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Default Philosophy Notes for CSS~2016 "Complete"

Hello guys, I am posting complete notes of Philosophy. It is a boom scoring subject, and I have tried my level best to prepare everything concisely and to the point so that you can get more score. I am posting chapter wise and it will cover all of your syllabus.

Jazak'allah.


I. Introduction:
Definition, Nature and Scope of Philosophy



I. Introduction:
Definition, Nature and Scope of Philosophy

I. Introduction:
 From the ancient time, common tendency of man to know the unknown things & explain the surroundings. And philosophy gave the rational way to think about his problem. It has close relation to all prevailing branches of knowledge.

 Broad subject, many branches, based on logic, rationality, answers the infinite questions

 It is since human on the earth in the world of rationality and logic to quest for knowledge.

2. Definition:
 1st coined by Pythagoras.
 Greek word-‘Philos’ meaning love & ‘Sofia’ meaning wisdom or nowledge. Thus, “Love of wisdom/knowledge”
 Traditionally the word, “philosophy”, means the description of study like logic, sociology, psychology etc.
 Surfacely the word, “philosophy” means view, vision and outlook of a particular person to a particular thing.
 Literally, philosophy is “the study of nature and meaning of the universe and of human life.” (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary: Sixth edition)
Now some authentic definitions of philosophy by some distinguished philosophers:
“Philosophy is the science of sciences”. (Comte)
“is the science of knowledge”. (Fichte)
“is the science and criticism of cognition (process of knowledge to learn)”. (Kant)
“aims at the knowledge of the eternal (forever), of the essential nature of things”. (Plato)
“is the science which investigates the nature of being as it is in virtue of its own nature. (Aristotle)
Thus,“is the love of wisdom”

Therefore, It is to be interested in the following four questions, which give rise to philosophy's four main areas:
Philosophy asks ultimate questions.
1. What is truth? How is Truth arrived at? Reality
2. What is knowledge? Epistemology
3. What is the essential nature of things (God, people, universe)? Metaphysics
4. What is the good life? Ethics
Philosophy seeks understanding.
1. Clarity of understanding--defining terms.
2. Help society and culture to be self-critical.—Making people think
3. Develop an ideology to guide people and society.—Establishes to generate ideologies

Definition of Philosophy
There are many definitions of philosophy, however, with the consensus of philosophers, the worth mentioning definitions are the following:-
1-Etymologically-Philosophy is the love of wisdom.
2-Metaphycially-Philosophy as the search for reality. (Principle of life & existence)
Philosophy as the search for truth.
3-Ethically-Philosophy as the search for value or the best forms of life.
4-Cosmologically-Philosophy as the rational study of nature.
5-Dialectic arguments-Philosophy as the critical discussion of received ideas. (Logic)
6-Philosophy as the concern with the problems of human existence. (Karl Marx-advocate)
7-Philosophy as a reflection on human experience (Chinese & Indian Philosophers-ideological)

3. Nature:
 1-Interlinked with diverse discipline science, psychology,
 2-Branches-“metaphysics”, “epistemology”, “ethics”, “logic” and “the infrastructure of disciplines”
 3-To know-truth, rationally and logically.
 4-To Wonder-basic questions about universe and man-Greek Thinkers
 5-Ontology (nature of existence), Subjective (man), Objective (universe)- questions (man’s relation with universe & “change”-(born, die), (season changing)
 5-Dialectical Argumentation-thoughts & rational arguments
 7-School of though-Negates with one another-idealist, Materialist, empiricist(experience as the basic ideas), utilitarian (the belief that the right course of action is the one that will produce the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people) or designed to be useful and not beautiful: etc..

4. Scope:
 Parameter & what to talk/does not talk about:

 -What philosophy talks about:
 ~universal & general realities. Sees things broadly as a whole.
 ~Universal discipline-talks about man and everything what interlined with him.

 -What philosophy does not talk about:
 -Does not talk about particular, specific, individual entities, example of democracy: it does not talk about the democracy of Pakistan but talks about global democracy.

