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  #31  
Old Saturday, August 31, 2013
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Default zohaib babar

Salam

Dear Brothers and sisters.

I want to share very important imformation with you.One thing remember,when you write down your answer of any question,so explain it with headings because it will quite impressive whenever any examiner check your paper.If you remember some quotes then also write it down.No need to specify your answer in just one paragraph.Never do in your paper otherwise it will just a simple answer for an examiner.

Also specify some conclusions if you need. Do not count pages of your answer.Just answer the question in meaningful and professional manner.

Regards

Zohaib Khan Babar
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  #32  
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Default Jounalism notes 17

Ethics and Media

Media has always got a great attraction for people. Since its evolution it has been performing its duty of entertaining as well as guiding people. Weather it is print media or electronic media people always tries to adopt its importance in their daily life.
With the evolution 0f print media people had a great thirst for it. They take it as their foremost source of information. Hence media start playing three main roles which are as follows.
• Information
• Entertainment
• Guidance

With the addition of features and columns and magazines people’s interest was enhanced and they started idealizing the writers. They take their writings as for their guidance.
Observing that much importance of media, there should be some limitations set for it. So that writers cant go beyond the ethics. Their writings and publications should be checked and controlled.
For that matter certain laws to regulate media were formulated to keep a check on it. Hence a code of ethics was formulated for print media which is to be obeyed by the publishers.

Then with the gain in popularity of electronic media again there was a need to put a check on it. So different regulatory committees were made to regulate a code for them. So with the passage of time many codes were formulated and applied for them.
By now a proper and complete code of principles is been set for whole media. but still there is another debate of freedom of media due to which changes keep on happening in these4 principles.
Sources of Ethics
There are certain sources of ethics. These sources include those persons, places or people which affect our lives at different stages and thus help us in developing and adopting our ethics.
These sources are as follows.
Parents
• Peer groups
• Educational institutions
• Teen Age [school level]
• Adult Age [higher studies]
• Observations & Experiences
• Society
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Default Jounalism notes 18

Parents
Parents are the primary and most important source of ethics. They are the first source whish introduce us to the worlds. They teach us how top behave, how to talk how to walk, how to eat and above all hoe to develop our ethics i.e. the way to deal with others.
Peer Group
Our second source of ethics is our peer group. This includes our age fellows and our friends. So it is the first time when you interact with the people other then your family. You gain many things from here also.
The most important thing you get from your peer group is the development of your attitude. For example some of the children developed tolerance. Others may gain to react harshly to certain situations .Hence it also play an important role in developing ones self.
Educational Institutions
It includes development at two levels.
School level when we are at a stage of learning and adopting thing. At this period of age children try to copy others. They try to gain the qualities of those personalities which they like the most. So people around him specially teachers try to develop good qualities in them. They try to make them differentiate between right and wrong.
At Higher Educational level when children have both the pictures in front of them. Now they are socially bound to show their ethics. It is the time when others expect the particle side of their ethics they have learned so far. Hence they have to prove themselves what kind of nature he has developed so far.
Observations & Experiences
After passing through your higher education, the next source is our own observations and experiences.
Because at this level we are mature enough to observe our society.
Secondly when we talk about experiences then there are two possibilities.
1. We can learn from others’ experiences
2. We can experience our self.


Society
This is the biggest source of learning as it is effective at all stages of life but becomes even more effective when we comes in our particle life. It is the time or stage which requires more responsibilities and ethical behavior from us.

Journalism ethics and standards

Include principles of ethics and of good practice to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalists. Historically and currently these principles are most widely known to journalists as their professional "code of ethics" or the "canons of journalism." The basic codes and canons commonly appear in statements drafted by professional journalism associations and individual print broadcast, and online news organizations.

Every news organization has only its credibility and reputation to rely on.
Tony Burman, editor-in-chief of CBC News
While various existing codes have some differences, most share common elements including the principles of — truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity impartiality, fairness and public accountability — as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent reportage to the public.
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Old Sunday, September 15, 2013
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Describe in detail the educational and news functions of journalism? (2013)
OUTLINE:
definition
significance of journalism
functions of journalism
I)NEWS role
a) provides information
b) acts as watchdog
c) voice the voiceless
d) acts as a mediator between public and authorities
II) educational role
a) creates public awareness
b) mobilises opinion
c) interprets facts
conclusion

is this outline alright?please please i have been stuck up in this question for past couple of days and i don't know it should be opted.if someone has a better idea please comment
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  #35  
Old Monday, September 23, 2013
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sadafnoorelahi watch dog is not news function. it is the function of mass media.
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Old Wednesday, September 25, 2013
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Mr. zohaib babar here i want to correct you
first magazine of the sub-continent was hickey gazette.published in 1870 .Editor of this magazine was James Augustus hickey .
and one thing magazine now is also found on soft copy (non-printed form) on the internet on some websites. likes JWT.
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Zohaib khan baba "jame jahan numa" was the first urdu newspaper of sub-continent not the magazine.
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Old Thursday, September 26, 2013
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sadafnoorelahi View Post
thanks a lot sir for your selfless act. sir,kindly also cover press under ppp era of zardari rule.this would be highly beneficial and will make the answer up to date.or please guide where i can obtain the information of press under the ppp rule.
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s Era

