Thursday, February 02, 2023
08:29 PM (GMT +5)

Go Back   CSS Forums > CSS Optional subjects > Group VII > Journalism & Mass Communication

Journalism & Mass Communication Notes and Topics on Journalism

Reply Share Thread: Submit Thread to Facebook Facebook     Submit Thread to Twitter Twitter     Submit Thread to Google+ Google+    
 
LinkBack Thread Tools Search this Thread
  #11  
Old Monday, August 19, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default Jounalism notes 9

ABSOLUTE VS. RESPONSIBLE FREEDOM
Definition of the word freedom

Freedom means to be really free and able to do exactly:
• whatever you want
• when ever you want
• how ever you want
• with who ever you want
Freedom is the basis for Love to develop and the basis for health and the basis of general well being and happiness in your life.
Freedom is one of the most valuable gifts God gave to mankind. It is one of the most powerful as well, it let's you feel like a child of God - made to the image of God. But who of you truly feels like a child of
God, who of you can truly say "I am free!”? Let's have a look at freedom, what it is, how it feels and how to restore it.
To know exactly what freedom is, we may first have a look at a few examples of the opposite of freedom.
The opposite of freedom is slavery.
The old fashioned slavery, where a person was property of another person still exists in certain countries -
however usually in different forms than earlier. Modern slavery is different and often in disguise. Hundreds of Millions of people on this planet feel uncomfortable without knowing why. Often it is due to lack of absolute freedom. Freedom to do whatever they want, whenever they want. Politicians may be slaves of their political party, of their own ideas, of their own beliefs and desires, of their own career or of their wish to be in a reputable position and to be mighty.Citizens may be slaves of their country, of the politics in their country, being restricted in their activities,restricted in the free expression of their opinion, selection of jobs, selection of the educational system of their own choice, to travel or leave their own country. Managers may be slaves of their own business, position, investment, system, ideas, and projects.Children and babies may loose their freedom to their parents, to their teachers, to educational systems, to the government who deprives them of many potential rights and their divine freedom while being children, to the church or religion they have been made to belong to.Concept of Freedom When you have truly realized absolute freedom in your life, then you certainly know exactly how it feels to be free and what freedom is. To circumscribe or define the status of absolute Divine freedom may be difficult. Freedom is, if any day, any second of each day’s time you can do exactly what you want, what you decide, you can be where you want to be and then you are free. The vast majority of the world's population at present has little or no freedom at all, without being put in jail. Their mind, country, job or home is their jails. Most of the world's population has put themselves into jail without realizing it. To make you fully aware of the definition of freedom I'll describe a few examples of various situations in life where people currently have lost their freedom partially or completely on this planet. From these situations described you may derive a full understanding of the definition of freedom and get a clear and shocking picture of your own status of freedom within yourself.
Individuality, Freedom and Ethics.
The modern conception of man is characterized, more than anything else, by individualism.
Existentialism can be seen as a rigorous attempt to work out the implications of this individualism. The
purpose of this lecture is to makes sense of the Existentialist conception of individuality and the answers
it gives to these three questions:
(1) what is human freedom? What can the absolute freedom of absolute
individuals mean?
(2) What is human flourishing or human happiness? What general ethic or way of life emerges when we take our individuality seriously?
(3) What ought we to do? What ethics or code of action can emerge from a position that takes our individuality seriously?
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
  #12  
Old Monday, August 19, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default Jounalism notes 10

The Ethics of Absolute Freedom
This conception of happiness, however, raises our third question: How ought we to act towards other people? If the source of our value and nature is wholly internal, what obligations can I have to other humans? Can I freely and authentically choose to kill my mother, as Orestes does? Can I choose to be a murderer, a thief, or an exploiter of humanity? Is it true, as some Existentialist were fond of pointing out, that if God is dead then all things are allowable? The ethics of absolute freedom, it would seem, are not absolutely free. To be free we must take on the responsibility of choosing for all men, we must desire and work for the freedom of all men, and we must create ourselves within the context of the relationships and obligations we have to other people.Is the ethic of absolute freedom a portrait of human greatness? Human excellence often defines itself in the struggle against the forces that oppose human flourishing. Existentialism attempts to find happiness, value, and meaning in a modern world characterized by isolation, in authenticity, and absurdity. It attempts to see what human excellence can consist of if we find ourselves to be islands of subjectivity in an otherwise objective world. You will certainly want to ask if this is in fact what we find ourselves to be, but can it be doubted that the Existentialist attempt to find meaning in the face of absurdity exemplifies the basic drive that all portraits of human excellence must embody.
Responsibilities of Freedom
Whenever one begins to write down "rules" and develop structures and social theories invariably a cry comes out about limiting freedom. This cry is often ignored, we do not wish to ignore it, it deserves an answer, though not a particularly polite one.
Individualism Is Oppression
Freedom, along with many other words we use in political debate, has been twisted by rhetoric and spin to the point that it is almost simply propaganda. The "freedoms" we talk about almost invariably require that others provide for our actions. We rarely speak of the freedom to walk down the street, or the freedom to grow our own food, we often speak of the right to housing (which must be built) or food (which must be harvested), or this that or the next thing. Insofar as our "freedoms" require the work of others they are not
libratory, they are oppressive, they are privileges, not rights, and in the interest of justice they require our equitable participation and labor. To attempt to disclaim responsibility for this work, for the labor which must be expended to have "freedom" by necessity denies freedom to others, it is no less oppressive then slavery or war and it is in fact the tacit demand for both.
Responsibilities of Freedom
Whenever one begins to write down "rules" and develop structures and social theories invariably a cry comes out about limiting freedom. This cry is often ignored, we do not wish to ignore it, it deserves an answer, though not a particularly polite one.
Individualism Is Oppression:
Freedom, along with many other words we use in political debate, has been twisted by rhetoric and spin to the point that it is almost simply propaganda. The "freedoms" we talk about almost invariably require that others provide for our actions. We rarely speak of the freedom to walk down the street, or the freedom to grow our own food, we often speak of the right to housing (which must be built) or food (which must be harvested), or this that or the next thing. Insofar as our "freedoms" require the work of others they are not
libratory, they are oppressive, they are privileges, not rights, and in the interest of justice they require our equitable participation and labor. To attempt to disclaim responsibility for this work, for the labor which must be expended to have "freedom" by necessity denies freedom to others, it is no less oppressive then slavery or war and it is infact the tacit demand for both.
Responsible Freedom:
We could claim the right to the freedom to do whatever we are capable of, and some people do this. It would be difficult to argue that claiming the right to all that is possible is in any way conducive to justice.If it were so injustice would be impossible, and it would not be an issue. This is clearly not the case.
What then do we have the just freedom to do? What actions does justice grant us the right to perform?Can we construct a just freedom which is not, in fact, a responsibility as well? We have the just right to the freedom and means to perform at least as much labor as we require providing for ourselves as well as the freedom to demand and hold responsible all others to the same criteria. We further have the just right to not be oppressed, not oppress, and not permit oppression. It is commonly claimed that choice is necessary for freedom, and this is to some extent true, but only within limits. Are we free to choose not to be free? Are we free to choose not to respect the freedoms, rights, and responsibilities of others? Clearly we can not justly claim boundless freedom of choice, we must constrain our right to choice to the point that they do not infringe upon the freedoms or rights of others, either though action or inaction, and that this responsibility extends beyond the obvious to the consequences of all which we actively or tacitly support. It is a common tenant of law that malice is more damnable then neglect. Justice leaves us no such sanction; inaction is only possible to the dead. Only the ridiculous oversimplifications of law allow for the assertion that one did nothing. If one simply breaths and eats one requires that food is grown. By consuming that which has been made available through human labor, one becomes fully culpable for the
consequence of the act of non-contribution.
Since we are justly responsible for what we do, and to equitably contribute to what is done for us, and as we must eat, breathe and have shelter in order to live, justice then require that the living must act and contribute. We must therefore accept that there is no just freedom without this responsibility, that "freedom" without this responsibility is not freedom at all, but the act of enslavement of others. To any question of "rules" we should then ask: Is this rule non-conducive to justice? Can we honesty act contrary to this rule without contributing to the oppression of others? If we can not answer these questions in the affirmative then we must accept that these "rules" are statements of responsibilities, responsibilities which we already have, weather we have been living up to them or not.

