? 2002
  • Short Notes: Double nationality 2003, 2012
  • Explain the various modes of acquiring and losing NATIONALITY. What is DOUBLE NATIONALITY and STATELESSNESS? 2007


RECOGNITION OF STATES
  • What do you understand by 'Recognition of States' and 'Recognition of Governments’? Explain fully the distinction between ‘Recognition Dejure’ and ‘Recognition Defacto’. 2000
  • Short Notes: De facto recognition 2003
  • Describe the legal nature of recognition of states, with particular reference to difference between defacto and Dejure recognition. 2003
  • What is the duty of other states in case of internal revolt in an independent state? Can they help the rebels? Under what circumstances recognition may be accorded to the rebels? 2006
  • "What is meant by RECOGNITION of STATES as a mamber of FAMILY of NATIONS? State the different modes of such recognition. 2007
  • Discuss Recognition. Differentiate between de-jure and de-facto recognition. What are the disabilities of an unrecognized state? 2008
  • Define Recognition. Differentiate between Defacto and Dejure Recognition. 2010
  • "The Subject of Recognition is one of the most difficult branches of international law, not merely from the points of view of exposition of principles, but also intrinsically by reason of many difficulties which arise in practice." Discuss 2011
  • “Non-recognition of a government can be amounted to denying the recognition of the state itself as it is the governments that do international business on behalf of the states.” Argue in affirmative this statement with particular reference to Constitutive Theory of Recognition. 2012
  • Define Recognition and explain its kinds. Also point out the difference between recognition of states and governments.2013


INTERNATIONAL RIVERS
  • Write a comprehensive note on international rivers and international canal. 2001
  • Describe international rivers. State the principles of law, regulating the use of water and navigation in international rivers. 2003


HIGH SEAS
  • Short Notes: High Seas 2000
  • Discuss the extent to which a state can claim jurisdiction over the high seas in war and peace. Is an appropriation by a state of the underwater soil allowed in International Law?2006
  • Define High Seas. Explain the concept of Freedom of High Seas along-with restrictions over it.2008


INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
  • Write a detailed note on the International-court of Justice with particular reference to its powers to exercise jurisdiction over disputant states. 2000
  • The jurisdiction of international court of justice depends on the consent of the parties concerned. Discuss. 2001
  • How far has the United Nation succeeded in developing a comprehensive system of Human Rights protection? Can emphasis on social justice and Human rights lead to a stable International Order? 2009
  • Explain the structure and powers of the International Court of Justice and assess the importance of the principles laid down in judicial decisions of leading cases as precedents for states.2013

UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION
  • Critically examine the powers and the voting procedure of the U.N. Security Council . 2000
  • How far has the United Nation succeeded in developing a comprehensive system of Human Rights protection? Can emphasis on social justice and Human rights lead to a stable International Order?2009
  • keeping in view the objectives of the charter seeking to establish a mechanism of peace and security how far has United Nations succeeded in confronting changes in Global society? 2009
  • "The Practice of United Nations Organization Show that while the principle of Self-Determination is agreed upon, neither the scope of its application nor the method of decolonization has been settled." Discuss 2011
  • "All the major issues on voting in the Secretary Council are now satisfactorily resolved. The real problem today is about the composition of the Security Council." Discuss 2011, 2014
  • Elucidate and justify: "The United Nations inspite of its imperfections, is the only organizations that can save humanity from disaster and complete annihilation." 2011
  • Does the customary international law grant the right to use force to a state in response to a terrorist attack on it? Substantiate your answer by arguing from Article 51 and Paragraph 4 of the Article 2 of the UN Charter and other recent examples in this regard. 2012
  • Keeping in view the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). What can be a reform agenda in your opinion for making the UN more effective ?2013
  • Keeping in view the powers of the security council what suggestions can you give for improving its structure as a dominant body within UN.Re-Exam 2013


NEUTRALIZATION
  • Short Notes: Neutrality 2003
  • Differentiate between Neutralized and Neutral States. Discuss the rights and duties of a neutral state.2005
  • Discuss the concept of Neutralization. How is it done? Explain the Rights, Duties and Guarantees given to a Neutralized state.2010
  • Define the term NEUTRALITY and explain the rights and duties of a neutral state.Re-Exam 2013


INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES
  • Discuss Kashmir dispute in the light of
  1. Right of self determination 2001
  2. UN Security Council resolution 2001
  3. Non interference in internal affairs 2001
  4. legal status of election in Kashmir 2001
  5. Simla agreement 2001
  • What are amicable means of settlement of international disputes? 2002
  • Describe various methods of peaceful and amicable settlement of international disputes. 2004
  • Discuss amicable means for the settlement of international disputes.2005,2008,2010