In December 1971, when the break-up of Pakistan and the birth of Bangladesh occurred, General Yahya Khan handed over power to Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto as President and Pakistan’s first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator who continued to use martial law up to April 1972 when an interim constitution was adopted, prior to the enactment of a new constitution by the National assembly in August 1973. Bhutto,however, reacting to criticism by various members of the press, imprisoned editors and publishers on the pretext of national security.

The next five years, from 1972 to 1977, represented the beginnings of democracy; however, they were marred by repressive actions toward the press. The new constitution, although formulated on the principles of democracy, human rights, and freedom of speech, did not deliver on these promises. The PPO remained, as did the National Press Trust. Furthermore, through coercion and manipulation, the government insured that the only other news agency in the country (aside from the government-owned
APP), the Pakistan Press International (PPI), was brought under its authority.

General Zia’s Era

In 1977, General Zia ul Haq ousted Bhutto from the prime minister position and once again imposed martial law under which abuse of journalists became public rather than covert. Journalists were flogged in public at Zia’s whim. Although martial law usually ends with a Supreme Court-imposed deadline by which elections must be held, Zia was given no such deadline, and his time in office up to August 1988 had a deleterious effect on the mass media. Not one single law or regulation of any progressive character was created during Zia’s rule. The only positive outcome of Zia’s rule was the restoration of the news agency PPI to its original shareholders. Since then PPI provides a valuable alternative news source to the government-controlled APP.

In 1985, Prime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo was elected to the National Assembly, based on nonparty elections, and lifted martial law in December 1985. Even though Junejo was a more democratic political figure, the PPO remained in place under him, and he relied on the old media laws. However, in May 1988 President General Zia ul Haq dissolved the National Assembly and dismissed the Government of Prime Minister Junejo, replacing them with a cabinet of his own and no prime minister. This arrangement only lasted 11 weeks as Haq was killed in a suspicious plane crash in August 1988.

This incident resulted in the Chairman of the Senate, Mr. Ghulam Ishaq Khan, succeeding to the office of President as per the constitution. A caretaker government provided transition to a full-fledged democracy,which included repealing the press law that had coerced the media for so long.

A new law, known as the Registration of Printing Presses and Publications Ordinance came into effect in 1988. A key change in this law made it mandatory for the District Magistrate to issue a receipt to an applicant for the issuance of a declaration for the keeping of a printing press or the publication of a journal to provide the applicant with proof that would help avoid government interference. The most significant change made in the press law of 1988 was the removal of power from the government and the right of an applicant to be heard in person by the authority before any punitive action
was taken, like the closure of a press. Appeals were also now allowed. In addition, newspapers were no longer obligated to publish in full the press notes issued by the government.

For a variety of reasons, the press law of 1988 continued to be re-promulgated as an ordinance through 1997, even though the Supreme Court ruled such re-promulgation unconstitutional. One key reason for
this was the recurring demands by representative bodies of the press to revise the 1988 law even further to remove any executive power to control the press.

Benazir’s Regime

The November 1988 elections saw Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, the first Muslim woman prime minister of the world, assume office. She brought with her a new phase of liberalism toward the mass media laws and regulations. For example, Bhutto’s government allowed government-controlled radio and television to provide daily and well-balanced coverage of the speeches and statements of its opposition in news bulletins and current affairs programs. Because the print media reaches such a small percentage of the population, this change had a significant impact on the pubic, but was returned to the old, one-sided coverage after only four months because of pressure on Bhutto by her party, the Pakistan People’s Party.desktop publishing allowed a more timely and in-depth reporting of the news. Bhutto also ended the manipulative government practice of using newsprint as a means of controlling the press. Specifically, the Ministry of Information no longer required issuance of permits to import newsprint and allowed a free and open system of importing newsprint at market prices.

In 1990, President Ishaq Khan dismissed Bhutto’s government, charging them with misconduct, and declared a state of emergency. Bhutto and her party lost the October elections, and the new Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif, took over. For reasons not apparent to the public, Sharif restored the issuance of permits system for news-print import.
The charges against Bhutto were resolved, and after a bitter campaign, the PPP was returned to power in October 1993, and Bhutto was again named prime minister. She was ousted again in 1996 amid charges of corruption, a caretaker government was installed, and Sharif defeated Bhutto in the February 1997 elections.