Conclusion
God given freedom - given to all mankind means ZERO limits in anything you ever want to do or however you want to do it. Freedom means also to move freely around all planets, free of borders, free of administration, free of visa or other requirements. Freedom is the result of God's infinite and eternal love - at home in God all will enjoy eternal freedom. Any restriction of freedom is the result of ego only and needs to be dissolved. Any - even smallest restriction of God given freedom is always against God. All are free by divinebirthright - all will be free when ever they decide to return home. At home in God no single person ever can restrict freedom of anyone as freedom is above human laws. Divine freedom eternally and infinitely is always above all human laws - anyone to select his freedom and making use of his freedom always benefits form God's help, grace and mercy - provided he achieves his
freedom with love and only love.
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
  #13  
Old Monday, August 19, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default Jounalism notes 11

ETHICS IN PUBLIC RELATIONS
Definition


The term Public Relations was first used by the US President Thomas Jefferson during his address toCongress in 1807.One of the earliest definitions of PR was created by Edward Bernays. According to him, "Public Relations is a management function which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures and interest of an organization followed by executing a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance." Examples/users of public relations include:
• Corporations using marketing public relations (MPR) to convey information about the products
they manufacture or services they provide to potential customers in order to support their direct
sales efforts. Typically, they support sales in the short to long term, establishing and burnishing
the corporation's branding for a strong, ongoing market.
• Corporations using public relations as a vehicle to reach legislators and other politicians, in
seeking favorable tax, regulatory, and other treatment. Moreover, they may use public relations to
portray themselves as enlightened employers, in support of human-resources recruiting programs.
• Non-profit organizations, including schools and universities, hospitals, and human and social
service agencies: such organizations may make use of public relations in support of awareness
programs, fund-raising programs, staff recruiting, and to increase patronage of their services.
• Politicians aiming to attract votes and/or raise money. When such campaigns are successful at the
ballot box, this helps in promoting and defending their service in office, with an eye to the next election or, at a career’s end, to their legacy. Today "Public Relations is a set of management, supervisory, and technical functions that foster an organization's ability to strategically listen to, appreciate and respond to those persons whose mutually beneficial relationships with the organization are necessary if it is to achieve its missions and values." Essentially it is a management function that focuses on two-way communication and fostering of mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and its publics.
History
Evidence of the practices used in modern day public relations are scattered through history. One notable practitioner was Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire whose efforts on behalf of Charles James Fox in the 18th century included press relations, lobbying and, with her friends, celebrity campaigning. A number of American precursors to public relations are found in publicists who specialized in promoting circuses, theatrical performances, and other public spectacles. In the United States, where public relations has its origins, many early PR practices were developed in support of the expansive power of the railroads. In fact, many scholars believe that the first appearance of the term "public relations" appeared in the 1897 Year Book of Railway Literature. Later, PR practitioners were—and are still often—recruited from the ranks of journalism. Some reporters, concerned with ethics, criticize former colleagues for using their inside understanding of news media to help clients receive favorable media coverage.
In the United Kingdom Sir Basil Clarke (1879-12 Dec 1947) was an early pioneer of public relations (PR. Despite many journalists' discomfort with the field of public relations, well-paid PR positions remain a popular choice for reporters and editors forced into a career change by the instability and often fewer economic opportunities provided by the print and electronic media industry.

