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 Philosophy Notes and Topics on Philosophy

#1
Monday, February 18, 2013
 Senior Member Join Date: Jan 2011 Posts: 171 Thanks: 237 Thanked 200 Times in 120 Posts
Repeated Question of Philosophy

Repeated Question of Philosophy
Paper 1

LOGIC

•What benefits are to be achieved from the study of logic? Discuss .2000
•Define Logic and explain the difference between formal and informal arguments.2001
•What is Logic? Evaluate in brief Aristotelian Logic.2002
•Logic deals with arguments and inferences. Discuss2003
•Briefly examine Muslim’s contribution in logic with special reference to Abn Tamiya 2003
•Define Logic. What are its two kinds with reference to Truth and Validity?2004
•Logic is the Science of valid thought. How can we determine validity?2005
•Define Logic with special reference to strength, Cogence and Soundness.2006
•Give a brief history of Logic.2006
•Write short notes on Problem Solving in Logic.2006
•What is the role of connotation and denotation in logic?
•Define Logic and discuss its two main kinds. Deduction and Induction.2007
•Define Logic and briefly discuss its various kinds.2011
•Describe Ibn-e-Sina's contribution in logic.2010

Symbols
•Discuss the value of Symbols in Logic? How are the Variable, Constants, Brackets and Axioms used as Symbols?2001
•What is Symbolic Logic? Is it an improvement over traditional logic?2002
•What is the value of use of symbols in logic? Explain.2003 2007 2008 2011
•What are Variables and Non-Variables in Symbolic Logic 2004
•Write a not on symbolic logic defining its symbols of conjunction, disjunction and negation with examples 2010

Analogy

•What is Inductive Analogy? On what factors does the strength of Inductive Analogy depend?2000
Note:Analogy 2001
Argument by Analogy 2002
•Discuss Analogy as a form of Inductive Method.2004
•Discuss the Inductive use of Analogy and Hypothesis.2007

Fallacy

•What is a fallacy? Discuss the different kinds of fallacies and its importance in Logic. 2001
•What is a fallacy? Briefly explain various logical fallacies.2003
•Critically discuss the fallacy of Relevance 2004 ,2005
•Define in detail Fallacies.2006
•What is a Fallacy of judgment? Differentiate between Fallacies of Relevance and Fallacies of Ambiguity.2007
•What is a logical fallacy? Discuss in detail formal fallacy.2008
•Define emotive terms and discuss their role in fallacious reasoning.2009
•What is fallacy? Enumerate and define its various kinds in brief. 2011
•State and Explain various types of fallacies with examples from everyday life.2012

Syllogism
Rules for valid syllogism.2000
•What is syllogism? Explain rules of valid syllogism.2003
•Discuss syllogism and its formative and general rules.2004
•Define in detail categorical syllogism.2006,2002
•How can you reduce the number of terms in a Syllogistic Arguments 2006
Note:Syllogism. 2007 ,2012

AL-Farabi

•Discuss Al-Farabi’s contributions to logic and compare his position to the Modern view of Logic 2001
•Discuss al-Farabi’s contribution to Logic 2004 ,2007,2011
•Al Farabi divides logic into how many kinds/categories?2005
•Discuss Farabi's contributions to Modality.2012

Aristotel

•Aristotelian Logic was refuted by Ibn-i-Taimya in his book ‘Rad-ul-Mantaqeen’. Discuss the main points of his criticism.2001 ,2010
•What is Logic? Evaluate in brief Aristotelian Logic.2002
•Discuss Ibn-e-Taimya’s refutation of Aristotelian Metaphysics and Logic 2002
•Bring out the difference between Aristotelian and Modern Logic 2006
•Critically examine the role of definition in Aristotelian Logic 2008
•How far is it tenable to hold that Muslim contribution to logic is an improvement on Aristotelian logic?2008
•Define proposition. Explain Aristotle's view of propositions.2010
•Discuss ibn-e-Taimiyah's criticism on Aristotle's logic.2010

Induction and deduction
•Differentiate between Induction and deduction.(2000)
•How Induction differs from Deduction? Can Induction be justified?(2002)
•Write short notes on Inductive Leap?2005
•Define Logic and discuss its two main kinds. Deduction and Induction 2007
•Define and distinguish induction by simple enumeration and Mill's method of induction 2012

Hypothesis, truth and validity.

