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Journalism & Mass Communication Notes and Topics on Journalism

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Old Saturday, April 15, 2006
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Journalism

Journalism dates at least from the ‘Acta Diurna’ of Rome (a series of public announcements that can be considered the prototype of the modern newspaper), but it was not until the 15th century when the invention of printing made possible its rapid growth. Daniel Defoe has been called the first journalist, as distinct from a writer. Journalism is considered as a discipline of collecting, verifying, analyzing and presenting information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists.The term ‘Journalism’ has variety of meanings. According to a basic definition it is the profession of reporting or photographing or editing news stories for one of the media. It may also be defined as the collection and periodic publication or transmission of news through media such as newspaper, periodical, television, radio and internet. According to type of media Journalism can be classified as Print Journalism, Television Journalism and Blogging (controversial).

All the three types of Journalism have main activity ‘the reporting of events’ stating who, what, when, where, why and how, and explaining the significance and effect of events or trends. Journalism exists in a number of media: newspapers, television, radio, magazines and, since the end of 20th century, the Internet. Generally, publishers and consumers of journalism draw a distinction between reporting "just the facts" and opinions (such as editorials, the official opinions of the paper, and op-ed columns, "opposite the editorial page" commentary). However, this distinction sometimes can break down. Journalists may unintentionally fall prey to propaganda or disinformation. Journalists may give a biased account of facts by reporting selectively, for instance, focusing on anecdote or giving a partial explanation of actions. Foreign reporting may become more susceptible to bias, because the writers or editors of a newspaper in a given geographical area may find it more difficult to check the facts in reports about distant places. Budget cuts also can affect the bias of a story if they affect a writer or editor's resources. Second important aspect is ‘Feature Writing’. Newspapers and periodicals often contain features written by journalists, many of whom specialize in this form of "in-depth" journalism. Journalists' interaction with sources sometimes involves confidentiality. Many Western governments guarantee the freedom of the press. By extension, these freedoms sometimes also add legal protection for journalists, allowing them to keep the identity of a source private even when demanded by police or prosecutors.

Technological Advancement brought Journalistic Change in the 20th century. The teletypewriter (1904), long-range radio reception (1913), television (1930s–40s), communications satellite (1960s) transmission of data, voice, and video. Almost every new application in communications, data storage and retrieval and image processing affects the way people get their news. But some of these advancements affected the print media from negative side, i.e. people started rely on T.V journalism rather than print journalism. But print journalism has its sole importance, as it serves there, where access of other media is not possible.

By broadcasting events such as the controversial Supreme Court nomination hearings, and sensational criminal trials, television has in some ways minimized the journalist. Yet reports by journalists of the World Service of the British Broadcasting Corporation and Cable News Network, owned by Ted Turner and based in Atlanta, are transmitted around the world and provide news to world leaders in times of crisis. The proliferation of cable television has led to a variety of news channels. As with print journalism, television journalism ranges from sensational, “tabloid” news shows to extensive journalistic coverage and interviews with government figures.

Recently there has been some controversy as to whether blogging constitutes a form of journalism. There have been arguments on both sides of the debate further fueled by a March 2005 court ruling in a case involving Apple Computer and several Apple rumor blogs. In that ruling the judge declared that the blogs were not entitled to journalist protections with regards to preserving the anonymity of sources because they don't qualify as a form of journalism. This set a legal precedent.

Journalism is of optimum importance in modern society and has been testified to by the establishment of schools of journalism at most of the world's leading universities. The earliest in the United States was established at the Univ. of Wisconsin (1905). Other early schools were at the Univ. of Missouri (1908) and Columbia Univ., whose school of journalism was endowed in 1903 but did not open until 1912. American schools of journalism have proliferated throughout the 20th cent.