Persuasion & Public Relation

Much of what we know of modern business, industry, entertainment, government, even religion, has been shaped by the practice of public relations. The act of helping an organization and its public adapt to each
other or to “win the corporation of groups of people” calls on practitioners to “establish and maintain

mutual lines of communications” to manage problems or issues, to help management respond to public opinion and to use change in a positive way, to “serve as an early warning system and to help management understand how best to serve the public interest. In other words practitioners are asked to serve a variety of roles within the organization, including those of spokesperson, listener, planner, surveyor and counselor. Such a daunting task list has prompted calls for increased emphasis on ethical practice. The two largest organizations have adopted formal codes of ethical practice, each with something distinctive within the field of professional communication ethics enforcement process.
Standards
In 1950 PRSA enacts the first "Professional Standards for the Practice of Public Relations," a forerunner to the current Code of Ethics, last revised in 2000 to include six core values and six code provisions. The six core values are "Advocacy, Honesty, Expertise, Independence, Loyalty, and Fairness." The six code provisions consulted with are "Free Flow of Information, Competition, Disclosure of Information,Safeguarding Confidences, Conflicts of Interest, and Enhancing the Profession."In 1982 effective Public Relations helped save the Johnson & Johnson Corporation, after the highly
publicized Tylenol poisoning crisis.
Public Relations Ethics Challenges
It's a pretty scary world we work in these days. Public relations activities of influence, and that includes such simple activities as communications meant to educate, are being closely scrutinized. The general public is on our case, the news media is on our case, and even we are on our own case.At a time when the public relations profession is most needed, at a time when institutions and values are being attacked from all sides, we are taking our lumps -- and mighty big lumps they are. "Spin doctors," "PR ploy," "PR maneuver," "PR effort" -- these denigrating epithets abounds in the news media and in normal, daily conversations between normal, educated citizens. More and more, people are paying attention to what we as public relations professionals are doing. And more and more, they're calling us on actions they consider unethical.Let's face it, folks. The "ethics police" are here. They're outside your door, they're on the street, they're in their homes, they're in front of their TV sets, and they’re in their cars listening to their radios. Why, and they’re even in your own offices.Every minute of the day, every day of the year, know that you are being watched. The ethics police are looking hard for conflicts of interest, they're looking hard for improprieties, they're atching for a slip-up,they're itching for a fight, and they’re waiting to pounce. But you know what? They have every right to. After all, public relations is an advocacy profession. Our ultimate goal is to influence public opinion. Our ultimate objective is to get people to take positive action on behalf of our client, organization or cause. And that in itself is controversial.
Three Ethics Systems
Before we talk about some solutions and present some thoughts that will help you, let's examine ethics itself. The question of what is right and what is wrong is not an easy one. We all have our personal ethical standards; each of ours is different. Let's begin with a look at three basic ethical systems: Deontology, teleology, and Aristotle's Golden Mean.
Deontology:
This system is duty-based and relies on moral obligation. Deontological ethics says that all actions are inherently right or wrong. This system depends on the inner-based, self-discipline of each individual public relations practitioner, and because we are all human, and of different environmental backgrounds, it changes from person to person, depending on their own cultural and traditional biases.

Teleology:

This system is outcome-based. Teleological ethicists believe that "the ends justify the means." While this system has had its detractors, there is considerable historical precedence, and deserves extended discussion. Christianity, for example, began with one man battling what he considered corrupt religion. Jesus Christ used what we today would call classic public relations techniques: He used the two-step flow theory of communication, He did a lot of public appearances, He staged special events, He identified and targeted specific audiences, and He adapted His message to each audience. In the case of Christianity, did the ends justify the means?
Today, the techniques being used by Greenpeace bear watching. Only history will tell if their activities of civil disobedience as once described by Henry David Thoreau bring changes for the better good in the end.
Aristotle's Golden Mean:
This system is based on what's best for the majority, the greatest good for greatest number. This is generally the system used in a democracy (rule of the majority with respect for the minority), where the minority sometimes has to sacrifice something of value if it's good for the country as a whole. This ends our quick lesson on ethical systems. Let's turn now to knowledge and truth.
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
  #14  
Old Monday, August 19, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default Jounalism notes 12

This ends our quick lesson on ethical systems. Let's turn now to knowledge and truth.
PR's "Advocate Trilemma"
We public relations professionals have a problem. It's something known as "The Advocate Trilemma." As counselors, we need to know everything about a company, organization or cause. This is indisputable. We cannot fulfil our responsibilities without this knowledge. And yet, because of our loyalties to our employer or client, we must keep it confidential. No matter how open and candid we wish to be, there are some things (e.g., trade secrets, business strategies, employee information) that must be kept in confidence. And yet, as the conscience of business, as the company's liaison with the public, we have a duty and obligation to reveal it to the public, even if we could lose our job or hurt others -- including our own dear family members -- in the process. Which brings us to a defining question for public relations practitioners: "What is the threshold beyond which an advocate may not ethically go? Is there some point at which we can say "It is ethical for me to do this one thing, but if I change this one particular element a mere 0.01%, then it becomes ethical"? Where then is the line beyond which public relations counselors are morally obligated to sacrifice self and client for a larger social good? And if such a line exists, then how to we know when we've crossed it?
Is It A Matter Of 'Truth'?
Is it question of truth? The word truth in big, honking capital letters implies that there is only one truth. It can make anyone nervous. TRUTH has a bullying, assertive tone. It lacks humility, and it presents a posture of undeniable, inescapable superiority. Like some people we've all come across, it has an "Iknow- better-than-you" quality that quite frankly, can get on your nerves.
Serving the "5 Masters"
I have no simple solutions to the public relations dilemmas you will face. But I do offer a simple guide. I call it "Serving the 5 Masters." In their book, Public Relations Ethics, Philip Seib and Kathy Fitzpatrick talked about five duties of public relations professionals. These are the 5 Masters that I referred to -- self, client, employer, profession and society.
When faced with an ethical dilemma, look first within yourself at your own values. These will guide decisions based on what you truly believe is right or wrong (remember "deontology"?). Ask yourself, "Can I sacrifice my own personal values for the client, for my employer, for my profession, or for
society?"
The client is generally the first loyalty beyond self (you can substitute the word "organization" if you don't do work for clients). Decide if you are doing work for the client or organization, or if it's for the "cause" that they represent. Remember—as long as you work for a client, there are some confidences that you must keep. Ask yourself, "Knowing what I know, can I represent the client, do what has to be done, and still sleep well at night?"
Your employer signs your paycheck. No work, no public relations ethics decisions. It's as easy as that. But if you knowingly allow harmful work to continue, you'll be violating your duty to the public, which
many would agree takes precedence over duty to employer. Ask yourself, "Is the work I'm being asked to do harmful to the public?"
As a public relations professional, you are obligated to support your colleagues. You are obligated to be responsible to your peers. To produce unprofessional work is unethical. Allowing others to produce
unprofessional work borders on being unethical. Ask yourself, "Is what I'm about to do professional? Is it what my role models would do?"
Finally, society is the key component to ethical public relations decisions. We must serve the public interest. I believe that this particular master takes precedence over all the others, including self. Ask yourself, "Will my decision benefit society, even if I hurt myself, my client, my employer or my
profession?" That is the toughest question to answer. But nobody said this was easy. There is no right or wrong answers. There are only courageous decisions.