•Hypothesis, truth and validity.2001 Truth and Validity2012
•Define hypothesis. How are scientific hypothesis evaluated 2000
•Define Logic. What are its two kinds with reference to Truth and Validity 2004
•Write short notes on Hypothesis and simple enumeration.2004
•Logic is the Science of valid thought. How can we determine validity 2005
•Distinguish between ‘truth’ and ‘validity’ of the logical argument. Illustrate your an-swer with the help of examples 2008 2005
•State and explain hypothesis and criteria to evaluate hypothesis 2009
•What is scientific explanation? Discuss the role of hypothesis in scientific explanation 2010

Probability

Note :Probability 2001, 2002, 2007
.Discuss the nature and scope of Probability in logic 2011

Language

•How are ambiguity and emotive use of language impediments in clear thinking? Discuss.2003
•Discuss the Emotive or Declarative use of language.2004
•Discuss the EMOTELY NEUTRAL LANGUAGE?2005
•Discuss the three basic functions of Language. Elaborate upon the importance of Emotionally Neutral Language for reasoning.2007
•How emotive language is an impediment in clear thinking? Discuss.2008
•Emotive language is ambiguous. Illustrate with the help of fallacies of ambiguity .2010

Definition.

•Write a comprehensive note on the various kinds of definition.2000
•What are the different kinds of definitions? Explain with examples.2001
•What is the purpose and function of Definition? Discuss various forms of Definition.2002
•Logical Definition 2007
•Discuss the role of definition in reducing ambiguity and vagueness in language.2009
•What is the role of definition and division in logic? Discuss with special reference to Aristotel 2011

Arguments
•What do you mean by Arguments In Context?2005
•Elaborate any two groups of Arguments.2006
Note:Formal Argument 2007
•Define Deductive and inductive arguments. also cite examples 2009
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#2
Tuesday, February 19, 2013
 Senior Member Join Date: Jan 2011 Posts: 171 Thanks: 237 Thanked 200 Times in 120 Posts

Repeated question of Philosophy Paper II

Al Ghazali

1-.How does al-Ghazali ground the Sharia on spiritual basis? 2000
2-.Critically evaluate Al-Ghazali’s dispute with the ‘philosopher’ in the Tahafat-ul-Falasafa and the defence of the philosophical position in Ibni-Rush’s Tahafat-ul-Tahafat.2001
3-.Ibn e Rushd’s critique of Al Ghazali 2002
4-Ethics of Al Ghazali 2002
5-.Discuss Ghazali’s three main points of dispute with the Rationalist Philosophers in the Tahafatul Falsafah 2011 ,2004
6-.Critically examine al-Ghazali’s attack on the “ETERNITY OF THE WORLD”. 2005 ,2010
7-.Critically examine al-Ghazalis ’Attack’ on law of causality 2006
8-.Discuss Al-Ghazali’s criticism of Muslim Rationalists with regards to, Eternity of Matter, God’s Knowledge of the particulars and Bodily Resurrection 2007
9.Al-Ghazali’s reputation of Muslim rationalists was a turning point in the history of Muslim thought. Discuss 2008.
10-.Compare Ghazali's attack on philosophers with Ibn-e-Rushd's defense of philosophy 2012
IQBAL

1-.How does Iqbal conceive the possibility of social change through the reconstruction of Islamic law 2000
2-.Evaluate Iqbal’s Theory of knowledge with special reference to the Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. 2001 ,2004, 2011
3-.Discuss the role and place of Ijtihad in Islamic culture with special reference to Iqbal 2002
4-.Elucidate and assess Iqbal’s position on Sufism.2003
5- “Is religion possible” Iqbal proved it. How? 2005
6-.What is the impact of Iqbal’s Ijtehad on the present society? 2006
7- Note : The three stages of Religious Consciousness in Iqbal’s view 2007
8-.What is original in the eclecticism of Iqbal. Assess the status of Iqbal as a philosopher. 2008
9-.Sayyid Ahmed khan and Iqbal were against fatalism and tried to promote this worldly attitude amongst muslim.Comment 2009
10-.Elaborate Iqbal's concept of Ijtihad as the principle of movement in the structure of Islam. 2010
Sir Syed

1-.Why did Sir Syed’s synthesis of Westernism and Islamic Values fail to lead to a genuine Islamic Modernism? 2000
2-.Sir Syed’s views of Religious Language 2001
3-.Discuss Sir Sayyed’s view of the Interpretation of Prophetic Traditions. 20043-.Write a short note on Sir Sayyed’s Collective Intellects.2005
5-.What are the contributions of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan towards Islamic Philosophy? 2006
6-.Sir Syed Ahmed Khan is a rationalist. Critically discuss. 2011
Sufism

1-Sufism 2001, 2011 ,2006
2-Is Sufism allowed in Islam? 2005

Ibn-I-Khaldun

1-.Ibn-i-Khaldun is the founder of the History of Philosophy and sociology Discuss 2001 ,2010
2-.Do you think that Ibn-i-Khuldun’s philosophy of history is compatible with Islamic Philosophy of History?2002
3-state and discuss Ibn-I-Khaldun concept of ’asabia’ keeping in view the contemporary debate on the clash of civilization 2009

