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Old Friday, August 16, 2013
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AOA .. anyone can share notes of Journalism ?? help required please ..
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If you have notes, kindly share on board , it will be more appreciating .

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Default Journalism Notes


Fundamentals of Public Relations

Table of Contents:
Page no.

Lesson 1 Introduction & brief history 3
Lesson 2 How does pr work? 5
Lesson 3 Public relations distinguished. 8
Lesson 4 Publics of pr 11
Lesson 5 Planning public relations programs 14
Lesson 6 Medias of pr 17
Lesson 7 Press relations in pr 19
Lesson 8 Created private media 22
Lesson 9 Special uses of public relations 27
Lesson 10 Budgeting in pr 30
Lesson 11 Public relations problems 32
Lesson 12 Methods of communication 34
Lesson 13 Pr in various organizations 36
Lesson 14 Pr in labor unions & religious groups 39
Lesson 15 Pr in educational institutions & in media channels 41
Lesson 16 Using advertising for p r communication 44
Lesson 17 Role of public relations in marketing 46
Lesson 18 Public relations and corporate structure 48
Lesson 19 E-pr & its tools 50
Lesson 20 Sponsorship—an important pr tool 52
Lesson 21 House journals 55
Lesson 22 Crisis management in pr 58
Lesson 23 Advertising in pr 61
Lesson 24 International public relations
Lesson 25 Public relations consultancy 65
Lesson 26 Public relation’s role in market education 68
Lesson 27 Modern day values of pr 70
Lesson 28 Choice of media for pr campaign 72
Lesson 29 Pr techniques 75
Lesson 30 Designing pr campaigns 76
Lesson 31 Public opinion 78
Lesson 32 Public relations and research 80
Lesson 33 Pr and research 82
Lesson 34 Problems solving strategies 84
Lesson 35 Persuasion & communication theories 87
Lesson 36 Communication concepts & theories 89
Lesson 37 Public relations & law 91
Lesson 38 Public relations & case studies 93
Lesson 39 Pr and printing processes 95
Lesson 40 Public speaking -- a pr tool 98
Lesson 41 Pr -- coping with unexpected 101
Lesson 42 Dreams & realities of pr 104
Lesson 43 Changing into overdrive 106
Lesson 44 Getting on with pr 109
Lesson 45 Fundamentals of a successful newsletter 111

Lesson 1

This course is designed to teach and guide the students to know and learn about Public Relations. In thiscourse we will try to acquaint you with various aspects and applications in different Public Relations
situations and requirements. Besides teaching you about the introduction and history of Public relationsThis will guide students through its role in different modes and in varied segments. We will also apprise
about its importance, explain different designs and templates of its applications. The major components tolearn will be its skills in modern world, the overall importance and significance of its practice in normal and
crisis situations.After going through the contents of first lecture, students will be able to know about Public Relations and its origin as given below:

A. Introduction to Public Relations.
B. History of Public Relations.
C. Meaning of Public Relations.
D. Techniques of Public Relations.
Lecture Overview

This lecture introduces the students with the background, meaning and history of Public Relations. During
this we will be discussing the above mentioned three aspects of Public Relations. We will also briefly try and
identify the techniques of public relations used in the olden days and compare these with modern day


In fact the subject of public relations is not new and it has been there and in practice since time
immemorial. Man has always tried and wanted to communicate to make him understand, e.g. Pictograms (Chinese characters are still an example ).1000 of years ago wall paintings in the caves of primitive people,
Writings on tablets of stone, ancient buildings , pyramids, early temples , mosques , cave paintings in Zimbabwe bear pictorial messages. Holy Books also communicate and tell people about faith. So, it will be appropriate to say that public relations are as new as civilization.Let us now first of all try to know and understand about public relations.

Meaning Of Public Relations

Now a days PR is misunderstood and supposed to try & create a favorable image or climate of opinion and/or improve a tarnished image. This is not true. This is only marketing & advertising which is only a segment of PR. PR is about creating and understanding through knowledge which often involves effective change. So it means that PR is a form of Communication which applies to any sort of organization,commercial or non-commercial in the private or public sector.

Definitions Of Public Relations

The universally accepted definition of public relations as per Edward Burneys popularly known as the Father of PR is that :
• “It is a planned & sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization & its publics.• ”However, Quentin Bell, another PR consultant thought the word persuasion would be better
than mutual understanding.• Some PR professionals also described PR as a “phenomenon & necessity of our times.” Yet there is a very simple and different definition for easy comprehension of Public Relations.

Simple Definition

For better understanding if we take the two initials of the word Public Relations i.e. P and R then we define
“P” for Performance for Public and “R” for Result as against Relations.

Different Techniques Of PR

In the olden days for PR purposes people used Pictograms ( Chinese characters are still an example. ) , 1000 of years ago Wall Paintings in the caves about primitive people , Writings on Tablets of stone, Ancient
Buildings e.g. pyramids , early temples & mosques ,cave paintings in Zimbabwe bear pictorial messages.Holy Books communicated and told people about faith. while these days bill boards, hand outs, print and
electronic Media, sponsorships , free sampling, corporate identity practices , audio and video mediums ,conferences , seminars Special Offers , etc. are few of the visible PR techniques used to achieve defined objectives.

Lesson 2

In this lecture we will study the different aspects relating to the public relations subject with special
reference to its working, different phases of public relations which affect people’s attitude. Besides this we will identify various classifications of organizations. The students will also be told about what public relations aims to accomplish and what are the dos and don’ts of practicing public relations. Finally we will determine the keys to success in public relations profession.

How does PR work.

Whether the PR of an organization is sound or not depends upon the type of organization and on a situation at a given time. It is therefore imperative that we should assess as to how does PR serve various organizations. Let us therefore first of all classify the type of organizations.

Classification of Organizations
1. A business corporation.
2. A trade organization
3. A non profit organization.
4. A public utility company.
5. A communication medium
a) Newspapers.
b) Radio stations.
c) TV channels.
6. An educational institution.
7. A financial institution.
8. A religious group.
9. A political party.
10. A labour union.
11. 11. A travel group.
12. A government agency.