We need to suggest and adopt standards of organizational and individual behavior. If your organization has an ethics policy, make sure you communicate it properly to your employees or members, to your
board, to your management, and to your customers and other stakeholders.
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
  #15  
Old Monday, August 19, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default Jounalism notes 13

ETHICS IN ADVERTISING
Advertising is paid, one-way communication through a medium in which the sponsor is identified and the message is controlled by the sponsor. Variations include publicity, public relations, etc.. Every major medium is used to deliver these messages, including: television, radio, movies, magazines, newspapers,
video games, the Internet (see Internet advertising), and billboards.
Advertising is a paid form of communicating a message by the use of various media. It is persuasive,informative and designed to influence purchasing behaviour or thought pattern.
Advertisements can also be seen on the seats of grocery carts, on the walls of an airport walkway, on the sides of buses, heard in telephone hold messages and in-store public address systems. Advertisements are
usually placed anywhere an audience can easily and/or frequently access visuals and/or audio.
Advertising clients are predominantly, but not exclusively, profit-generating corporations seeking to increase demand for their products or services. Some organizations which frequently spend large sums of money on advertising but do not strictly sell a product or service to the general public include: political
parties, interest groups, religion-supporting organizations, and militaries looking for new recruits.
Additionally, some non-profit organizations are not typical advertising clients and rely upon free
channels, such as public service announcements.
History
Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of ancient Arabia.
Egyptians used papyrus to create sales messages and wall posters, while lost-and-found advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial.
advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America.
The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock-art paintings that date back to 4000 BC.
As printing developed in the 15th and 16th century, advertising expanded to include handbills. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote: books and newspapers, which became increasingly
affordable due to the printing press; and medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content.
In 1841, the first advertising agency was established by Volney Palmer in Boston. It was also the first
agency to charge a commission on ads at 25% commission paid by newspaper publishers to sell space to
advertisers
At the turn of the century, there were few career choices for women in business; however, advertising was
one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in their household, advertisers and agencies recognized the value of women's insight during the creative process.
Importance
The importance of advertising is "steadily on the increase in modern society. Just as the media of social
communication themselves have enormous influence everywhere, so advertising, using media as its
vehicle, is a pervasive, powerful force shaping attitudes and behavior in today's world.
The responsibility of media is to contribute to the authentic, integral development of persons and to foster the well being of society. "The information provided by the media is at the service of the common good.
Society has a right to information based on truth, freedom, justice and solidarity." It is in this spirit that calls attention to moral principles and norms relevant to social communications, as to other forms of human endeavor, while criticizing policies and practices that offend against these
standards.
Advertising can and does make positive contribution. In today's society, advertising has a profound impact on how people understand life, the world and themselves, especially in regard to their values and their ways of choosing and behaving. These are matters about which we must be deeply and sincerely concerned.

The field of advertising is extremely broad and diverse. In general terms, of course, an advertisement is simply a public notice meant to convey information and invite patronage or some other response. As that
suggests, advertising has two basic purposes: to inform and to persuade, and — while these purposes are distinguishable — both very often are simultaneously present.
Advertising is not the same as marketing (the complex of commercial functions involved in transferring goods from producers and consumers) or public relations (the systematic effort to create a favorable public impression or image of some person, group, or entity). In many cases, though, it is a technique or instrument employed by one or both of these.
Advertising can be very simple or it can be very complex, involving sophisticated research and multimedia campaigns that span the globe. It differs according to its intended audience, so that, for example, advertising aimed at children raises some technical and moral issues significantly different from those raised by advertising aimed at competent adults.
Not only are many different media and techniques employed in advertising; advertising itself is of several
different kinds: commercial advertising for products and services; public service advertising on behalf of various institutions, programs, and causes; and a phenomenon of growing importance today ,political advertising in the interests of parties and candidates. Making allowance for the differences among the different kinds and methods of advertising, we intend what follows to be applicable to them all.
Advertisers are selective about the values and attitudes to be fostered and encouraged, promoting some while ignoring others. This selectivity gives the lie to the notion that advertising does no more than reflect the surrounding culture
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
  #16  
Old Monday, August 19, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default journalism 14

The Benefits of Advertising
Enormous human and material resources are devoted to advertising. Advertising is everywhere in today's world, so that, as “No one now can escape the influence of advertising." Even people who are not
themselves exposed to particular forms of advertising confront a society, a culture — other people — affected for good or ill by advertising messages and techniques of every sort.
Some critics view this state of affairs in unrelieved negative terms. They condemn advertising as a waste of time, talent and money — an essentially parasitic activity. In this view, not only does advertising have no value of its own, but its influence is entirely harmful and corrupting for individuals and society. There is truth to the criticisms, and we shall make criticisms of our own. But advertising also has significant potential for good, and sometimes it is realized. Here are some of the ways that happens.
a) Economic Benefits of Advertising
Advertising can play an important role in the process by which an economic system guided by moral norms and responsive to the common good contributes to human development. It is a necessary part of the functioning of modern market economies, which today either exist or are emerging in many parts of the world and which, provided they conform to moral standards based upon integral human development and the common good, currently seem to be "the most efficient instrument for utilizing resources and
effectively responding to needs" of a socio-economic kind.
In such a system, advertising can be a useful tool for sustaining honest and ethically responsible competition that contributes to economic growth in the service of authentic human development.
Advertising does this, among other ways, by informing people about the availability of rationally desirable new products and services and improvements in existing ones, helping them to make informed, prudent consumer decisions, contributing to efficiency and the lowering of prices, and stimulating
economic progress through the expansion of business and trade. All of this can contribute to the creation of new jobs, higher incomes and a more decent and humane way of life for all. It also helps pay for publications, programming and productions that bring information, entertainment and inspiration to
people around the world.
b) Benefits of Political Advertising
It ensures the participation of citizens in making political choices, guarantees to the governed the possibility both of electing and holding accountable those who govern them, and of replacing them through peaceful means when appropriate."