Branches
Though it has many branches and sub branches, but the major branches are five including logic. The four are purely branches and the one is as a tool of philosophy that is logic.
1. Metaphysics
 Means, “beyond physical” and “Ultimate reality”. It is subdivided as:
• Ontology- the study of being (being qua being) (deals with the nature of existence)
• Cosmology- the study of the nature of the universe
• Cosmogony- the study of the origin of the universe

Metaphysics has two school of thoughts:
1-Idealistic (Hegel)
2-Materialistic (Karl Marx)

2. Epistemology
 Episteme-knowledge & logos-theory. Thus, “theory of knowledge” means critical evaluation of all knowledge. It has 2 school of thoughts.
a) Rationalism- rationalist (Plato) based upon “reasoning” by mind. (based upon reason rather than emotions or religious beliefs)
b) Empiricism- empiricists (Aristotle) based upon five senses (the use of experiments or experience as the basis for your ideas; the belief in these methods)

There are some other school of thoughts which are included into epistemology:
c)Scepticism-nothing can be known at all & knowledge is impossibility. The 2 brands of it:
i-Universal Scepticism (Knowledge is impossible)
ii-Mitigated Scepticism (Knowledge is partially possible)


3. Ethics
-Moral Phil, a normative & prescriptive discipline.
-Definition-“the normative science of human conduct”
-2 Branches:
a) Meta Ethics: adj:
-deals with the analysis & clarification of ethical terms such as “good, bad, vice, justice & so on. Hence, Ethics is a question of ”how do we know about good/bad actions”. Thus, meta ethics solve this problem which are naturalism, anti-naturalism, prescriptivism etc.
Normative (relating to rules, or making people obey rules, especiallyrules of behaviour)
b) Normative Ethics:
-deals with norms, principles & standard of human behaviour.
-challenges: What is the moral standards? The solutions are in its 8 platforms, whether individually or collectively have been proposed, they are; Social custom, Law, Revelation, Conscience, Pleasure, Right, Reason, Intuition (the ability to know something by using your feelings rather than considering the facts).

~furthermore, ethics has some more school of thoughts, the most prominent are as under:
c) Utilitarianism-(the belief that the right course of action is the one that will produce the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people)
-“greatest happiness for the greatest no.” sth morally good for large no. of people.
-Proponents: Jeremy Bentham & John Stuart Mill.
Proponents (a person who supports an idea or course of action)

d) Hedonism (the belief that pleasure is the most important thing in life)
-“Pleasure” as a moral standard. Means, the actions which fetches pleasure are good & the actions which fetches pain are morally bad.
-Epicurus is a proponent of this school of thought.
Egoism (the fact of thinking that you are better or more important than anyone else)
-Self interest as the foundation of morality.
Intuitionism
-to know by feeling rather than reasoning/logic and facts.

4. Logic (a tool)
the use of reason, or the science of using reason:
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II. Philosophical Methods:
Socratic Method (Socrates); Inductive Method (Bacon, Mill); Deductive Method (Aristotle, Descartes); Dialectical Method (Hegel); Fallibilistic Method (Popper)


1-Socratic Method
 To question, conversational “what is justice, beauty, temperature etc ?” by common sense with rationality.

Background
 Sophie’s learning:
In the second half of the 5th century BC, sophists were teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric (to impress sb but not honestly) to entertain or impress or persuade an audience to accept the speaker's point of view.
 Socratic Method
Socrates promoted an alternative method of teaching which came to be called the Socratic method.

 Classic Socratic Method/Innovative Qs
Creative/Innovation questions Qs by Socratic dialogues to make thinker rethink again

 Modern Socratic Method/not modern but used in modern times
To impart knowledge by data, practice, problem solving, belief etc
Not modern, but used in modern time that is why it is called modern Socratic method due to common use.
It is constructive method for learning

 Socratic Circle
Discussion, questioning
Discussion on essays, poems & texts
Freedom of expressions
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2-Inductive & Deductive Methods
 Arguments are 2 types-inductive & deductive

Inductive-argument gives probable support to its conclusion
 Arguments based upon experience or observation are best expressed inductively.
 Example: Dictionary depicts the meaning of word to conclude it. Though it can not be perfect concluding the word meaning.
 Though inductive method is criticized due to its probable conclusions, biasness, generalization & hypothesis.(an idea or explanation of something that is based on a few known facts but that has not yet been proved to be true or correct)
 The conclusion of inductive method is Probable.
Examples:
-Probable
-Generalization
-Dilemmas
-Predictions
-Analogy (comparison of two things)

Deductive-argument gives logical support to its conclusion
 Arguments based upon laws, rules, or other widely accepted principles are best expressed deductively.
 The conclusion of deductive method is certain.
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3-Baconian Method (inductive)
 Is investigative scientific inductive method by Sir Franics Bacon; based upon collection of facts, observation, ordering to categorize & analyses.
 His method was put forward in his Book “Organum 1620” was supposed to replace organon method of Aristotle.

Example: His method suggested that a scientist start with specific information about what they wished to study and use experiments to find more general theories and data.

Criticism
 His method was rejected hypothesis & lacked explanatory power as compare to the deductive scientific method in current world. Even Aristotle’s power of observations were flawed.
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4-Mill’s Method
-5 methods in his book “a system of logic 1843” of inductions are as under:

The circumstances & phenomenon of the methods are as under:
1. Direct method of agreement: Sidha A=W, thus, A=W
 Same circumstances:
Example:
A B C D occur together with w x y z
A E F G occur together with w t u v
Therefore, A is the cause, or the effect of W.