Although PR activity / Plan will vary from different classification of organizations yet basic and broad principles would remain common. Let us analyze and determine various phases of PR for organizations. At this time we will only remain confined to the general principles and at later stage we will discuss them specifically. Basically the hallmark of good PR policy is to attract and achieve the goodwill of the concerned public. We therefore consider 5(Five) Phases of different factors which influence people’s attitude.
5 Different Phases which Affect People’s Attitude.

A Public relations for business today involves complete analysis and understanding of all the factors that
influence people’s attitudes towards a company. It usually has five phases:

I. Determining the attitude of public towards the company/ organization.

This may be the employees, the customers, the shareholders, or some other segment of the public. When
the attitudes are known, it is possible to see where the company is misunderstood and where its policies and
actions are creating unfavorable opinion.

II. Analyzing the state of opinion.

It may be that investigation discloses unrest among a group of employees – unrest that may well break out into very serious uprising. Or the shareholders may express the desire to know more about the company
and its products.

III. Formulation of policy.
Analysis may indicate that certain policies of the company should be modified to improve the attitude held by certain groups. Often the change involves eliminating causes of misunderstanding and misinterpretation.
IV. Planning means of improving opinion/attitude of public.
With an understanding of what people think of the company and a clarification of the company’s policies on matters that affect public opinion, the groundwork has been laid. Next comes the programming of
activities that will explain the company and its products, will overcome misunderstanding and will promote goodwill.

Implementing planned activities.

The tools of public relations -- publicity , institutional advertising , printed materials, employee activities, shareholders reports, company publications and other things – are then employed to do the job.
What does Public Relations Accomplish?
There are many objectives that may be achieved through expert public relations activity. Any one of them,any group of them, or all of them may be the basis for accompany ‘s public relations program. Professional
public relations direct every activity toward reaching a selected objective; extraneous efforts are avoided –mere volume of press clippings is meaningless. Objectives that may be sought include:
– Prestige or favorable image and its benefits.
– Promotion of product and sales, idea and rewards.
– Goodwill of Employees.
– Prevent and solve Labor problem.
– Goodwill of stock / shareholders.
– Overcoming misconceptions and prejudices against the
– Goodwill of customers/consumers.
– Formulation and guidance for making policies.

A public relations all in all is a tough job. But all said and done it is worthwhile to render such services.These services are needed and recognized on a rapidly broadening scale. But these are already being accepted quite universally. In order to practice public relations there are certain do’s and don’ts which are identified below:• Do not try to run a business without knowing / learning a great deal about the people you have to do business with – employees, investors, suppliers, customers – in other words, Your publics.
• If you are overcommitted and cannot give enough thought to PR then hire someone to assist you.• Do not rely upon public relations techniques to “mop up” after mistakes are made. Always use public relations thinking before any new policy or practice is developed.• Be sure people close to you understand your public relations thinking and your program.

• Seek the assistance of your executives and employees in developing good public relations.
• Do not depend upon too much on your own guesswork regarding what others feel and think. Use adequate and objective surveys.
• Try to select a very few points --- preferably just one -- that you want to get across to any given public. Then concentrate your PR effort on establishing that viewpoint.
• Never forget that PR should be supported by Performance that deserves goodwill of your public
i.e. Result.
Keys to Success in Public Relations

The busy senior executive needs to take some time out for concentrated study of public relations, calling onspecialists for guidance and practical assistance, as he does in other phases of his business. In policyformation he should remember that public relations serves as a voice of conscience as well as useful business technique. In fact sufficient emphasis should be placed on management as without the understanding and support of management it will be impossible for public relations to aid in policy


To be successful the key factor is that the public relations manager should be highly sensitive to the
thoughts and feelings of other persons. Forgetting his personal reactions and beliefs, he must put himself in the other person’s shoes. He should concentrate his efforts on finding desirable ways and means of gettinghis viewpoints presented effectively. All this should be supported by his sound character , conviction and personal ethics of the highest standards.
Fundamentals of Public Relations.

Lesson 3

In this lecture we will try and distinguish public relations from other activities in which an organization indulges to project its image or for the conveying of a particular message to the target public. We will distinguish public relations from advertising, marketing. sales promotion, publicity and propaganda. This will enable the students to precisely know the difference between these various applications of public

Difference between PR & Advertising

Public relations and advertising are normally confused to be same, which is not at all true or correct. The best way to distinguish it from advertising will be to first of all try and define advertising and public relations. This definition will clearly explain the difference. Advertising presents the most persuasive possible selling message to the right prospects for the product or service at the lowest possible cost. While public relations role is of informing, educating & creating understanding through knowledge for the same product. In fact advertising will be more successful
when prior PR activity has created knowledge and understanding of the product or service being promoted --- also known as Market Education. Therefore advertising is merely a tool of public relations, where by
market research PR manager decides type of advertising and on this basis determines choice & use of media. So to sum up following will explain the difference between PR and advertising.
1. PR is not a form of advertising, and is in fact bigger activity than
2. PR relates to all the communications of the total organizations, while advertising is mainly limited
to marketing functions.
3. PR is neither “free advertising” nor “unpaid for advertising”. In fact it is time consuming & time
costs money.
4. At times advertising may not be used by an organization, but every organization is involved in PR.
5. PR embraces every one & everything, while advertising is limited to special selling & buying tasks
6. Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating & satisfying
customer requirements profitably.
7. PR is about creating & understanding through knowledge “Market Education” the basis of effective
marketing policy as it has to be applied to every part of marketing mix.
Difference Between PR & Sales Promotion
Sales promotion consists of short term schemes, usually at the point of sales, but also in direct response marketing, to launch products or to revive or increase sales. At times sales promotion may have PR aspects
yet it is not PR. PR is confused with sales promotion, mainly because Sales promotion brings the producer closer to consumer. Sales promotion consists of short / long term specific schemes while PR takes care of larger
benefits through broad based plans based on knowledge.
Difference Between PR & Propaganda
Propaganda is the means of gaining support for an opinion, creed or belief. This is another form of communication & by no means PR. Successful PR must be credible, whereas propaganda is liable to invite
suspicion or at least disagreement.