Political advertising can make a contribution to democracy analogous to its contribution to economic well being in a market system guided by moral norms. As free and responsible media in a democratic system help to counteract tendencies toward the monopolization of power on the part of special interests, so political advertising can make its contribution by informing people about the ideas and policy proposals of parties and candidates, including new candidates not previously known to the public.
c) Cultural Benefits of Advertising
Because of the impact advertising has on media that depend on it for revenue, advertisers have an opportunity to exert a positive influence on decisions about media content. This they do by supporting material of excellent intellectual, aesthetic and moral quality presented with the public interest in view, and particularly by encouraging and making possible media presentations which are oriented to minorities whose needs might otherwise go unserved.
Moreover, advertising can itself contribute to the betterment of society by uplifting and inspiring people and motivating them to act in ways that benefit themselves and others. Advertising can brighten lives simply by being witty, tasteful and entertaining. Some advertisements are instances of popular art, with a vivacity all their own.
d) Moral and Religious Benefits of Advertising
In many cases, too, benevolent social institutions, including those of a religious nature, use advertising to communicate their messages — messages of faith, of patriotism, of tolerance, compassion and neighborly service, of charity toward the needy, messages concerning health and education, constructive and helpful messages that educate and motivate people in a variety of beneficial ways.
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
  #17  
Old Monday, August 19, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default journalism 15

Some Ethical and Moral Principles
If the media are to be correctly employed, it is essential that all who use them know the principles of the moral order and apply them faithfully in this domain. The moral order to which this refers is the order of the law of human nature, binding upon all because it is "written on their hearts” and embodies the imperatives of authentic human fulfillment.
In this context, the media of social communications have two options, and only two. Either they help human persons to grow in their understanding and practice of what is true and good, or they are destructive forces in conflict with human well being. That is entirely true of advertising.
Within this very general framework, we can identify several moral principles that are particularly relevant to advertising. We shall speak briefly of three: truthfulness, the dignity of the human person, and social
responsibility.
a) Truthfulness in Advertising

Even today, some advertising is simply and deliberately untrue. Generally speaking, though, the problem of truth in advertising is somewhat more subtle: it is not that advertising says what is overtly false, but that it can distort the truth by implying things that are not so or withholding relevant facts. To be sure, advertising, like other forms of expression, has its own conventions and forms of stylization, and these must be taken into account when discussing truthfulness. But it is a fundamental principle that advertising may not deliberately seek to deceive, whether it does that by what it says, by what it implies, or by what it fails to say. "The proper exercise of the right to information demands that the content of
what is communicated be true and, within the limits set by justice and charity, complete. ... Included here is the obligation to avoid any manipulation of truth for any reason."
b) The Dignity of the Human Person
There is an "imperative requirement” that advertising “respects the human person, his right duty to make a responsible choice, his interior freedom; all these goods would be violated if man's lower inclinations were to be exploited, or his capacity to reflect and decide compromised."
These abuses are not merely hypothetical possibilities but realities in much advertising today. Advertising can violate the dignity of the human person both through its content — what is advertised, the manner in
which it is advertised — and through the impact it seeks to make upon its audience. We have spoken already of such things as appeals to lust, vanity, envy and greed, and of techniques that manipulate and exploit human weakness. In such circumstances, advertisements readily become "vehicles of a deformed outlook on life, on the family, on religion and on morality an outlook that does not respect the true dignity and destiny of the human person." This problem is especially acute where particularly vulnerable groups or classes of persons are concerned:
children and young people, the elderly, the poor, the culturally disadvantaged.
Much advertising directed at children apparently tries to exploit their credulity and suggestibility, in the hope that they will put pressure on their parents to buy products of no real benefit to them. Advertising
like this offends against the dignity and rights of both children and parents; it intrudes upon the parentchild relationship and seeks to manipulate it to its own base ends. Also, some of the comparatively little advertising directed specifically to the elderly or culturally disadvantaged seems designed to play upon their fears so as to persuade them to allocate some of their limited resources to goods or services of dubious value.
C) Advertising and Social Responsibility
Social responsibility is such a broad concept that we can note here only a few of the many issues and concerns relevant under this heading to the question of advertising.
The ecological issue is one. Advertising that fosters a lavish life style which wastes resources and despoils the environment offends against important ecological concerns. "In his desire to have and to enjoy rather than to be and grow, man consumes the resources of the earth and his own life in an
excessive and disordered way.
As this suggests, something more fundamental is at issue here: authentic and integral human
development. Advertising that reduces human progress to acquiring material goods and cultivating a lavish life style expresses a false, destructive vision of the human person harmful to individuals and society alike.
When people fail to practice "a rigorous respect for the moral, cultural and spiritual requirements, based on the dignity of the person and on the proper identity of each community, beginning with the family and religious societies," then even material abundance and the conveniences that technology makes available "will prove unsatisfying and in the end contemptible."
Advertisers, like people engaged in other forms of social communication, have a serious duty to express and foster an authentic vision of human development in its material, cultural and spiritual dimensions.
Communication that meets this standard is, among other things, a true expression of solidarity. and the free circulation of ideas that further knowledge and respect for others.