Mu'tazilites And Ash'rites

1-.‘Ashari’s formulation of dogma essentially represents an attempt at a synthesis of orthodoxy and that of Mutazila’. Explain 2000
2-Note: Mutazila 2000, Mu'tazilites 2012
3-Discuss the five basic elements of the Mutazilite philosophy and compare it with the views of Asharites 2001
4-What are the essential differences between Mutazilism & Asharism. Can they be reconciled 2002 ,2003,2005
5-Briefly define the five basic concepts of Mutazilaism. 2004
6-Compare the views of Mutazilites and Asheraites about Freedom of the Will and the relation of God’s Essence and Attributes 2004
7-.Why Mutazilities are called the people of Unity and Justice, explain? 2006
8-Do you consider Ashrites rationalists or orthodox? Explain 2006
9-.Ash'rites 2012
10-Compare the views of Mutazilites and Asheraites about the following
(a) Existence of God and the relation of his essence and attribute
(b)Origin of the Quran
(c)Freedom of the will 2011

Hegel

1-Define Idealism as a school of Thought, and the form it took in the Philosophy of Hegel 20012-The Idealism of Hegel 2007
3-Critically examine Rationalist Idealism of Hegel 2011
4-Critically discuss German idealism with special reference to Kant and Hegel.2012

Ibn-I -Sina

1-Pshychology of Ibn Sina 2002
2-Briefly explain the salient features of Ibn Sina’s philosophy 2003
3-Discuss Ibn-i-Sina’s views of Cosmology ontology and Psychology 2004
4-Discuss Ibn-Sina’s Theory of Knowledge. 2005
5-How Ibn Sina explain Body-Mind relationship 2006
6-Discuss Ibn-i-Sina’s theory of being and his views of Psychology 2011

Al Farabi

1-Political philosophy of Al Farabi 2002
2-Explain and assess Al-Farabi’s doctrine of form. 2003
3-Critically evaluate al-Farabi’s Theory of intellect. 2005
4-Write short notes on al-Farabi’s Theory of Emanation 2005
5-Discuss All-Farabi’s Theory of Emanation 2006
6-Discuss in detail Al-Farabi’s social philosophy. What is its significance for the contemporary world. 2008

Pragmatism

1-Pragmatism 2000 , 2011
2-Pragmatism characterizes American philosophy in a unique way. Critically examine its impact on life and morals of the contemporary world 2008
3-Pragmatism is in essence idealism .Critically evaluate 2012
4-Discuss pragmatic theory of truth, Pragmatism is Philosophy of capitalism. comment 2009

Shah Wali Ullah

1-Briefly discuss the Irtifaqat of Shah Wali Ullah 2004
2-Discuss Shah Wali’s Metaphysics 2005
3-Discuss Shah Wali Allah’s “Social Justice”. 2006
4-Discuss Shah Waliullah’s ‘Irtifaqat’ as an important part of his Philosophy of Society 2007

Karl Marx ,Marxism

1-Give an account of Marx’s notion of’ alienation 2000
2-Critically discuss the Dialectical Materialism of Karl Marx. 2007
3-The fall of Marxism is the failure of dialectical materialism. Critically examine 2008
4-Discuss in detail the sources and component part of parts of Marxism 2009
5-State and explain main features of dialectical materialism as enunciated by Karl Marx. 2012
6-Note: Karl Marx 2011

Positivism

1-Local Positivism. 2001
2-Critically examine verifiability criterion of meaning as expounded by logical positivism.2003

Materialism

1-State and explain dialectical materialism as a philosophy theory 2003
2-Critically discuss Dialectic Materialism and its concept of History, Social Change and class struggle 2004
3-Define materialism. Critically examine dialectical materialism 2010

1-Maududi’s view of Khilafat 2001
2-Briefly discuss Abul al Maudadi’s views of Islamic State. 2004

J. P. Sartre

1- “Existence precedes essence,” claimed J. P. Sartre. Discuss in the context of 20th century existentialist thought 2003 ,2010
2- "Hell is other people.” How does SARTRE’S remark reflect on existentialist quest for freedom of the individual. 2008

Berkeley

1- “To be is to be perceived.” Critically evaluate Berkeley’s theory of Idealism. 2002
2-Explain various types of idealism. Discuss Berkeley's idealism 2010

Ibn-I- Rushd

1-Write short notes on Ibn-e-Rushd’s views on Bodily Resurrection, Immortality of the soul and life after death. 2004
2-Give a critical exposition of tahafatul thafat by Rushd.2006
3-Ibn- i-Rushd’s view of Immortality 2007