Difference Between PR & Publicity

A simple definition would explain publicity as resulting from information being made known. So as Publicity results from information being made known by PR plan. PR is very much about the behavior of individuals, organizations,products & services. Publicity only yields an image, subject to PR which providesadequate knowledge for that image.
Public Relations Department
When a company is engaged in lot of PR work then it is recommended that it should be handled through
the company’s internal Public Relations Department.
The PR Practitioner is more of an All Rounder. He is at the same time a communicator, advisor and a campaign planner.
Size of a PR Department.
PR department may be large or small depending upon:
a) Size of the organization.
b) Value placed on PR by management;
c) Special PR requirements of the organization.
Taking (c ) a stage further, a mass consumer product manufacturer may spend much more on advertisement than on PR, while a technical or industrial company may spend little on advertisement but rely strongly on
PR Department Staff.
The PR department may consist of no more than a PR Manager and a secretary with word processing
capability. Depending upon the activity & size of operation the organization may have Press officer,
photographer and a presentation specialist. See chart below for possible staffing of a PR department in a
large manufacturing company.
Role Of PR Manager
PR manager is the executive who manages the company’s PR. His / Her responsibilities can be;

􀂾 To set the targets or define objectives for PR operations;
􀂾 To estimate the working hours and other resources that needs to be costed.To decide priorities that will control the choice of publics, media to reachthem, timing of operations , best use of manpower and other􀂾 resources such as equipment etc. To decide the feasibility of carrying out the declared objectives in the light of available funds, existing staff and equipment etc.Four Fold Specialist Task Of PR Manager
1. To establish and maintain a correct image of the organization and its policies, products, services and personnel.

2. Monitor outside opinion & convey this intelligence to management;
3. Advise management on communication problems, solutions &