CONCLUSION

The indispensable guarantors of ethically correct behavior by the advertising industry are the well formed and responsible consciences of advertising professionals themselves: consciences sensitive to their duty not merely to serve the interests of those who commission and finance their work but also to respect and uphold the rights and interests of their audiences and to serve the common good. Many women and men professionally engaged in advertising do have sensitive consciences, high ethical standards and a strong sense of responsibility Advertising professionals and all those involved in the process of commissioning and disseminating advertising can eliminate its socially harmful aspects and observe high ethical standards in regard to truthfulness, human dignity and social responsibility. In this way, they will make a special and significant contribution to human progress and to the common good.
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
  #18  
Old Monday, August 19, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default journalism 16

FREEDOM OF SPEECH & EXPRESSION
Freedom of speech is the concept of being able to speak freely without censorship. It is often regarded as an integral concept in modern liberal democracies. The right to freedom of speech is guaranteed under international law through numerous human rights instruments, notably under Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, although implementation remains lacking in many countries. The synonymous term freedom of expression is sometimes preferred, since the right is not confined to verbal speech but is understood to protect any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used.
In practice, the right to freedom of speech is not absolute in any country, although the degree of freedom varies greatly. Industrialized countries also have varying approaches to balance freedom with order. For instance, the United States First Amendment theoretically grants absolute freedom, placing the burden upon the state to demonstrate when (if) a limitation of this freedom is necessary. In almost all liberal democracies, it is generally recognized that restrictions should be the exception and free expression the rule; nevertheless, compliance with this principle is often lacking
Theories of free speech The most important justification for free speech is a general liberal or libertarian presumption against coercing individuals from living how they please and doing what they want. However, a number of more specific justifications are commonly proposed.
For example, Justice McLachlan of the Canadian Supreme Court identified the following in R. v.
Keegstra, a 1990 case on hate speech:
1. Free speech promotes "The free flow of ideas essential to political democracy and democratic institutions" and limits the ability of the state to subvert other rights and freedoms
2. It promotes a marketplace of ideas, which includes, but is not limited to, the search for truth
3. It is intrinsically valuable as part of the self-actualization of speakers and listeners
4. It is justified by the dangers for good government of allowing its suppression. Such reasons perhaps overlap. Together, they provide a widely accepted rationale for the recognition of freedom of speech as a basic civil liberty.
Each of these justifications can be elaborated in a variety of ways and some may need to be qualified. The first and fourth can be bracketed together as democratic justifications, or a justification relating to selfgovernance.
They relate to aspects of free speech's political role in a democratic society. The second is related to the discovery of truth. The third relates most closely to general libertarian values but stresses the particular importance of language, symbolism and representation for our lives and autonomy.
This analysis suggests a number of conclusions. First, there are powerful overlapping arguments for free speech as a basic political principle in any liberal democracy. Second, however, free speech is not a simple and absolute concept but a liberty that is justified by even deeper values. Third, the values implicit in the various justifications for free speech may not apply equally strongly to all kinds of speech in all circumstances.
Self-governance
Freedom of speech is crucial in any democracy, because open discussions of candidates are essential for voters to make informed decisions during elections. It is through speech that people can influence their government's choice of policies. Also, public officials are held accountable through criticisms that can pave the way for their replacement. The US Supreme Court has spoken of the ability to criticize government and government officials as "the central meaning of the First Amendment." New York Times
v. Sullivan. But "guarantees for speech and press are not the preserve of political expression or comment upon public affairs, essential as those are to healthy government." Time, Inc. v. Hill. Some suggest that when citizens refrain from voicing their discontent because they fear retribution, the government can no longer be responsive to them, thus it is less accountable for its actions. Defenders of free speech often allege that this is the main reason why governments suppress free speech – to avoid accountability.

However, it may be argued that some restrictions on freedom of speech may be compatible with democracy or even necessary to protect it. For example, such arguments are used to justify restrictions on the support of Nazi ideas in post-war.
Discovering truth
A classic argument for protecting freedom of speech as a fundamental right is that it is essential for the discovery of truth. This argument is particularly associated with the British philosopher John Stuart Mill.
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote that "the best test of truth is the power of the thought to get it accepted in the competition of the market, and that truth is the only ground upon which their wishes safely can be carried out." In Abrams v. United States Justice Holmes also invoked the powerful metaphor of the "marketplace of ideas." This marketplace of ideas rationale for freedom of speech has been criticized by scholars on the grounds that it is wrong to assume all ideas will enter the marketplace of ideas, and even if they do, some ideas may drown out others merely because they enjoy dissemination through superior resources.
The marketplace is also criticized for its assumption that truth will necessarily triumph over falsehood. It is visible throughout history that people may be swayed by emotion rather than reason, and even if truth
ultimately prevails, enormous harm can occur during the interim. However, even if these weaknesses of the marketplace of ideas are acknowledged, supporters argue that the alternative of government determination of truth and censorship of falsehoods is worse.
Alan Haworth in his book Free Speech (1998) has suggested that the metaphor of a marketplace of ideas is misleading. He argues that Mill's classic defence of free speech, in On Liberty, does not develop the idea of a market (as later suggested by Holmes) but essentially argues for the freedom to develop and discuss ideas in the search for truth or understanding. In developing this argument, Haworth says Mill pictured society not as a marketplace of ideas, but as something more like a large-scale academic seminar.
This implies the need for tacit standards of conduct and interaction, including some degree of mutual respect. That may well limit the kinds of speech that are justifiably protected.
Another way of putting this point is to concede Mill's claim that freedom of speech of certain kinds is needed for rational inquiry. This can support the claimed need to protect potentially unpopular ideas.
However, it can then be added that this does not necessarily lead to the conclusion that a wide range of speech, including offensive or insulting speech, must be given the same protection. As put by Mill, the argument can also be seen as somewhat elitist, since it may seem that relatively little speech or expression appeals primarily to the intellect. However, there are senses in which this justification can be extended beyond the speech of individuals who are involved in narrowly intellectual inquiry, such as scientists and academic scholars. In one sense, it merges with justifications based on autonomy; if it is interpreted as relating to the psychological need felt by individuals to pursue truth and understanding. In another sense, it may be extended to the protection of literature and art that has a claim to some kind of social value.
Promoting tolerance
Still another explanation is that freedom of speech is integral to tolerance, which some people feel should be a basic value in society. Professor Lee Bollinger is an advocate of this view and argues that "the free speech principle involves a special act of carving out one area of social interaction for extraordinary selfrestraint, the purpose of which is to develop and demonstrate a social capacity to control feelings evoked by a host of social encounters." The free speech principle is left with the concern of nothing less than helping to shape "the intellectual character of the society".
This claim is to say that tolerance is a desirable, if not essential, value, and that protecting unpopular
speech is itself an act of tolerance. Such tolerance serves as a model that encourages more tolerance throughout society. Critics argue that society need not be tolerant of the intolerance of others, such as those who advocate great harm, such as genocide. Preventing such harms is claimed to be much more important than being tolerant of those who argue for them.

