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Journalism & Mass Communication Notes and Topics on Journalism

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Old Monday, March 05, 2007
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Advertising is constantly all around us. From national Urdu dailies to elite English press, from nation electronic media to digital satellite channel, there are several different types and ways of promoting future products. The producers of the advertisers aim for us to fulfill our dreams, to fill that feeling of insecurity.

DEFINING THE ADVERTISING
There are a variety of definitions for advertising, with subtle but important distinction. While the general public frequently views advertising as encompassing all forms of promotional communication, most advertising practitioners limit it to paid communications, conveyed by a mass medium.
The latter definition distinguishes advertising from other forms of marketing communication, such as Sales Promotion, Public Relations, and Direct Market. Everyone who opens a newspaper or turns on TV finds sellers of almost identical products spending huge amounts of money in order to convince to buy their brands.


THE PURPOSE OF ADVERTISING
According to Katler

“The purpose of advertising is to enhance potential buyers’ responses to the organization and its offering. It seeks to do so by providing information, by trying to canalize desires and by supplying reasons for preferring the particular organization’s offerings.”


THE MEDIA OF ADVERTISING
Advertising is promoted through the television, the radio, billboards, in the cinemas, in magazines, on cars, on football strips and even in the sky due to smoke trails.


TYPES OF ADVERTISEMENTS AND EFFECT
The size of an advertisement should not really have an effect on the way we choose to consume our product, although it often does. There are two main types of advertisements i.e. classified advertisements and glossy advertisements. Classified advertisements are for the purpose of a perspective consumer who knows exactly what he/she is looking for. They are usually situated at the back of a newspaper and can be easily found. Glossy advertisements are big and bright which are placed in between articles in magazines. Their purpose is to catch the attention of a reader. Glossy advertisement work extremely well and serve their purpose to the limit.

EFFECTS OF ADVERTISEMENTS
According to a research study conducted in America

“Every year, each typical American watches 1550 hours of TV, listens 1160 hours on radio, and spends 290 hours reading newspapers and magazines. So watches 100 TV advertisements, 100 to 300 ads through other mass media and on one year receives 216 pieces of direct mail advertising and almost 50 phone calls from telemarketers.”

Sellers of everything from computers to detergents believe that advertising is essential to the product. They try to make us believe that our lives will be incomplete without a certain product. Advertising can be extremely powerful and overwhelming. Different types of advertisements appeal to different people in different ways. Different advertisements play on different peoples vanities. Advertisers try to sell us dreams of success and friendship.


TELEVISED ADVERTISING
Television advertisements now take up about a quarter of the time available for screening. They have always been popular but recently have been at their peak. Programmes or films broadcast on Geo TV or ARY Digital are split into four twenty-minute intervals with a three-minute commercial break in between screenings.

Televisions advertisements can be screened at any time of the day, as long as they are suitable for all the members of a family audience during family television time, and not just adults. TV advertisers also have to consider the wide range group of people watching these advertisements. This is why they are often at a level of loss regarding target audience because they do not always take time factor into consideration. For instance, an advertisement shown at peak time (between six O’clock and nine O’ clock) would be a lot more expensive to broadcast than an advertisement shown at two thirty owing to the amount of people viewing the advertisement.
A lot of the top brand names are now sponsoring television programmes so they can promote their own advertisements in the commercial breaks provided. In West, Coronation Street is probably the most classic example as it was one of the first companies to sponsor a television programmes ever. Every consumer can guarantee that during every commercial break, the company that has sponsored the programme show one of their advertisements. This can get extremely tiresome and irritating.

This can work two ways with the viewers: it will rather coax people into watching the next commercial break to see it again or it could cause them to turn to a different channel and watch something else. The sponsorship usually has an introduction and an ending enrolment, where they can talk about their link between the programme and the company.

One of the largest aspects of advertising slots here is “The expense”. The expense of an advertisement is in fact very logical. The larger your advertisement becomes the more expensive it becomes and vice versa. It is exactly the same principle for the number of characters that are used in a classified advertisement, or the number of colour pictures that are placed in a magazine advertisement.

People have a vast effect on the expense of an advertisement, especially if they speak. The price will obviously become a lot steeper if you use a super model or any film star in an advertisement rather than an attractive member of the general public.

Advertisements on the television work slightly differently but have exactly the same concept. They become extremely expensive when the advertisement reaches a peak time of thirty seconds.