Inform all publics about policies, activities, products, services & personnel so that maximum knowledge & understanding is won.
A Typical Organization Chart Of A PR Department
Lesson 4
This lecture will identify various jobs required to be performed by public relations department. In fact the kind of work carried out by a PR manager and staff will obviously differ from one organization to another
and can be composed of many variables. We will also discuss different publics of public relations, its definition and its importance.
A To Z Of Work Undertaken By PR Department
As has been reiterated before PR department has multifarious duties to perform, so these are generally enumerated as below:
(a) Writing and distributing news releases, photographs & feature articles to the press, compiling press
(b) Organizing press conferences, receptions and facility visits.
(c) Maintaining a media information service.
(d) Arranging press, radio and television interviews for management.
(e) Briefing photographers and maintaining a picture library.
( f) Editing and producing staff magazines or newspapers and organizing other forms of internal
communication e.g. videotapes, slide presentations, wall newspapers, etc.
(g) Editing and producing external journals aimed at distributors, users, customers, etc.
(h) Writing and producing print material such as educational literature, company histories, annual
reports, induction literature for new staff, educational posters for schools, etc.
(i) Commissioning audio - visuals such as synchronized slide presentations and videotapes together
with their distribution, cataloguing, showing and maintenance.
(j) Commissioning and organizing PR exhibitions and displays, including provision of vehicles.
(k) Commissioning and maintaining all forms of corporate identity and house styling e.g. logos, color
schemes, print house style and typography, livery of vehicles, distinctive clothing, etc.
(l) Handling PR sponsorships.
(m) Organizing works or similar visits, e.g. facility flights, sailings, site tours, etc.
(n) Attendance at appropriate meetings of the board and meetings of production, marketing, sales and
other executives.
(o) Attendance at sales and dealer conferences.
(p) Representation of the company at trade association meetings.
(q) Liaison with PR consultancy if one is employed.
(r) Training PR staff.
(s) Commissioning opinion surveys (or other research).
(t) Supervising advertising - liaison with advertising agency
(u) Liaison with politicians and civil servants.
(v) Official openings of new premises – arrangements for VIPs, guests and press.
(w) Arranging visits by royalty, MPs, VIPs, foreign visitors.
(x) Celebrating centenaries, Award for Industry, etc.
(y) Organizing feedback of press cuttings, radio and television transcripts, monitoring and other reports from outside.
(z) Analysis of feedback and evaluation of the results of efforts in relation to the declared objectives.
Publics Of PR
Although the publics of Public relations can be various yet these can basically be divided in to two major
a) Internal b) External
But with operations, problems and expectations increasing manifold, these have expanded a lot. For
understanding purposes a generalized list is given below:
Expanded Publics.
– The Community;
– Potential Employees;
– Employees;
– Suppliers of services and materials;
– Investors --- the money market;
– Distributors;
– Consumers and users;
– Opinion leaders.
Why Should We know Or Define Publics?
Unless we know our Publics, it will be almost impossible to plan a proper and useful PR campaign. Basically
following are the purposes of determining and defining the Publics.
– To identify all groups of people relative to a PR program;
– To establish priority within the scope of the budget & resources;
– To select media & techniques;
– To prepare the message in acceptable & effective forms.
What Happens If We Do Not Define Publics?
As has been mentioned above, following problems will have to be faced if we do not define or know our
– Efforts & funds will be scattered indiscriminately in the attempt to reach too many publics;
– The same message will be issued irrespective of its suitability for different groups of people;
– Work would not be timed to make the most cost effective use of working hours, materials &
So in short we should remember that if it happens as enumerated above then the:
Management would be dissatisfied with the lack of results & management would be justified in regarding
PR as being intangible & worse still, a waste of money and resultantly the PR practitioner may be branded
as incompetent which will be total disaster from PR point of view.
Few Examples Of Publics
– Members, donors, voluntary workers,
– Beneficiaries and users of the service;
– Potential supporters and helpers;
– Suppliers of services and materials;
– Politicians, political parties;
– Various Groups;
– Central and local government officials;
– Medical and health professionals;
– Charities;
– Opinion leaders.
– MPA ‘s; MNA’s Senators; Government Officials; Distributors, - travel
– Convention organizers;
– Transport operators - rail, sea, air, road;
– Banks, credit card and travelers’ cheque operators; Currency dealers;
– Hotel owners including international hotel groups;
– Visitors - holidaymakers, business people, students;
– Conference delegates, sportspeople;
– Opinion leaders - writers, politicians, teachers;
– Community in vicinity of a manufacturing industry;
– Potential staff - local factory/office labor, management and sales staff
from other firms;
– All grades of management, office, factory, warehouse, transport, sales
– Suppliers of local services, e.g. public services, and suppliers of raw
materials, packaging, advertising and other professional services;
– Stock market - city editors, investment analysts, institutional buyers and
– Consumers - present and potential, including school children;
– Trade unions, trade associations;
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Lesson 5
This lecture will explain about the methods and essentials of planning public relations program. It is
important to consider and determine as to how these can be planned for tangible results. Although once
again we will be talking on broad scale yet this can be adapted to suit particular or more modest
4 Reasons for Planning PR Programmes.
1. Set targets for PR Operation -- (Against which results can be assessed.)
2. Estimate the working hours and other costs involved for such PR Plan.
3. Select priorities which will control the number and timing of different operations in the program.
4. Decide feasibility of carrying out declared objectives according to availability of:
• Sufficient staff of proper caliber.
• Specific equipment like computers, cameras, vehicles etc.
• Adequate Budget.
6 Point PR Planning Model
In order to plan a successful and result oriented PR plan following model should be adopted;
• Appreciation of the situation.
• Definition of objectives.
• Definition of publics.
• Selection of media & techniques.
• Planning of a budget.
• Assessment of results.
Let us now study the above enumerated parameters of successful PR plan model individually.
Appreciation Of The Situation
Methods Of Appreciating A Situation
In order to prepare an effective strategy to counter a situation it is important that the gravity of situation
should first be assessed and appreciated. Following are the universally tried and accepted methods of
appreciating a situation.
• Opinion, attitude or image surveys.
• Press clippings, monitored broadcasting scripts.
• Sales figures trends & sales report indications,
Fundamentals of Public Relations –MCM 401 VU
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• State of competition within & from imports.
• Share price if Public Company, dividends, balance sheet etc.
• Industrial relation situation.
• Customer complaints, test reports & product performance.
• Discussion with sales force & distributors.
• Prices & effect of price changes.
• Market forces, economic, social & political.
Definition Of Objectives.
1. Change the image because company has changed its activities.
2. Improve the caliber of job applicants.
3. Tell people about little known story of the company & gain credit for achievement.
4. Make company known & understood in new local & international markets.
5. Prepare stock market for a new share launch.
6. Improve community relations following public criticism based on misunderstanding of company’s
7. Educate installers, users or consumers about the product.