Restrictions on free speech

Ever since the first consideration of the idea of 'free speech' it has been argued that the right to free speech is subject to restrictions and exceptions. A well-known example is typified by the statement that free.
speech does not allow falsely "shouting fire in a crowded theatre" (Schenck v. United States ) other limiting doctrines, including those of libel and obscenity, can also restrict freedom of speech.Various governing, controlling, or otherwise powerful bodies in many places around the world have attempted to change the opinion of the public or others by taking action that allegedly disadvantages one side of the argument. This attempt to assert some form of control through control of discourse has a long
history and has been theorized extensively by philosophers like Michel Foucault. Many consider these attempts at controlling debate to be attacks on free speech, even if no direct government censorship of ideas is involved.

Freedom of Press

Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its
citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published
reporting. It also extends to news gathering, and processes involved in obtaining information for public
distribution. Not all countries are protected by a bill of rights or the constitutional provision pertaining to
Freedom of the Press.
With respect to governmental information, a government distinguishes which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public based on classification of information as sensitive, classified or secret and being otherwise protected from disclosure due to relevance of the information to protecting the national interest. Many governments are also subject to sunshine laws or freedom of information legislation that are used to define the ambit of national interest.
In developed countries, freedom of the press implies that all people should have the right to express themselves in writing or in any other way of expression of personal opinion or creativity.
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to comp Engr For This Useful Post:
rockstar7j (Friday, September 20, 2013)
  #19  
Old Monday, August 19, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default journalism 17

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights indicates:
"Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers"
This philosophy is usually accompanied by legislation ensuring various degrees of freedom of scientific research (known as scientific freedom), publishing, press and printing the depth to which these laws are entrenched in a country's legal system can go as far down as its constitution. The concept of freedom of speech is often covered by the same laws as freedom of the press, thereby giving equal treatment to media and individuals.
Besides said legal environment, some non-governmental organizations use more criteria to judge the level of press freedom around the world. Reporters without Borders considers the number of journalists murdered, expelled or harassed, and the existence of a state monopoly on TV and radio, as well as the existence of censorship and self-censorship in the media, and the overall independence of media as well as the difficulties that foreign reporters may face. Freedom House likewise studies the more general political and economic environments of each nation in order to determine whether relationships of dependence exist that limit in practice the level of press freedom that might exist in theory. So the concept of independence of the press is one closely linked with the concept of press freedom.
The media as a necessity for the government
Elizabeth's notion of the press as the fourth branch of government is sometimes used to compare the press (or media) with Montesquieu's three branches of government, namely an addition to the legislative, the executive and the judicial branches. Edmund Burke is quoted to have said: "Three Estates in Parliament; but in the Reporters' Gallery yonder, there sat a Fourth estate more important far than they all."
The development of the Western media tradition is rather parallel to the development of democracy in Europe and the United States. On the ideological level, the first pioneers of freedom of the press were the liberal thinkers of the 18th and 19th centuries. They developed their ideas in opposition to the monarchist tradition in general and the divine right of kings in particular. These liberal theorists argued that freedom of press was a right claimed by the individual and grounded in natural law. Thus, freedom of the press was an integral part of the individual rights promoted by liberal ideology. Freedom of the press was (and still is) assumed by many to be a necessity to any democratic society. Other lines of thought later argued in favor of freedom of the press without relying on the controversial.

issue of natural law; for instance, freedom of expression began to be regarded as an essential component of the social contract (the agreement between a state and its people regarding the rights and duties that
each should have to the other).
Freedom of expression has always been emphasized as an essential basis for the democratic functioning of a society. The reasons for this are: the right of an individual to self-fulfillment, which right requires the communication of thought; the importance of constantly attempting to attaint he truth, an attempt which is frustrated if information is suppressed or comment blocked; the inherent democratic right to participate in decision-making, which obviously implies the freedom to obtain, communicate and discuss information,; and the practical importance of maintaining the precarious balance between healthy cleavage and the necessary consensus.
A further dimension to the freedom of expression is added by the existence of mass society in which communication among citizens can take place only through the use of media like the Press and broadcasting and not directly, except in a limited way. With State monopoly over broadcasting which prevails both technical and financial, the importance of the Press is even more crucial.
Our actual experience since Independence, and especially in the last decade or so, also suggests that a free and vigilant Press is vital to restrain corruption and injustice at least to the extent that public opinion can be roused as a result of press investigations and comments. Recently a number of injustices and wrongdoings have been uncovered as a result of the initiative taken by newspapers. Whether it is the question of various types of bonded labour in different parts of the country, the misuse of powers or the existence of smuggling rackets for example on the West Coast, newspapers have served a very useful purpose by exposing them. The fear that the Press will expose such wrong-doing is a major restraint on potential wrong-doers.

Who Threatens Freedom? Owners Structure
Having accepted that the freedom of the Press is of vital importance especially in our contest, the question arises: is this freedom threatened and, if so, by whom? It has been frequently alleged, especially in India, that the freedom of the Press is in danger because of the ownership of the newspaper industry and the predominance of some newspaper groups and chains. It is also suggested that the editors and journalists cannot have adequate freedom of collecting and disseminating facts and offering comments as they are under the pressure of the capitalist owners. It is further pointed out that free collection and dissemination of facts is not possible in the case of newspapers which depend to a large extent on revenue from advertisements as the advertising interests cannot but influence the presentation of news and comments. Unless this whole structure of ownership and control in the newspaper industry, and also the manner of the economic management of the Press, is changed, it is therefore suggested, the Press cannot be really free.
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
  #20  
Old Monday, August 19, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default journalism 18

Freedom of Press
World Press Freedom Committee

The World Press Freedom Committee is an international umbrella organization that includes 45 journalistic groups (print, online and broadcast, labor and management, journalists, editors, publishers and owners on six continents) united in the defense and promotion of press freedom in all media.
The WPFC is unique. It is the only press freedom group with primary focus on:
• Monitoring threats that develop at UNESCO, the UN and other leading intergovernmental organizations.
• Promoting a global common front against restrictions on news through leadership of a worldwide Coordinating Committee of Press Freedom Organizations, facilitating joint action and administering shared projects.
• Seeking to ensure press freedom is a primary consideration for the Internet and other new media. In the forefront of the struggle for a free press everywhere, WPFC
• Emphasizes monitoring, coordinating and vigorous advocacy of free-press principles.
• Is a watchdog for free news media at UNESCO, the UN, and OSCE, Council of Europe, European Union, UN Commission on Human Rights and other international meetings considering free-press issues?