2. Method of difference Sidha lekin hik akhar chhade B=X, thus A=W
 Difference incorporation
Example:
A B C D occur together with w x y z
B C D occur together with x y z
Therefore, A is the cause, or the effect of W.

3. Joint method of agreement & difference akhari change lekin A=X
 Different circumstances yields different systematic result
Example:
A B C occur together with x y z,
A D E occur together with x v w also B C occur with y z
Therefore, A is the cause or effect of X.

4. Method of Residue =sidha sidha A=X, B=Y, C=Z, thus A=X
 Residing method
Example:
A B C occur together with x y z
B is known to be the cause of Y
C is known to be the cause of Z
Therefore, A is the cause or effect of X

5. Method of Concomitant variations =Same continuation of +/-A (happening at the same time as something else, especially because one thing is related to or causes the other)
6. Changing in the magnitude of 1st factor would yield the change in the other too.
Example:
A B C D occur together with w x y z
A +/- B C occur together with w +/- x y
Therefore, A is & X are causally connected.

Direction~This topic contains "Sindhi Language" in some of the headings, I just wrote the key words in roman Sindhi, so you can use your language i.e. Urdu, Paunjabi or Balouchi etc. Because this chapter's methods are a bit complicated, you just need to understand and once you are done, you will love to read it again and again. I have noticed, more then five mcqs always repeats from this chapter, though this year we will have a new experience, yet it is productive to do so.
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>>5-Deductive-argument gives logical support to its conclusion
 Arguments based upon laws, rules, or other widely accepted principles are best expressed deductively.
 The conclusion of deductive method is certain.
 Deductive reasoning starts mostly in JST schools in Mathematics & reasoning unlike PST.

Deductive reasoning/logic/deduction informally “top down” logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premisises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Example:
All men are mortal (that cant live forever)
Ali is a man
Therefore, Ali is mortal

Law of detachment (state not being indulged in emotions)
PQ (conditional statement)
P (hypothesis stated)
Q (conclusion deducted)


Law of Syllogism (a way of arguing in which two statements are used to prove that a third statement is true, for example: ‘All humans must die; I am a human; therefore I must die.’) A=B, B=A (result)
PQ
QR
Therefore, PR
Example: if Ali is sick, then he will absent
If Ali is absent, then he will miss his classwork
Therefore, if Ali is sick, he will miss the class.

Thus, it is a transitive property in mathematics, that can further be explained as under:
A=B
B=C
Therefore, A=C

Law of Contrapositive (factual seen results)
PQ
~Q
Therefore, we can conclude ~P
Example:
If it is raining, then there are clouds in the sky.
There are no clouds in the sky.
Thus, it is not raining.

Mixture of Inductive+Deductinve=Validity & soundness in the deductive method
Mixing of inductive & deductive methods, in some cases, we have validity of circumstances and in others soundness
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6-Aristotle’s deduction (rational)
Aristotle started documenting deductive reasoning in the 4th centaury BC

The Greek philosopher Aristotle, who is considered the father of deductive reasoning, wrote the following classic example:
 All men are mortal.
 Socrates is a man.
 Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
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7-Discarte’s deduction Method
Is founder of modern philosophy
He developed new tools (analytic geometry & cartatian coordinate system), it was development in mathematics & measurable quantities

Examples
Measurable Quantities (example of Address, Flat #A2)
Axis, x-axis & y axis
Geometrical & Algebraic
Notion of considering X
Initial God’s existence
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8-Dialectic Method
Logical rational arguments is dialectic method.
Debate is not dialectic method because it has an element of emotion to change the rationality.

The Hegelian Dialectic method/Hand made problem like some current corrupt politicians
The Hegelian Dialectic is a technique commonly used to bring about a desired result. It is a three step process as follows.:

Thesis - A problem is intentionally created.
Antithesis - Opposition to the problem is created.
Synthesis - The desired result is brought in as a solution.

>>>Example: Hitler’s racist approach, Z.A Bhutto, Zia’s era militants, Virus and Vaccines etc
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9-Fallibilitic Method
Means “liable to err”, is the philosophical principle that man can be wrong about his beliefs & understanding of the world & yet still be justified in holding incorrect beliefs.

Example: if a scientist asks, "Does God exists?" then this can never be science because it is a theory that cannot be disproved.

Karl Popper/science/theories can be wrong.
His ideas & example of evolution, gravity etc
Social Sciences’ are all based upon theories, could be wrong.
Even Scientific theories could be wrong with the advancement & can be challenged.
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