8. Regain public confidence after a disaster which had portrayed company as inefficient in any way,
the cause having been rectified.
9. Establish a new corporate identity.
10. Support a sponsorship scheme.
11. Make politicians better informed about company’s activities, perhaps because of some impending
legislation which could affect the company unfavorably.
12. Propagate company’s research activities.
When we determine the objectives it is essential that we should first of all identify the public we want to
target from various publics, as already enumerated in the previous lectures also. Broadly speaking there are
two major publics classified as internal and external while following are the expanded publics in the
modern day.
Expanded Publics.
• The Community.
• Potential Employees.
• Employees.
• Suppliers of services & materials.
• Investors --- the money market.
• Distributors.
• Consumers & users.
• Opinion leaders.
Selection of Media & Techniques.
Once the objectives have been worked out and the publics selected, it will be necessary to select the media
and technique to be adopted for the achievement of the desired objectives. It is important as in relation to
the objectives, determined publics identified, only the selection of proper public will yield positive results.
Following is the classification of different media as in use in the present days.
Print Media Electronic Media
1. Press. 1. Radio
2. Printed Material. 2. Television.
3. Direct Mail.
4. House Journals
Misc. Media
1. Exhibitions.
2. Air balloons & ships.
3. Electronic Bill Boards.
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While determining the media and required techniques it is essential and important that before launching a
public relations plan a budget should also be worked out. In this context following is the five point strategy.
5 Points For Planning PR Budget
1. To determine, what will it cost to carry out a PR Plan.
2. What sort of plan can be carried out for a given sum of money?
3. After agreeing to a cost & Plan, budget provides a check list to tasks, to be done as per a time table.
4. Budget sets a discipline for both expenditure & over - expenditure.
5. After completion of campaign, results can be measured against the budget.
Assessment Of Results
Once all essentials like objectives, proper identification of publics and selection of media and techniques are
in place and the cost involved for such plan has been worked out on the above explained strategy, it is
imperative that an assessment should be made with regard to the public relations plan about the results or
achievement of the objectives on following lines even if these may be qualitative and not quantitative.
• Evaluate results.
• Adopt proper evaluating methods.
• Compare results against Objectives.
Sometimes the results may not be measurable statistically, but by experience and self evident qualities such
as the evidence that now job applicants are better educated and more proficient or in some other way more
suitable than before. These are basically the qualitative results. However, the quantitative results may show
increased sales, awareness and reduced number of complaints, increased job applicants, oversubscription of
shares or even increased number of mentions of the company name in the media.
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Lesson 6
In this lecture we will explain about various Medias of public relations and its various classifications and
usages. It will be basically a broad outline at this stage however; these will be individually dealt with in later
Medias Of PR
I Print Media:
National & Regional newspapers, magazines, directories, year books & annual reports etc..
Printed Material.
Educational, informative, prestige, promotional, balance sheets etc..
Direct Mail.
Personal letters, direct correspondence, mailing information etc.
House Journals.
Company newsletters both internal and external.
II. Electronic Media:
1. Radio -- National, Local, International etc.
2. Television – National, Regional, Tele text etc.
III. Other Media:
Exhibitions: Special PR exhibitions, Trade & Public shows, trade fairs local and overseas.
Airships: Gas filled air balloon ships for promotional purposes.
Electronic Bill Boards: New concept & replacements for conventional bill boards.
Mobile Vehicles: New type of scrolling computer aided advertisements.
Media for Internal Publics (Co Newsletter)
1. The value of understanding, teamwork and commitment by employees in achieving bottom line
2. The need to build a strong management-employee communication network for more than job
related also key business & public issues.
7 Conditions for better working
1. Confidence & Trust between employer & employees.
2. Candid information flowing freely up, down & sideways.
3. Satisfying status & participation for each person.
4. Continuity of work without strife.
5. Healthful surroundings.
6. Success for the enterprise.
7. Optimism about the future.
Media for External Publics.
• Newspapers.
• Magazines.
• Radio.
• Television.
Working with the Media (Basic Principles)
Understand Media.
Know each Media.
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Essential Points to know about Press
• Editorial Policy.
• Frequency of Publication.
• Copy Date.
• Circulation Area.
• Readership Profile.
• Distribution Method.
Principles of Good Press Relations
• Maintain 2 ways Relationship.
• Establish reputation of reliability.
• Provide good copy.
• Cooperation in providing material.
• Provide Verification Facilities.
• Building Personal rapport with the Media.
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Lesson 7
In this lecture we will study about press relations. Basically what are its methods and how does a PR
professional maintain these and what are basic ingredients for good press relations. The students will also be
apprised about the definition of press relations and explain about News and news releases and how should
these be written.
6 Points For Good Press Relations
A good public relations practitioner will take following six steps to maintain good relations with the press
1. He will maintain TWO way Relationship.
2. He will by his conduct establish reputation of reliability.
3. The press will always provide good copy.
4. He will always cooperate with the press in providing material.
5. As and required he will provide Verification Facilities.
6. The PR practitioner will build personal rapport with the Media
– The word Press, as commonly known should not be confined to press. It
covers all news media, like, radio, TV & cinema.
– The objective of press relations is to ‘create knowledge & understanding.’
and not what the employer or client wants to be printed for favorable
– All press material should be of ’interest & value ’ to the readers, listeners
or viewers, as the material is likely to be used and the resultant publicity
will ultimately please the client or employer.
What is News.
‘News is information which is not already known to recipients.
News Release.
Whenever a news release has to be prepared following essential points should be kept in mind.
1. The test of a PR story.
It means that it has news worthiness i.e. the information will be of interest to readers and is therefore worth
2. Bad releases are bad PR.
A news release creates an image of the organization in the critical eye of the editors. A badly written release
will create a very bad impression of the sender’s organization.
3. Good presentations.
Primarily following 4 things contribute to happier relations .with the press.
1. Releases should be composed in the style acceptable to journalists.
2. Release should be in manuscript style, and not in business letter style.
3. Releases should be appropriate to the journals to which they are sent.
4. Carefully select journals to which releases are sent and moreover send them well ahead of time of
How Should The News Releases Be Written)
The easiest way to learn how to write news release is to study newspaper reports and observe how they are
written: there is a special technique. Following TWO fundamental characteristics will be apparent from
reading newspapers.
A. The subject is stated in the opening words.
B. The opening paragraph is a summary of the whole story.
( The 7 Point Formula
1. Subject - What is the story about?
2. Organization - What is the name of Organization?
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3. Location - Where is the organization located?
4. Advantages - What is new? What are the benefits?