• WPFC's Charter for a Free Press provides guideposts for press freedom wherever these are needed. It has been widely endorsed and available in a number of languages including Russian, Chinese and Arabic. A similar statement of principles for press freedom on the Internet also outlines conditions for press freedom there.
• A Fund against Censorship which WPFC administers in cooperation with other free-press groups extends self-help legal grants to help local news media around the world fight back when governments move in.
• In the years since its founding, WPFC also has completed nearly 200 training and related projects including publication of journalism manuals in Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America, Russia and Central and Eastern European countries.
World Press Freedom Day
Throughout the world, 3 May serves as an occasion to inform the public of violations of the right to freedom of expression and as a reminder that many journalists brave death or jail to bring people their daily news.
Green Press
Media in Pakistan has always been in forefront of highlighting issues of national importance, but its' emphasis has remained on political climate of the country rather than on human environment.
In the 1980s, nobody cared what environment was and if someone tried to write on green issues, editors stuffed their pieces on inside science or agriculture pages. Till 1992 environment was considered something related to atmospheric disturbances.
In 1992 media pundits in Pakistan started trying their hands on new concepts like sustainable development, ozone depletion, greenhouse effect, global warming etc. Green campaign of media spurred from the government, but since it was in the hands of non-specialist bureaucrats, the real message behind environmental awareness campaign could not reach the people.

Amid such a vacuum of information and persuasive communication on environmental issues some young journalists in Islamabad formed an association, Green Press. It launch coincided with the World Environment Day on June 5, 1992. The association aimed at networking of journalists interested in green issues Green reporting has still a long way to, because environment is not a single phenomenon, but a complex mix. It encompasses subjects like population studies and demography, economics, geography,
meteorology, oceanography, agriculture, irrigation, forestation, chemistry, governance and international politics to name a few. Thus a multi-disciplinary approach is required to understand and then disseminate information through mass media. The Green Press has an advantage, as its members have graduated in different disciplines, so through discussions and holding forums, they enhance their understanding on basic green issues. Green Press has completed its eight years. Its preliminary efforts have contributed to environmental awareness in Pakistan. It holds many success stories but still lot more is to be done.


World Press Freedom Day

Throughout the world, 3 May serves as an occasion to inform the public of violations of the right to freedom of expression and as a reminder that many journalists brave death or jail to bring people their daily news.
Green Press
Media in Pakistan has always been in forefront of highlighting issues of national importance, but its' emphasis has remained on political climate of the country rather than on human environment. In the 1980s, nobody cared what environment was and if someone tried to write on green issues, editors stuffed their pieces on inside science or agriculture pages. Till 1992 environment was considered something related to atmospheric disturbances. In 1992 media pundits in Pakistan started trying their hands on new concepts like sustainable development, ozone depletion, greenhouse effect, global warming etc. Green campaign of media spurred from the government, but since it was in the hands of non-specialist bureaucrats, the real message behind
environmental awareness campaign could not reach the people. Amid such a vacuum of information and persuasive communication on environmental issues some young journalists in Islamabad formed an association, Green Press.
It launch coincided with the World Environment Day on June 5, 1992. The association aimed at networking of journalists interested in green issues Green reporting has still a long way to, because environment is not a single phenomenon, but a complex mix. It encompasses subjects like population studies and demography, economics, geography, meteorology, oceanography, agriculture, irrigation, forestation, chemistry, governance and international politics to name a few.
Thus a multi-disciplinary approach is required to understand and then disseminate information through mass media. The Green Press has an advantage, as its members have graduated in different disciplines, so through discussions and holding forums, they enhance their understanding on basic green issues.
Green Press has completed its eight years. Its preliminary efforts have contributed to environmental awareness in Pakistan. It holds many success stories but still lot more is to be done.
Affiliations
Green Press is associated with Forum of Environmental Journalists Pakistan and serves as its Islamabad - Rawalpindi Chapter. Internationally it is affiliated with Asia Pacific Forum of Environmental Journalists (AFEJ) and the Commonwealth Environmental Journalists Association. These national, regional and global linkages enable Green Press to benefit from the experience of environmental journalists in other parts of the world.
Green Press operates as a consciousness-raising group representing the entire spectrum of print and electronic media. Amidst a vacuum of information and persuasive communication on environmental issues a group of young journalists in Islamabad launched Green Press, coinciding with the World Environment Day on June 5, 1992.
The association aims at networking of journalists interested in green issues besides highlighting issues related to human rights and freedom of press.

Green Press is also the first in Pakistan to launch internet radio, providing recorded talk shows on environmental issues, entertainment and programs for all age groups. Green Press started monitoring press freedom violations in 1995 and since then has published a series of five Press Freedom Report: Pakistan. The report is made public every year on May 3, to mark World Press Freedom Day.
In 1997 Green Press was also able to release public service ads for free, democratic and pluralistic press in Pakistan.
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
Reply

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On


Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Repeated Questions of International Law Last Island International Law 3 Wednesday, February 23, 2022 02:20 PM
Journalism complete notes rose_pak Journalism & Mass Communication 5 Monday, August 12, 2013 02:16 PM
Method of Making Notes samra kanwal Tips and Experience Sharing 1 Wednesday, February 02, 2011 12:31 AM


CSS Forum on Facebook Follow CSS Forum on Twitter

Disclaimer: All messages made available as part of this discussion group (including any bulletin boards and chat rooms) and any opinions, advice, statements or other information contained in any messages posted or transmitted by any third party are the responsibility of the author of that message and not of CSSForum.com.pk (unless CSSForum.com.pk is specifically identified as the author of the message). The fact that a particular message is posted on or transmitted using this web site does not mean that CSSForum has endorsed that message in any way or verified the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any message. We encourage visitors to the forum to report any objectionable message in site feedback. This forum is not monitored 24/7.

Sponsors: ArgusVision   vBulletin, Copyright ©2000 - 2023, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.