Modern journalism, however, began in the latter years of the 18th century. Journalism has never been a monolithic enterprise, but has ranged as it continues to do from sensational pseudo fact and scandal to high-quality reporting, evaluation, and opinion. (But in case of some totalitarian state control nature of journalism proved to be monolithic)
In modern times Journalism is spread over almost all the aspects of human life. Concisely it can be divided into following general categories:

• Advocacy journalism
• Alternative journalism Broadcast journalism
• Business journalism
• Citizen journalism
• Community Journalism
• Computer-assisted reporting
• Gonzo journalism
• Electronic journalism
• Environmental journalism
• Investigative journalism
• Literary journalism related to creative nonfiction
• Muckraking Music journalism
• New journalism
• Online journalism
• Photo journalism
• Science journalism
• Sports journalism Tabloid journalism
• Trade journalism
• Yellow journalism
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Old Sunday, April 23, 2006
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JOURNALISTS AS SOCIAL CRITICS



During the 19th century more and more newspapers and magazines began to campaign for social and political reforms as a method of attracting mass audiences. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, while often engaging in sensationalism, also spoke out against social evils of their day. Some of the mass magazines of the time, such as McClure's Magazine and Everybody's, built their reputations largely on the exposure of abuses. Newspaper and magazine editorials exerted some influence, but even more important was the ability of news stories to focus public attention on social problems or political corruption. Crusading journalists, the so-called muckrakers, helped to bring about a number of reforms—for example, antitrust legislation (see Trusts) and the passage of pure food laws (see Pure Food and Drug Acts).
Journalists have continued to serve as watchdogs for the public. In the 1960s television brought civil rights demonstrations in the United States—and the brutal means sometimes used to control them—into people’s living rooms. Reporters covering the Vietnam War (1959-1975), having become convinced that officials were not telling the truth about U.S. involvement there, were instrumental in turning public opinion against the war.
In 1972 and 1973, led by investigative reporters from the Washington Post, the press exposed links between the administration of President Richard M. Nixon and a burglary of the Democratic Party national headquarters (known as the Watergate scandal, so-named for the building that housed the burglarized office). Senate hearings on the scandal and preparations by the House of Representatives for impeachment proceedings were carried live on television and attracted large audiences. President Nixon resigned soon thereafter. Some investigative reporters then turned their attention to alleged abuses by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), charging, for instance, that these agencies had spied illegally on American citizens.
Except during World Wars I and II, freedom of the American press was not seriously abridged in the 20th century. Governmental efforts to prevent publication of the Pentagon Papers (a collection of secret documents on the Vietnam War) were struck down by the courts in 1971 as a violation of the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Broadcasting stations, which must be licensed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to operate, have generally been more cautious in their criticisms of government than have newspapers.
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Old Sunday, April 23, 2006
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JOURNALISM EDUCATION


Traditionally, reporters had learned their skills on the job, but this began to change in the 20th century. The first school of journalism in the United States was established at the University of Missouri, in Columbia, Missouri, in 1908, and a bequest from Joseph Pulitzer led to the creation in 1912 of a graduate school of journalism at Columbia University, in New York City. More than 100 schools and departments of journalism now exist, and reporters frequently receive some of their early training on school or college newspapers.
Not all journalism graduates seek employment in the news media. A substantial proportion engages in public relations, advertising, teaching, or other communications occupations. Courses in journalism education programs frequently include reporting, newswriting, editing, broadcasting, new media, and related courses, as well as public relations, advertising, marketing, and social science research dealing with the process and effects of mass communications.
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Old Friday, September 15, 2006
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Default nice work

very nice work done by miss qurat its not only hoelps and creates the interest for the jurnalism acquitqnce but also its do many more for new comer in jurnal also suggest the book for the beginers so they can etre to the goal from easy path.
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Old Monday, June 18, 2007
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kindly post the sources(refernences) from which you have taken the matter of the topic......
it would be helpful too.


thanks
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Default journalsim objectives

is there a seperate book available for preparation of objectives for journalsim ??Please reply
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There are number of books available in the market for preparation of objectives. Just visit a good book shop and u will find a variety of books there.
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Old Tuesday, September 08, 2009
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Quote:
Originally Posted by star1
is there a seperate book available for preparation of objectives for journalsim ??Please reply
@star1
Go and buy
journalisim objective by Emporium Publishers. It is a book which will definetly help you out in objective and subjective also.
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Smile journalism

can anyone plz tel me from which book i can prepare journalism paper ?? is dere any book which contain all the syllabus of journalism ??
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Marium Umbreen View Post
can anyone plz tel me from which book i can prepare journalism paper ?? is dere any book which contain all the syllabus of journalism ??
Yes you can refer any of the following:

Journalism For All By Dr Mehdi Hassan
Mass Communication by Imtiaz Shahid
Exploring Journalism by Mirza Yousaf

If you think that something is missing in these books you can also refer internet. wish you best of luck.
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