5. Details – What are the colors, sizes, prices, performance figures or other details?
6. Applications – What are the uses & who are the users?
7. Source – Is this different from location, e.g. location might be where the work is done, source will
be the head office.
(Model Layout Of A Press Release)
Simple identification
Brief identification of story
First paragraph not indented
Double spacing
Good margins both
Clear information without
Excessive display
WHY 7 Point Formula?
The value of the above 7 point formula can be summarized as below:
1. It provides a Checklist of data before writing a press release.
2. It is the plot for the release, indicating the sequence of information.
3. It provides a checklist to apply after writing the release.
4. It proposes an orderly sequence of information.
5. First paragraph should always state the subject, the name of the organization(although not the full
business address.)
6. Last paragraph should state full name, address and telephone numbers of the organization.
Secrets Of Good News Release.
In order to explain further following key points are enumerated below for writing a good news release.
– Good press release should have short paragraphs, , short sentences &
simple words.
– The story should not be more than ONE page.
– The superlatives should always be avoided ,such as “the world’s biggest”
– Avoid vague generalizations like ‘economical - money saving” etc.
– Do not use cliches like “unique, wide range, this point in time “etc.
– Do not quote remarks from leaders unless they have something special
and or original to say.
Presentation of a News Release.
For effective and authentic news release following points should never be ignored as the release is a
NEWS from ABC Company LOGO
Opening paragraph, summary of whole
story, subject in first few words, brief
name of organization, Location, highlights
of story.
Applications: uses and users.
Advantages: what is new, different?
Details : specifications , prices.
Source of product or service: full name,
address, telephone number of supplier.
Writers, name
and Title.
Name, Address, telephone no. of
organization. or PR Consultancy
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• Press releases should be typed on printed letter head.
• Important points should be given headlines.
• Subheadings will help in emphasizing points.
• Indented paragraphs will always give good looks and effective response.
• Capital Letters should be used only when necessary.
• Underlining special points will help in easy identification.
• Full points or full stops in abbreviations should only be used when
• Figures. Will substantiate your message or claims.
• Dates are important for up to date information..
• Continuations will inform the reader that the story is still continuing.
• Quotation Marks are essential for quoting sayings.
• Authorship gives the ownership of the story or release.
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Lesson 8
In this lecture information will be provided about various created private media, its different kinds and their
importance. We will also explain about various types and points regarding house journals; and how to plan
them. We will also deal with methods of assessing results and matters pertaining to market research, its
importance and how to conduct it.
In order to reach certain publics to achieve particular objectives, the mass media of press, radio and
television may not be appropriate, especially if these publics comprise small or specialized groups. One
public which comes to mind is the staff (or the membership) who may be best reached by house journal.
The main forms of such created private media are given below.
Private Media.
1. House Journal. 2. Videos
3. Slides. 4. Audio Cassettes.
5. Spoken word. 6. Private exhibitions.
7. Seminars etc. 8. Educational Literature
4 Types of House Journals.
1. Magazines - - A4 size.
2. Newspapers - - like a tabloid.
3. Newsletter - - 2 to 8 pages.
4. Wall newspaper - - like a poster.
Points To Note When Planning A House Journal
1. Determining Readership . 2. Quantity.
3. Frequency of publication 4. Policy.
5. Title. 6. Printing process.
7. Style & Format. 8. Priced or free.
9. Advertisements. 10. Distribution.
11. Budgeting. 12. Considerations.
13. Obtaining material 14. Designing.
New Forms of House Journals.
In recent years following 4 new forms of house journals have given new dimension to managementemployee
1. Audio Tapes. 2. CD/Video House journals.
3. Corporate video . 4. Electronic Newspaper.
CD ROMs, Videos etc.
Another important media for TV’s Cinemas etc.
Transparencies, 35mm slides, OHP films.
Audio Cassettes.
Use of Audio cassettes in cars, conferences etc.
Educational Literature.
For encouraging, explaining use of a product.
The spoken word.
Talks etc.
Seminars & Conferences.
Receptions in hotels, basically educational for the consumers, users, beneficiaries so that they are made
aware about its proper usage and benefits.
Private Exhibitions.
Could be permanent on company premises or at a special venue/site.
Evaluating Results
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Once all parameters of a public relations plan are in place, it is imperative to evaluate the results to
determine the success and benefits accrued from such plan. There can be basically two types of results;
2 Kinds Of Results.
Qualitative. These cannot be measured statistically. Many results of PR activity will be of this kind, that is,
these will be only judged by experience and self-evident qualities e.g. the evidence that the job applicants are
now better educated, more proficient or in some other way more suitable than in the past.
Quantitative. These are statistics based results. These are generally self evident results which are seen or
experienced for instance a percentage increase in awareness , a reduced number of complaints, improved
sales etc..
Methods of Assessment.
By Enquiries Received. When media coverage produces direct enquiries their numbers can be totaled, and
if they are converted into sales their value can also be calculated.
By Statistical Data. Readership figures and audience ratings can be a good measure.
By Source. Another good method of evaluating media coverage is to give values to each newspaper or
magazine and so arrive at a source for each news release issued. This will vary from product to product, but
for understanding purpose let us take the value of a financial /commercial /stock market story i.e. press
release, following chart will explain the rating valuations. However it will be totally different in case of
house hold products or consumer goods.
Daily Business Recorder
Daily Dawn
Daily Jang
Daily News
Daily Nation
Daily Nawa-i-Waqt
Daily Khabrain
Daily Pakistan
Financial Story
Goods, etc.
Opinion Polls. The shift of opinion or the extent of awareness can be measured by means of an opinion
poll. If samples of relevant publics are interviewed after every six months, it is possible to measure the
upward or downward trend of these shifts.
Media Feedback. If the media have shown misunderstanding, skepticism or hostility in the past, does the
media now is well informed and more sympathetic? This could be direct result of Public relations activity
such as news releases, feature articles, press information service, press receptions and facility visits.
Marketing Research.
‘A branch of social science which uses scientific methods to collect information about markets for goods &
Research Terminology
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Marketing research has its own special language. Some of the terms have lay meanings and the student
ought to be careful to understand the precise research meanings of the following terms.
1. Population or universe –in marketing research both words mean the total number of people
relevant to a particular survey. e.g. all dentists, or university students depending upon the subject of study.
2. Respondent or interviewee - A person questioned in a survey.
3. Sample – This should not be confused with a ‘free sample’, in fact it means a survey of a
proportion of the population or universe to be questioned.
4. Characteristics - distinctions which are known to exist in the population.
5. Sampling frame - specification of the kinds of people.
6. Random walk - list of names & addresses may not exist. Random method calling homes like select
every 10th house.
7. Structured interview – conducted with a prepared questionnaire.
8. Depth interview – one with no prepared questionnaire.