Sharif’s Period

In Sharif’s two and one-half years in power, he used many heavy-handed methods to deal with journalists who dared to criticize his government. He put tremendous pressure on independent journalists, using both covert and overt means of retribution. His Pakistan Muslim League party (PML) achieved a landslide electoral victory in the National Assembly, which made Sharif believe he had been given a heavy mandate to rule the country as he saw fit. He was able to cast aside all democratic checks on his power, except for the press. In the end, the press survived whereas Sharif did not. The press, in fact, through its wide reporting of Sharif’s abuse of power, prepared the Pakistani people for General Pervez Musharraf’s military coup on October 12, 1999.

Musharraf’s Regime

In May 2000 Musharraf’s regime was strengthened by a unanimous decision by the Supreme Court to validate the October 1999 coup as having been necessary; at the same time the Court announced that the Chief Executive should name a date not later than 90 days before the expiry of the three-year period from October 12, 1999 for the holding of elections to the National Assembly, the provincial assemblies, and the Senate.

In Pakistan today a cooperative effort appears to be underway between Musharraf’s government and the journalism community. In general, Musharraf’s administration seems to follow a more liberal policy towards the press with fewer restrictions and much less manipulation. However, reports vary widely.

Whereas the Pakistan Press Foundation (PPF) reported continued harassment of and dangers to journalists, some journalists currently working for Pakistani newspapers offer another version of the situation. A. R. Khaliq, assistant editor for Business Recorder, reported that the press, by and large, is not
faced with any coercion or abuse under Musharraf.
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Codes of ethics

The question as to which norms are to guide the activity of journalists is answered by trying to provide documents on basic principles, such as "Cannons of Journalism," press codes, etc. These kinds of professional ethical documents on basic principles distinguish themselves in most cases through the use of very broad, imprecise formulations, often empty of content and producing platitudes. Thus the "Canons of Journalism" of the "American Society of Newspaper Editors" begins with the following trivial programmatic statement: "The primary function of newspapers is to communicate to the human race what its members do feel and think. Journalism, therefore, demands of its practitioners the widest range of intelligence, knowledge, and experience, as well as natural and trained powers of observation and reasoning." In addition, the statement, "Good faith with the reader is the foundation of all journalism worthy of the name," is, as the main connecting theme for the practice of journalism, not too informative. The problem of applicability to practical journalistic activity is tackled in the professional principles agreed by the "International Federation of Journalists" in Bordeaux in 1954:
"Preamble: This international declaration is proclaimed as a standard of professional conduct which every journalist should keep to in his or her work:
1. Respect for truth and for the right of the public to truth is the first duty of the journalist.
2. In pursuance of this duty, the journalist shall at all times defend the principles of freedom in the honest collection and publication of news, and of the right to fair comment and criticism.
3. The journalist shall report only in accordance with facts of which he/she knows the origin. The journalist shall not suppress essential information or falsify documents.
4. The journalist shall only use fair methods to obtain news, photographs and documents.
5. The journalist shall do the utmost to rectify any published information which is found to be harmfully inaccurate.
6. The journalist shall observe professional secrecy regarding the source of information obtained in confidence.
7. The journalist shall be alert to the danger of discrimination being furthered by media, and shall do the utmost to avoid facilitating such discriminations based on, among other things, race, sex, sexual orientation, language, religion, political or other opinions, and national and social origins.
8. The journalist shall regard as grave professional offenses the following: plagiarism; malicious misinterpretation; calumny; libel; slander; unfounded accusations; acceptance of a bribe in any form in consideration of either publication or suppression.
9. Journalists worthy of the name shall deem it their duty to observe faithfully the principles stated above. Within the general law of each country the journalist shall recognise in professional matters the jurisdiction of colleagues only, to the exclusion of any kind of interference by governments or others."
As an internationally useful, though strongly interpretative variation on the professional principles, two German communication scientists, Noelle-Neumann and Schulz (1971), name the following 10 points:
1. Awareness of the responsibility of the journalist in the fulfilment of his/her public role in the service of the general public;
2. Protection of internal and external independence;
3. To speak up for human rights, especially for the basic right of freedom of speech, of the press, and of broadcasters;
4. Tolerance towards those belonging to other nations, races and religions. To speak up for peace and international understanding;
5. Respect for the truth. Reliable information about the public, whose sources are checked. Correction of inaccurate reporting;
6. Safeguarding professional confidences, on which trust in a journalist is based;
7. Respect for privacy, and people's private lives;
8. No defamatory criticism, unless required through legitimate perception of the public interest;
9. No glorification of power, brutality and immorality. Consideration for the special situation of young people;
10. A level of education of journalists which does justice to their high degree of responsibility.
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In a survey of 31 European codes of journalistic ethics, Tiina Laitila (1995) ascertains by and large, with respect to the function of these professional principles, how frequently certain things come up: 40% of the codes formulate a responsibility of journalists to the public (e.g. truth and clarity of information; defence of the rights of the public; responsibility, as figures in a position of influence, for public opinion); 23% contained principles referring to protection of the professional integrity of journalists (e.g. protection from public authorities; protection from employers and from advertising clients); in 22% a responsibility with regard to information sources was found (e.g. requirements about the collection and presentation of information and on the integrity of the source); in 9% of the codes there was something about the protection of status and professional solidarity; 4% contained requirements about responsibility toward employers and 2% had requirements on responsibility toward state institutions.
As the most frequently mentioned principles (contained in more than half of the national codes looked at) Laitila identified:
 Truthfulness in gathering and reporting information;
 Freedom of expression and comment, defence of these rights;
 Equality by not discriminating against anyone on the basis of his or her race, ethnicity or religion, sex, social class, profession, handicap or any other personal characteristics;
 Fairness by using only straightforward means in the gathering of information;
 Respect for the integrity of sources, copyright and laws of citation;
 Independence/integrity by refusing bribes or any other outside influences on the work, by demanding the conscience clause.
No clear-cut answer can be given to the question as to how codes like these influence the behaviour of journalists. A survey conducted among 226 publishers in the US in the mid-1980s showed that newspapers with a code of ethics dealt with ethical violations more strictly than those that had no codes. When David Pritchard and Madelyn Peroni Morgan surveyed two newspapers in Indianapolis in 1989, on the other hand, they found that it made no difference. These authors came to the conclusion that codes of ethics are not much more than a public relations device, irrelevant to professional practice. David E. Boeyink (1994), however, concludes from his case study of three US newspapers that the effectiveness of such principles strongly depends on what significance the management attributes to them, and whether, in discussions with the journalists, the gap between general guidelines and concrete cases is closed. There is too little empirical evidence, though, to answer this question conclusively.
4. Systematic aspects of a journalistic ethic and the public ethic

