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Old Tuesday, January 01, 2008
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thanks for the post I would suggest a focussed study is much better as there are numerous subjects and if one follows multiple books then whole time would be gone!
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You can study on journalism from the book Journalism by Seemab of Jahangir Publications. First quarter is have everything you want . on first few pages you will find it.
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we are going to writ against PPsc with regard to lro join us contact3006979809
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Originally Posted by Janeeta View Post
salam to all members

i need material on


i searched alot on this topic but didnt get much material and not satisfied with that material too0
so kindly kindly help me
Media has become double-edged sword for a society while it has the power to shape and reshape public opinions. Media has been playing very effective role since its inception, with the passage of time gained extraordinary power. It can influence and change the beliefs, norms and the structure of a society. Latest technologies have exceptionally amplified the power and utility of the mass media and at the same time have put huge pressure on media scholars to rethink and redefine the guidelines of ethics for media practitioners. Media can form the public opinion from one point to another. Media has vital compulsion towards the society as it has “to inform” “to educate” and “to entertain” but it has been working as ‘opinion maker’ more than else. It can change a hero to villain and a villain to hero. There are some ethics that media has to follow according to the society’s norms. These ethics are not the written rules that state promulgates but the sense of responsibility make media to follow them. Every society has its own norms that cannot be implemented on others so media has to follow different norms in different societies.

Research work of Kai Hafez, Journalism Ethics Revisited: A Comparison of Ethics Codes in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim Asia (2002), discussed about the ethics of media in Muslim and European states that what ethical codes those states have. Muslim rulers did not allow media to be free. They imposed strict policies on freedom of expression and freedom to information. The study revealed that political frame for a free media was established in a country and free expression is the inevitable consequence. Media, in Muslim states, cannot criticise and negatively depict their rulers.

The study also argued regarding the ethics of media as western media demands for a common global ethics, which should be noticed as western media programmes that are available in Muslim states like Saudi Arabia, Iran, Pakistan etc, creating ethical problems regarding the social norms as it promotes pornography taken as ‘cultural invasion’ into Eastern societies that are not much open like West.

Journalism ethics in Europe and in Islamic world have evidently diverse corridors. While talking about Islamic world, the state authorities promulgate ethics, which make difficult to cover the important issues of the society. While in West, media ethics protect the individual rights to express almost everything. These diversities established that Western codes promote individualism and the codes followed in Islamic states are based on collectivism.

The codes of ethics for ‘good journalism’ seem more complicated. Both sides, West and Islamic states, try to protect personal privacy or even try create balance in news coverage according to the norms of their society. Islamic codes are stricter as compare to Western codes that provide much protection of privacy and sensationalism. However, it came with lower freedom of expression in news coverage regarding the state, the society and religion.
n a part of ‘print media’, the report explained the role of newspapers and magazines, which have increased its circulation by 10 times, as it had 50 years back. Readership of newspapers were divided in regulars and casuals including English and Urdu readers. Price of the newspapers had also affected its circulation that why half of the readers borrowed newspapers. The report suggested that how newspapers survived while passing through hard times of restrictions by the authorities, especially by the dictators. During Zia’s regime newspapers had to get their copy approved from PID [1] on repeatedly every day. They were not allowed to publish news stories that criticising the government. PID instructed them what to be published and what not to be. Once a mainstream English newspaper ordered by PID to remove a news story from the paper, it left the space blank to give people a message that here was a news story but government did not allow us to publish (Zamir Niazi 1986).

About electronic media, report revealed that TV has become an important part of Pakistani society as more than 80per cent of urban and almost 50per cent of rural population own TV sets, watched regularly but the high effect of its content has been exaggerated. The number of campaigns against the political parties was remained unable to make people to change their loyalty. The report marked the relationship between reach, awareness, attitude formation and behaviour change as very much complex to understand. Less than 50per cent of people having radio sets, listen it regularly.

It is far more essential to be aware of the role of electronic media along with its influence and boundaries while developing the code of ethics.

The report further lay a hand on the parameters of media ethics that what should be codes for media, which has to cover political, commercial and social issues. However, discussed little more that a code of conduct should linked with global norms to ensure the programmes and advertisements discourage violence, ethnicity, religious discrimination and hatred. Media should respect the sovereignty and culture of the state that are declared in the constitution.