9. Questionnaire. A specially devised format has to be prepared to meet the demand the particular
survey requirement.
10. Social grades – classification of people into socio economic groups based on incomes. Can be a
very effective and useful method of survey for the assessment of results.
Marketing Research Methods
Published Survey Findings. For various purposes beginning with the census of population, surveys may
have been made by official, institutional or commercial organizations. These findings may have been
published and made available to concerned and interested parties.
Commissioned Surveys. For marketing and advertising purposes the PR practitioner may have
commissioned surveys and the results could be helpful when determining the current image and planning a
PR program.
Advertising Media Research. Advertising media research could be useful when measuring press
readership and television ,radio and poster audiences.
Original Or Primary Research. As a matter of appreciating the situation (using image studies or opinion
/attitude surveys) and of monitoring the progress and success of PR campaign, original research can be
Types of Research
– Desk Research – It is basically a study of existing statistics and survey reports.
– Field Research – This normally done by interviewing people ‘in the field’, as when interviewers contact
– Ad hoc Research – This means one - off surveys, complete in one project only.
– Continuous Research – These are the surveys carried out regularly e.g. monthly, thus recording changes
or trends.
Marketing Research Techniques.
– Opinion, attitude or shift surveys. These are usually for seeking “yes” or “no”, ”don’t know”, answers,
often continuous or at least repeated at regular intervals to know what people know, think or believe and to
measure changes or shifts in awareness opinions or beliefs.
– Consumer Panels. A panel is a recruited group of respondents who serve more or less permanently to
answer questions or to test products.
– Motivational Research. This research seeks by means techniques similar to those used in clinical and
intelligence testing, to reveal hidden motives, instead of stated opinions.
– Discussion Group. This is a much modified and less expensive form of motivational research.
–Tele(phone) Questionnaire. Surveys of distant or scattered respondents can be conducted by pre
arranged telephone interview. This can be pretty useful in industrial research.
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– Postal Questionnaire. This is posted to respondents and return of the completed forms will depend
upon the extent to which the respondents are motivated or will cooperate, perhaps because they are
committed to the subject.
– Coupon Survey. This is a survey published in the press, but it has the obvious weakness that only those
very interested will bother to submit answers.
– Dealer, retail or shop audit. This is in fact a form of continuous research, whereby the stocks and
invoices of a recruited panel of dealers are checked at regular intervals. The figures are taken of goods
bought and remaining in stock thus revealing how various brands are moving out of the shops, making
comparison between rival brands, and in the aggregate showing the market share of each brand.
– Qualitative Research. This is like depth interviewing, which overcomes some of the difficulties which
hamper research in developing countries where facilities are different from those in industrial countries.
– Image study. The object of an image study is to compare the strengths and weaknesses of a number of
similar companies, of which the sponsor is one although not identified as such to respondents.
Marketing Research ( a model survey form )
Do you drive a car YES NO
If YES , Do you own a car YES NO
(b) Which of the following makes of car do you normally drive?
Suzuki Fiat
Honda Toyota
Santro Kia
Mercedes BMW
(c) How would you rate the reliability of the car you normally drive?
Very bad Bad Poor Fairly good Good Very Good
(d) State briefly why you would, or would not buy the same make of car again ---------------------------
Press Events. --- 3 kinds.
1. Conference.
2. The Press Reception.
3. The Facility visit.
How to organize?
• Plan the reception well in advance, so that all pros and cons are considered ahead of time.
• Choose a convenient venue. Location always plays a vital role as easy access will not only improve
image but will also attract larger audience.
• Send invitations to selected named guests in good time. (May vary). Although the list may vary but
enough time margin should be given for dignitaries and celebrities to plan well in advance to attend them.
• State the time table on the invitation card. This will let the guests know about the plan of events.
• Make sure catering is good & adequate. This helps in good image and leaves a good taste about the
whole event.
• Rehearse & time speakers. It is important so that the whole program runs according to schedule.
• Make sure everything required is provided on time. This will leave good impression on the
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• Provide adequate press information, but do not overload. This will enable the press to report
appropriately and your angle will be more or less projected.
• Identify staff from guests with different colored badges. It is essential for ushering and help to the
guests and also differentiate for better service.
• Get on with business on time & stick to timetable. It helps in swift and quick culmination of the
• Do not mix journalists with other guests like customers.
• Have enough hosts to take care of the guests. Ensure those guests are properly taken care of for
better service resulting in better PR.
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Lesson 9
In this lecture we will look at some of the areas where Public relations has been particularly beneficial to
organizations in recent years. This will also demonstrate the versatility of PR, and show how it satisfies the
needs of leaders of industry, commerce and in other fields .It will also answer the criticism of the PR
practitioners that management rarely understands and appreciates PR. This lecture will also explain as to
how the managements of these days have discovered the need for PR. Besides this it will also cover the
skills of PR and methods of presentations
– Crisis Management….Likely & unlikely. There is hardly any company or organization which does not
pass through some kind of crisis in its life. It is imperative that a crisis management program should be in
place to effectively counter such a situation ,like having a permanent crisis management team, who should
take cognizance of crisis both likely and unlikely.
– Desk top Publishing. The printed house journal, the world’s oldest form of organized PR for now
more than 170 years. The print has the permanence and portability which can be retained and read almost
anywhere at any time and by a wide readership. Desk top publishing has made this very simple and
– Corporate Identity. The creation of corporate identity scheme is often a PR responsibility, because it
applies to all aspects of an organization and is significant part of total communication.
– Parliamentary Liaison. It covers relations between organizations, perhaps using specialist consultants
with the government, houses of the parliament. PR helps to create a favorable lobby on various counts and
for different reasons and objectives. Basically it is of two kinds; firstly, keeping politicians and civil servants
aware of an organization’s interests, and secondly; keeping organizations aware of parliamentary activities
and procedures.
– Financial PR. Financial PR has become very important growth area, calling for special knowledge,
calling for special knowledge of the financial world, and how it works..
Skills Of PR
– Writing -- One of many effective PR Tools
– Presentation -- CD ROMs, Power Point.
– Media Interview -- Do things, the right way.
Skills Of PR Writing
– Short reports.
– Memos.
– Lists to break monotony.
– Highlight actions.
– Short introductions & summaries.
– When your boss prefers it.
– Correct format.
Important points for Presentations
– Collection of data. Sufficient and required data should be collected.
– Structure. You have to determine the structure of presentation.
– The words used. Appropriate and simple words should be used.
– Talking. You have to explain verbally also in tandem with visual presentation.
– Timing. It should be as brief as possible to avoid boring the audience.