The extent to which professional principles can achieve their purpose depends on whether there is a professional jurisdiction with sanctioning powers. In the Federal Republic of Germany, for instance, the German Press Council (Deutscher Presserat), in which journalists and publishers are represented equally, has endeavoured since 1956 to support press freedom and to search out and remove abuses in the press. An idea of individual ethics forms the basis of journalistic professional principles. In other words, responsibility is personally assigned to individual journalists. However, that does not take full account of the fact that in many cases individual journalists would definitely prefer to comply with the code, but that conditions do not allow them to. It might simply be a matter of having to make a living; or perhaps the state, using its power, prevents "ethically perfect journalism," preferring lies and manipulation instead. But even a commercial organisation within a medium, in competition with other media, can prevent the emergence of ethical journalism; it may be that an owner, publisher or manager demands or supports a certain political leaning; it may be that the pursuit of profits leads to a preference for a certain kind of content (e.g. sex, crime and human interest are big sellers); it may be that, owing to the pressure of current events, ethically perfect journalistic work (e.g. in research) is prevented or that quite unethical behaviour (e.g. invasion of privacy, use of illegal methods to procure information) is supported. Commercialisation can also mean that the criteria for journalistic quality go by the board and that media organisations, on the recommendation of business consulting firms, slim down their organisational structure. Here the individualistic ethic should be supplemented by an ethic that takes the system into account. In the framework of an ethic for the media sector, the following authorities must be assigned co-responsibility for the results of journalistic work: the legislature, which shapes the legal basis for the media sector; the media owners, whose interests in economic success can interfere with the journalistic ethic; the editorial hierarchy (all employees inside a media business who, in the context of their jobs, are decision-makers); and the colleagues, among whom the individual journalists work.

It should be noted that employers make their own claims to having three areas of responsibility. These include, firstly, responsibility for the survival of the business, and with that the obligation to provide job security for the employees; secondly, a responsibility for the quality and reliability of the product, as well as, thirdly, a responsibility for the overall social consequences of their work. Another approach to ethics includes the public, too. Thus, Clifford Christians, the American communications scholar, sees "a comprehensive moral duty on the part of the public to watch over societal processes such as social communication." (Christians, 1989). This might be conceivable, for instance, in the case where the public avoids the consumption of inferior media products. Here the public would have to be educated over a long period, in order to direct journalism. Cees Hamelink (1995) sees the beginnings of an ethic for the public in internationally-based initiatives by media consumers to demand from governments and media organisations rights for recipients and safeguards for their interests. Hamelink wants media consumption understood as a social activity involving moral choices. In Germany, Manfred Buchwald, director of Saarland Broadcasting Corporation (1989-1996), referred to this, saying that along with the producers, the public also has a responsibility for the quality of media content.
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