PRINTED ADVERTISING
A lot of advertisements are duplicated and published in every shape, way or form possible. For instance an advertisement is usually designed and made into a glossy advertisement, a classified advertisement, a television advertisement and so forth. By doing so they can appeal to everybody’s senses and so that they can use different ways of promoting their product.
Although the advertisement will be based on the same background, a few alterations are usually made, depending on what magazine it is for, and where about it is going to be situated. If the product your were promoting was a perfume, you could allow the perspective consumer to smell its contents in a magazine, whereas on the television this just is not possible. These alterations are made so that all aspects and dimensions of the promotion scheme have been briefly touched.


THE GLAMOUR OF ADVERTISING
On the whole, all the advertisements promoting one product physically join together to create the complete image. Advertisers are very devious people, who like to use clever persuasive language to add quality and style to their advertisements. Advertisements attract people’s attitude for a variety of reasons. Mostly because they appeal to people’s vanities. They may use persuasive language, or language in the from of a catch phrase or slogan, in the hope that it will remain in the buyers mind.

The producer of the advertisement may try to hide the direct message from the perspective consumer by inventing a catchy slogan. This is known as subliminal. It is important to choose the right language for the right occasion.

A glossy advertisement’s aim is to attract your attention when you are not specifically looking for anything. This is precisely what this advertisement does. It will transform the perspective consumers mind into believing that if they spray the perfume on themselves then it will attract people like it does to the model in the advertisement. The name of the perfume is particularly ironic as it is called ‘Obsession’. The perspective consumer may be led to believe that if she consumes the perfume and sprays it she might be transformed into a beauty like the model of the advertisement. This is why they use attractive people.

If any other image behind the advertisement does not grasp attention then model’s beauty certainly will. Although in most advertisements the pretty girl or the handsome young male does not really have anything or little to do with the advertisement; but in this particular advertisement the pretty girl is the key to the subliminal message hidden in the name of the perfume and the image.

Advertisers appeal directly to people’s insecurities whether it is to do with job or friendship. All advertises offer success in these subjects, and say that they will provide you with the dream you never thought possible. Many advertisers know that we cannot escape advertising unless we go to one of few places that are totally natural and unspoiled. This is why a lot of the advertisers associate the product they are trying to promote with paradise, the most natural place in the world. This may also gives convenience the consumer to consume the product, for that feeling of freedom and self indulgence. Many advertisers state that a certain product will offer you that feeling of gives completion, and security you always dreamed about.
Many people will go to extreme measures to make themselves feel physically better about their appearance or their life in the slightest way possible. Every old enough person buys a product to get his youth back due to an advertisement at one time or another. If this applies to common consumer, the he buys the product due to the advertisement appealing to him through one of the following categories.
  • Exploitation of weaknesses: Avarice, this is where the products that are sold are rather bargains or they offer free gifts e.g. money saving coupons or the change of winning a free prize.
  • Gluttony: Advertisement that appeals to people due to greed for food or drink.
  • Envy: Advertisements that suggest you need a product to make you a happy, beautiful, successful or as prosperous as your friends.
  • Pride: This involves the advertisements which dwell on exclusive products which enable them to show that they are situated in the upper class.
  • Sloth: Advertiser that offer ease, comfort, and plenty of leisure-time.
  • Exploitation of Fears: Maybe the advertisements appealed to people due to exploitation. Advertisements may appeal to people’s fears so that believe that they are the same as everyone else, and are not loosing out in some way.
  • Personal Success: A lot of advertises promise success in love, friendship, and so on if people consume and use a certain product.
  • Conformity: Many people hate to be different and gain pleasure from being the same as everyone else. Advertisers promoting this dream seem to emphasize the ‘thousand of satisfied customers’ offer.
  • Security: Advertisers of this kind offer a cozy, safe life, free from devastation. Advertisers often offer insurance policies to present this aspect.
  • Identification: Advertisers may use a well-known figure in their advertisement to pursue the fact that if he/she approves of it then everyone can approve of it.
  • Respect: Scientists, doctors, nurses, etc. may be used in advertisements to give a feeling of credibility with the public.
  • Maternal, Paternal love: These advertisements suggest that the mother/father who really cares for their child will buy this product.
  • Health: These advertisements often show “BEFORE” and “AFTER” pictures. They create the fear of an illness and then a cure.
ADVERTISING AND HUMOUR
Some advertisers add humour to their advertisements. This is recognized mostly in television advertisements as it is extremely difficult to do this in magazine advertisement. Other advertisers create a double meaning in the advertisement. These work because they make you stop and think about what the advertisement is really projecting. This image is usually created through the language and is relatively easy to pick out. It may make the advertisement amusing or add other dimensions to the message contained in the advertisement.