The report talked about Pakistani authorities those were working to establish a regulatory body and official code of conduct for media. At that time, a bill draft proposing codes of ethics that media should:

Be accurate

Promote truth

Be fair

Respect the right of privacy

Repress any kind of discrimination

Decrease harm in society

Report in decent way

Droop violence

Discourage sensationalism

Avoid to be slander and libel

Media supposed to provide accurate information. Unconfirmed and incorrect information could create huge problems in society as well as among countries.

However, Pakistani media is in race of ratings that makes it as fast as it can be.

With the aim to defeating others, media practitioners, most of the time spread wrong information, which sometimes made them sorry and urged them to publish contradictions. Regarding TV programmes, PEMRA [2] rules say, ‘No programme shall be aired which contains material which may be detrimental to relations of Pakistan with other countries’ (Section A, Clause 1/O). However, few months back, a Pakistani English news channel broadcasted an unconfirmed Wikileaks cable accusing India that Hindu extremist lobby could attack Pakistan. The report also suggested that Indian government supported by genocidal army that propagated against Pakistan. The report created problems between the two countries. Wikileaks pointed it out a wrong cable so that Pakistani media had to publish contradiction.
Pakistan is an Islamic state and Islam asks to reduce harm and promote harmony in society. According to the PEMRA rules, ‘Programmes must not be directed against the sanctity of home, family and marital harmony’ (Section A, Clause 3). Pakistani media supposed to play its part according to this rule but a one can easily see contrary reality of its performance. Like many broader ethical systems, journalism ethics include the principle of limitation of harm. This often involves the withholding of certain details from reports such as the names of minor children, crime victims’ names or information not materially related to particular news reports release of which might, for example, harm someone’s reputation. Reporting of accident or rape case, reporters along with camera operator reach victim’s house and start report in dramatic way that would hurt the feelings of affected family.

Another PEMRA rule tried to decrease harm by saying that, ‘contains an abusive comment that, when taken in context, tends to or is likely to expose an individual or a group or class of individuals to hatred or contempt on the basis of race or caste, national, ethnic or linguistic origin, colour or religion or sect, sex, sexual orientation, age or mental or physical disability’ (Section A, Clause 1/c). Nevertheless, TV programmes of disabled persons can often be seen on Pakistani media those will hurt the feelings of disabled people. So many sex-orienting dramas, religious, ethnic and sex-based documentaries have also been part of TV programmes.
All fields of lifework ought to have set of rules to follow to ensure the safety of the society as well as themselves. Those rules also ensure restrictions on who could take personal benefits of his/her position in immoral way.

This research is a well effort by GRF to discuss the ethics in Pakistani media. However, there are so many areas that were remained untouched, as it talked about the journalism ethics that are already existed but did not recommend anything new for ethical codes.

A comprehensive history of print and electronic media in Pakistan was thrash out in the research, which is, somehow, looks irrelevant when it revealed the result of a survey conducted by Gallup Pakistan, which provided information regarding the number of people in Pakistan who are watching TV, listening radio and reading newspaper regularly.

GRF’s report should spoke about the criteria for ethical codes, freedom and limitations of media organizations according to norms of Pakistani society rather to discuss how many people buy newspapers, and how many borrow it from other. It should reveal the actual performance of the media that is it working efficiently and obeying the ethical codes or just focusing on financial benefits. If media working against the journalism ethics than how much it is affecting the society negatively and how it could be put on the right way.

Norms of Pakistani society should also be discussed, which will be very much helpful to judge the existing ethical codes. This kind of judgment, which was missing in the report, could make someone able to develop new lines for media to follow.

This country paper of GRF conferred the parameters of media ethics that it should caters the need of public according the norms but the paper did not speak how media could build up a proper code of ethics that is acceptable for every one. This is not reasonable, in a paper on media ethics, to present information about scuffles between governments and media regarding the content, which was published in newspapers over the years, purely based on personal conflicts. If the conflicts were based on code of ethics related to society’s problems, in that case, it would be better for both the government and media organisation, it would help government to promulgate official code of ethics as well as would help media to put and maintain pressure on government’s erroneous policies.
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