DIPLOMACY
  • State the various kinds and classes of diplomatic agents and mention their privileges and immunities.2003
  • A Pakistani citizen working in the embassy of a foreign country in Islamabad, has committed an offence against another Pakistani citizen. The Pakistani police want to arrest such person. However, the ambassador is refusing to handover the accused to the police with the plea that the accused has a diplomatic immunity. Do you agree with the pleas of the ambassador? Why or why not?2006
  • Describe Importance of diplomacy in interstate relations and discuss the concept of diplomacy and immunity?2009
  • Define Diplomatic Envoy. Give a short account of the functions, privileges and immunities of the diplomatic envoys accredited to other states. 2011
  • "The office of the Secretary General of the United Nations is certainly the most important and visible post in intentional multilateral diplomacy but it has been called the most impossible job in the world because the faces complex and contradictory pressures in the performance of his duties" Discuss 2014


IMMUNITY
  • “State immunity has become a mere fiction which the law can do with out. The principle is gradually withering away, a process already under way and constantly gaining momentum. Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer.2002
  • Describe Importance of diplomacy in interstate relations and discuss the concept of diplomacy and immunity?2009


COURTS AND CASES
  • Short Notes: Corfu Channel Case, U.K.V. Albania(1948), I.C.J. Rep. 1949. 2000
  • Short Notes: Chorzow Factory case, Germany V. Poland (1928) , P.C.I.J. Rep. Ser. A, No.17 2000
  • Explain the rules which govern the application of International Law by Municipal Courts. Give your answer in the light of the court practice with special reference to the British and American Courts. 2000
  • Short Notes: Prize courts 2002, 2012
  • Enamurate the principles of International Law involved in the decision of Corfu Channel Case. Assess the impact that decision on the growth and development of International Law.2004
  • Short Notes: Scotia Case 2005
  • Describe the functions of a Prize Court. What law does it administer?2006

TREATY
  • Define a ‘Treaty’. State how are they concluded and terminated? Explain it in the light of Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969. 2000
  • Coercion against a state renders a treaty invalid. Discuss main features of the principle. Also elaborate two other methods of rendering invalid the consent of a state to be bound by a treaty.2002
  • State and discuss in brief the various steps mentioned by starke in the creation of legal obligation by a treaty. 2003
  • How far do you think that International Law is based on common consent of States? Evaluate importance of customary law and treaty law as binding in this regard 2009
  • What are the various kinds of treaties in international law? Explain the laws about formation, interpretation and termination of treaties. 2012
  • What is STATE SUCCESSION ? What is the scope of treaty continuity or treaty obligations in case of extinction of a state?Re-Exam 2013


EXTRADITION
  • Short Notes: Extradition 2003, 2012
  • Discuss the concept of extradition. Explain main principles of extradition. Discuss also the crimes exempted from extradition.2005
  • Give precise definition of Extradition. Write a comprehensive essay on extradition by covering all its aspects.2008


STATE JURISDICTION

  • Discuss the term “State jurisdiction“ with reference to
  1. Maritime belt
  2. Port
  3. Foreigners
  4. Floating island 2003
  • Define State jurisdiction and explain how domestic jurisdiction can be limited by and reduced by principles of International Law?2009


INTERVENTIONS
  • Short Notes: Intervention 2000
  • The frequent ‘Interventions’ have challenged the validity of some of fundamental principles of International Law. What are those principles? Discuss in the light of interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq by the super-powers.2004
  • “Whatever the morality of intervention, states have no right under International Law to intervene on the territory of other states in order to prevent alleged crimes against humanity or to uphold human rights norms.” Discuss. 2006
  • Explain with reference to the relevant articles of the UN Charter that whether the world body is authorized to intervene in the domestic jurisdiction of its member states. 2012


VETO
  • What is veto? How, when and by whom is used? 2003
  • What is Veto? How, when and by whom it is used? What consequences Pakistan had to face in the past because of its use by a former superpower? 2012


SOVEREIGN
STATE
  • Fully explain the duties of a Sovereign State with special reference to:2004
  1. Not to interfere in the domestic affairs of another state
  2. To refrain from use of threat of use force against another state
  • Discuss various modes of Acquisition of Territorial Sovereignty by the states acknowledged in International Law. 2010
  • Lord Curzon once said, “Frontiers are indeed the razor’s edge on which hang suspended the modern issues of war or peace, of life or death to nations.” Explain in this light the various modes of acquisition of territory by a state. 2012