A.J AYER

1-Discuss A.j.Ayer's principle of verifiability,criterion of meaning and its impact on metaphysics and ethics 2012 , 2009
__________________
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#3
Tuesday, February 19, 2013
 Member Join Date: Dec 2010 Location: Lahore Posts: 86 Thanks: 56 Thanked 53 Times in 44 Posts

Miss

please suggest that is it rationale to opt Philosophy. can it be equivalent of psychology in terms of score. please grant me with your kind prescriptions. I'm in a hell of confusion.
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Emulating West, East is preparing its grave.
#4
Wednesday, February 20, 2013
 Senior Member Join Date: Jan 2011 Posts: 171 Thanks: 237 Thanked 200 Times in 120 Posts

Quote:
 Originally Posted by Furquan592 Miss please suggest that is it rationale to opt Philosophy. can it be equivalent of psychology in terms of score. please grant me with your kind prescriptions. I'm in a hell of confusion.
I have interest in Philosophy therefore thinking to opt it in 2014.as for as scoring trend concern psychology is more scoring than philosophy.
__________________
Optimism is the faith that leads to achievement. Nothing can be done without hope and confidence.
#5
Wednesday, February 20, 2013
 Member Join Date: Dec 2010 Location: Lahore Posts: 86 Thanks: 56 Thanked 53 Times in 44 Posts

Quote:
 Originally Posted by fiza mehar I have interest in Philosophy therefore thinking to opt it in 2014.as for as scoring trend concern psychology is more scoring than philosophy.
I also have interest;actually adore it,want to opt it but perplexed about it's scoring trend. Anyways I have moulded my mind to opt it and will opt it.
__________________
Emulating West, East is preparing its grave.
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#6
Thursday, February 21, 2013
 Junior Member Join Date: Feb 2013 Posts: 2 Thanks: 0 Thanked 3 Times in 2 Posts

@fiza_mehar

Good effort, thanks.
How do you know the scoring trend of philosophy, as very few people opt it. I appeared in 2012 and was alone in Gujranwala centre. I'll get my result in June,2013. I'm going to reappear in a few days.

@Furquan592

Well, it is completely rational to opt it as long as you are totally interested. I recommend "Sophie's World" (http://www.sophiesworld.org). This gives you a basic outline of Western Philosophy. If you can understand it, there is nothing stopping you to grasp the depths of philosophy.
But I don't know anything about scoring trend . I don't even know my own marks yet, because the result is in June (I hope so).
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#7
Friday, February 22, 2013
 Senior Member Join Date: Jan 2011 Posts: 171 Thanks: 237 Thanked 200 Times in 120 Posts

Quote:
 Originally Posted by GallVp @fiza_mehar Good effort, thanks. How do you know the scoring trend of philosophy, as very few people opt it. I appeared in 2012 and was alone in Gujranwala centre. I'll get my result in June,2013. I'm going to reappear in a few days. @Furquan592 Well, it is completely rational to opt it as long as you are totally interested. I recommend "Sophie's World" (http://www.sophiesworld.org). This gives you a basic outline of Western Philosophy. If you can understand it, there is nothing stopping you to grasp the depths of philosophy. But I don't know anything about scoring trend . I don't even know my own marks yet, because the result is in June (I hope so).
Thank God, here is someone who opted Philosophy well many of my friends who appeared before told me that it's not too much scoring while result of psychology for last two years have proved that it is scoring.
Good luck for your result, we hope you ll share your experience with us.
__________________
Optimism is the faith that leads to achievement. Nothing can be done without hope and confidence.
#8
Friday, February 22, 2013
 Member Join Date: Dec 2010 Location: Lahore Posts: 86 Thanks: 56 Thanked 53 Times in 44 Posts

Quote:
 Originally Posted by GallVp @fiza_mehar Good effort, thanks. How do you know the scoring trend of philosophy, as very few people opt it. I appeared in 2012 and was alone in Gujranwala centre. I'll get my result in June,2013. I'm going to reappear in a few days. @Furquan592 Well, it is completely rational to opt it as long as you are totally interested. I recommend "Sophie's World" (http://www.sophiesworld.org). This gives you a basic outline of Western Philosophy. If you can understand it, there is nothing stopping you to grasp the depths of philosophy. But I don't know anything about scoring trend . I don't even know my own marks yet, because the result is in June (I hope so).
Trust in Allah. May He the Almighty grant you with good marks.
__________________
Emulating West, East is preparing its grave.
#9
Sunday, June 02, 2013
 Junior Member Join Date: Jun 2013 Posts: 8 Thanks: 7 Thanked 2 Times in 2 Posts

Could you share the books to be consulted for Philosophy?