The world of advertising is extremely powerful. For some people it is beyond their means. Some people proclaim that they could not live without advertising. While others state that they cannot live with it. Advertisements can often be very misleading and although it is against the law to lie to the perspective consumer, advertisers are extremely crafty, devious people and will often find a way around this. Advertisers often say that a product such as a necklace will make you more beautiful. This is not entirely true. Although it may make you look and feel more elegant and beautiful it is not actually changing your appearance just making you feel better on the inner shell.

Advertising is well-established more a less over the world. The Americans have got to be the most developed country when advertising is involved. They have the most glamorous garments and places to advertise in the world. They have recently introduced to the British a new shopping channel.

This enables the perspective consumer to see an advertisement containing the product, view the product and send and pay for it there by cash card. This has proved to be a great hit as advertising is so powerful and popular all over the world.


ADVERTISING IN WEST
The Americans have recently considered splitting all their programmes, films and chat shows into fifteen-minute sections with a five minute commercial break. This will barely give the viewers enough time to get comfortable with the programme when it will time for a commercial break. At the present time a traditional programme in England lasts for approximately an hour.

This would include anything from two to four breaks. During a commercial break there can be anything from five to eight advertisements depending on the time of each. A single advertisement during the commercial break lasts approximately to forty-five seconds. The whole commercial break will last for approximately four seconds.


ASSOCIATION WITH PERCEPTION
Most people think of an item and then associate with something else especially when it comes to advertising. If you talk about a certain product then most people have an image that comes straight to mind. For example, if someone talks about a diamond ring, the image of a couple in a restaurant comes to mind, enjoying a candle light dinner. The thought of an engagement springs to mind. This will not be everyone’s first thought at the mention of diamonds. Some people may think of a shop window full of rings or a diamond mine. This is what is meant by association. It can also be related to the setting of the advertisement or the people you chose to use in the advertisement. It all depends on who is designing and creating the advertisement and what they associate with the product being.


INTEGRAL PART OF MODERN AGE
Advertising plays an important part of everyone’s life in society. Life would be extremely tedious and dismal without the techniques of advertisement. There would be no advertisement in show windows, no billboards placed in the streets, no glossy advertisements in between article and no classified advertisements for people who know exactly what they are looking for. Imagine going into your local shop asking if they sold a new product, they would have probably never heard of it whereas everyone hears of a new product if it is promoted through advertising.


ADVERTISING IN POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE
Although the main end of advertising is to promote a product yet there are other types of advertisements that ask of your assistance or your vote. Recently all the political parties have made advertisements to advertise their party, its purpose and what it is a party aims to do in future years. It also explains how each partly would like to its country run and what changes it would like to make.
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Last edited by Last Island; Friday, March 30, 2007 at 10:11 PM.
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Old Monday, March 05, 2007
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Default Advertising ethics

The advertisers must know something about everything. There is no question of getting into a mood. They must employ good, convincing, creative people. They should be good at public relations. Presentation is very important also. It should be locally available. Advertising agencies offer their services e.g. CONTACT. Their line is CONTACT US, WE WILL CONTRACT OTHER FOR YOU.

Advertising can have a negative effect for it may be a bit vulgar, so there should be ethics for these two.

Advertising association is not free but work under APNS. It has made ethics for advertisement. Which are:
  1. Members shall take all reasonable precautions to ensure that the advertising accepted by them is legal, clear, honest.
  2. Members shall not favour direct advertisers by giving them better facilities such as lower rates, preferential positions, commission or supplying art work at nominal rates.
  3. Members shall not give commission to any direct advertiser. Any advertising agency (not approved) may be allowed commission not exceeding 6 1/4%
  4. No members shall allow work more than 15% commission to an advertising agency.
  5. No members shall accept business at rates lower than its schedule rate except for charitable organization. Any change in the scheduled rates shall be notified to the society before such change is enforced.
  6. If any member infringes any of the above rules or any other rules made by the society, such a member shall be liable to any action penalty provided under the rules of the constitution of society.
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Last edited by Last Island; Monday, March 05, 2007 at 04:47 PM.
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