HIJACKING
  • Short Notes: High jacking 2000
  • Explain how the problem of Hijacking has been dealt with under the International Law?2004


TERRORISM
  • TERRORISM has become an international phenomenon - how far are you satisfied with international legal controls of such criminal conduct.Re-Exam 2013


BLOCKADE
  • Short Notes: Blockade 2000
  • Define Blockade. What are the essentials of real and binding Blockade? What does it terminate? Refer to leading cases 2004


PRISONERS OF WAR

  • How are ‘Prisoners of war’ to be treated under International Law? Explain with reference to various conventions. 2004
  • Short Notes: Rights of Prisoners of War 2005


LAW OF SEA
  • Write short notes on any three of the following in the light of convention on the law of sea 1982 and our maritime zone act of 1976. You must discuss the nature of jurisdiction, right and duties.
  1. Internal Waters
  2. Continental Shelf
  3. Territorial Waters
  4. Land-locked State
  5. EEZ 2001
  • Short Notes: Territorial waters 2002
  • Short Notes: Continental Shelf 2005, 2012
  • Why is the third UN convention on the law of sea (UNCLOS-III) considered a vast diplomatic and legal undertaking and what has made it different to the earlier efforts on the subject ?2013


MISCELLANEOUS

  • Enumerates with short explanation the main principles discussed in any two of the following cases.
  1. Lotus case 2001
  2. Clarence Thomas and Anita hill case 2001
  3. American diplomat case 2001
  • What do you understand by international institutions? Discuss their status and functions as subject of international law. 2002
  • Discuss the liability of the following: 2006
  1. The ambassador of the Republic of Brondasia in Islamabad murders a Pakistani out of sudden provocation.
  2. The wife of the Brondasian ambassador bought cosmetics worth Rs.1000,000 from a local departmental store, refused to pay and went away to her embassy.
  3. A Pakistani friend of the Brondasian ambassador has murdered a Brondasian employee of the embassy.
  • What is the duty of other states in case of internal revolt in an independent state? Can they help the rebels? Under what circumstances recognition may be accorded to the rebels?2006
  • Differentiate between Territorial and Extra-Territorial Asylum. Under which circumstances an Embassy or Consulate can offer asylum to a fugitive/offender of the territorial State?2008
  • Define International personality and discuss various entities as International Legal person.2009
  • Territory is undoubtedly the basic character of a state as well as widely accepted elaborate with reference to exclusive rights of states on Land and Air territory.2009
  • Give an account of the efforts of international community to protect the civilian population from the effects of war.2010
  • "As the basis of the Law of Nations is the common consent of the member states of the Family of Nations, it is evident there must exist as many sources of international law as there are facts through which such common consent can possibly come into existence." (Oppenheim). Discuss 2011
  • While customs form the major part of Internatiomal law it is conventions that make it more authentic and applicable. Discuss. 2013
  • Territory is essential part of a state - examine the statement in view of modes of acquisition and loss of state territory.Re-Exam 2013
  • Considering the practice of leading states how far is it true to say that international Law and municipal law are two distinct but coordinate legal systems.Re-Exam 2013
  • "The case law of the international court of justice and the practice of United Nations show that while the principle of self-determination is agreed upon, neither the scope of its application nor the method of decolonisation has been settled" Discuss 2014
  • "What ever be the generally accepted rules governing the outer limit of the territorial limit of the territorial sea this issue, and others like it, will be settled in many cases on the basis of the principles of acquiescence and opposability". Discuss 2014
  • The assumption that the "genuine link" formula, invented for dealing with people, is capable of immediate application to ships..........smacks of a disappointing naivete 2014




SHORT NOTES
  • Short Notes: Human Rights 2000
  • Short Notes: Exclusive Economic Zone 2000
  • Short Notes: Calvo Clause 2000
  • Short Notes: Kellogg Briand Pact 1928 2002
  • Short Notes: The Geneva Convention 1929 2002
  • Short Notes: Pacta Sunt Servanda 2002
  • Short Notes: Protectorate 2002, 2012
  • Short Notes: State servitude 2002
  • Short Notes: Monroe’s doctrine 2002
  • Short Notes: Equality of states 2002
  • Short Notes: Doctrine of Postliminium 2002
  • Short Notes: Continuous voyage 2002
  • Short Notes: International boundaries 2003
  • Short Notes: Universal Declaration of Human Rights 2012
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Sister, please recommend me a good book for I.Law, as I am going to opt this for CE 2014.
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