– Workshops. Proper workshops would also assist.
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– The Venue. Convenient and easily accessible location should be selected.
– Your Voice. Talk slowly and in a reasonable and clearly audible tone.
– Rehearse. Properly practice before going for presentation.
– Impromptu. You may ready to explain at the spur of the moment too.
Media Interview Technique
PR practitioners need to organize & manage interviews & TV appearances efficiently. They should always
take following things into considerations to conduct such interviews.
– Become used to making presentations.
– Know the subject.
– Should be a competent & confident communicator.
– Teach yourself or rehearse.
– Participate in Q&A session, even with friends.
– Arrive early.
– Be appropriately dressed.
– Do not lead answers to more questions.
Methods of Presentations.
– Computer.
– Audio.
– Video.
– Sampling.
Presentation Objectives.
For manufacturing companies.
– Organize a program of dealer activities to improve trade understanding of the company.
– Improve the flow of corporate & financial news to the city & the financial press, to be ready for a share
or rights issue.
– Make a video of a sporting event which the company has sponsored.
– Develop more in-depth understanding of the company by relevant journalists by organizing a series of
– Develop International PR in those overseas markets where the company intends to set up distribution
For a charity.
• Increase public awareness of the charity’s independence & that it is
supported by voluntary contributions.
• Make known the continuous story of the charity’s work.
• Seek a sponsor for & make a video or a CD Rom about the charity’s work
for people in disaster situations.
• Organize a series of interviews for relief and donation appeals.
• Seek industrial donors of advertising space in the press, Radio, TV etc.
• Promote & Project Fund raising campaigns.
For a Local Government.
1. Organize a program of talks & slide / Video / Computer based presentations to school.
2. Organize a town history exhibition, visits by schools & seeking coverage by press, radio & TV.
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3. Publish, Edit & distribute a civic newspaper to make people residing in that council to make them
aware about the local authority’s services.
4. Organize & train team of councilors & officials to act as spokespeople about council’s affairs.
5. Organize both local & national coverage of the opening of the town new facility.
For a Trade Association.
1. Make better known the association’s code of practice.
2. Revamp the association’s newsletter for members and issue it monthly instead of quarterly.
3. Obtain maximum media coverage of the association’s campaigns.
4. Organize seminars for members.
5. Participate in the annual trade exhibition.
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Lesson 10
In this lecture we will look at the most important aspect of public relations i.e. budgeting. We will establish
the need for it and its important elements. We will also look at the importance of photography in Public
relations and how to use it effectively without it being wasteful.
Like any other plan budgeting is very important for a PR program and PR department. Let us discuss what
is the need for budgeting?
Why Budgeting
1. To learn what will it cost to carry out a PR Program.
2. Or; to learn what sort of program can be carried out for a given sum of money.
3. Budgeting helps in controlling the program cost.
4. Budgeting provides a discipline for both expenditure & over- expenditure.
5. After completion of campaign, results can be measured against the budget.
Elements of a PR Budget.
– Elements.
• Labour.
Includes salaries. Biggest component.
• Office Overheads.
Fixed costs electricity, rent, insurance etc.
• Materials.
Items like stationery, postage, print, visual aids, and mobile exhibitions stands etc.
• Expenses.
Out of pocket expenses, expenses of organizing PR events e.g. catering,
Public address system, TV, screens, video players, chairs, tents etc.
PR Budget for a large organization.
Following are few of the important expense headings.
1. Salaries 2. Overheads 3. Depreciations
4. Insurance 5. Press receptions 6. Staff journals
7. External journals 8. Slides 9. Video / CD. ROM Costs.
10. News releases 11. Feature articles 12. Radio Tapes
13. TV properties 14. Printed literature 15. Sponsorships
16. Exhibitions 17. Photography 18. Vehicles
19. Stationery 20. Postage 21. Telephone, fax, internet etc.
22. Traveling 23. Contingency say 10%
PR & Photographs
Photographs play a very important role in PR activities.
3 Public Relations Requirements
1. How to tell a story with pictures.
2. The sort of pictures editors want.
3. How to work with a photographer.
6 ways to avoid wasteful distribution of pictures.
1. Pictures should be sent to only those publications who are likely to print them
2. Editors may be phoned & asked if they would like a picture to be printed with the story.
3. Pictures can be reproduced on the news release, & editors invited to request prints.
4. If there is a set of pictures then, a sheet of miniatures can be sent enabling editors to choose.
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5. At the foot of the release one can state that pictures are available.
6. Color pictures should only be sent if requested.
Why Photo Captions?
Without captions the recipient does not know:
– What is the picture about?
– Who sent it?
– Who owns the copyrights?
PR Uses Of Photography.
– To build a photographic library;
– To provide / supply with press releases;
– To illustrate feature articles;
– As picture stories, sometimes in sets;
– For window & showroom displays;
– For display in seminars, press receptions & other events;
– For display as “blow –ups on exhibitions;
– For illustrating house journals;
– For stills as used in TV studio backgrounds to speakers or during news
How to produce good pictorial material!
– Presentations & handshakes.
– People at work.
– Human interest.
– Large objects.
– ‘Busy’ pictures.
– Perspectives.
– Color pictures.
– Flat or profile pictures.
– Impression of size.
– Name display.
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Lesson 11
This lecture will cover the problems which a PR practitioner has to face in the course of his performance.
We will define the problems and its causes and how to resolve them. We will identify the crisis and will
explain the strategy to overcome them besides warning against common mistakes which could be made to
solve them.
4 Step Problem Solving Process
1. Defining the problem (or opportunity).
2. Planning & Programming.
3. Taking action & communicating.
4. Evaluating the program.
Defining PR problems.(Problem Statement)
-- Written in present tense, a problem statement describes a situation in specific
& measurable terms.
– What is the source of concern?
– Where is this problem?
– When is it a problem?
– Who is involved or affected?
– How are they involved or affected?
– Why is this concern to the organization & its public?
To develop action & communication strategies with a detailed analysis of the problems of target publics.
4 Questions Need Answering.
1. How much do people use information in the problem situation?
2. What kinds of information do people use?
3. How do people use information?
4. What predicts information use?
Mission of Public Relations Is to help the organization achieve its mission by:
• Collecting & analyzing information on the changing knowledge, opinion &
behaviors of key publics & stakeholder groups.
• Serving as the central source of information about an organization and as
the official channel of communication between an organization & its
• Communicating significant information, opinions, & interpretations to keep
an organization’s public & other stakeholders aware of organizational
policies & actions.
• Coordinating activities that affect an organization’s relationships with its
publics & other stakeholder groups.
How does PR work to solve problems?
1. A searching look backwards!
2. A wide look around!
3. A deep look inside!
4. A long, long, look ahead!
– Basically it is “learn – feel – do” theme which guides PR program for
solving problems”
Information Gain
Opinion Change
Behavioral Change
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How To Anticipate Crisis (Disasters) ?
– Immediate crisis.
– Emerging crisis.
– Sustained crisis.
Common mistakes in handling crisis.
– Hesitation.
– Retaliation.
– Pontification.
– Confrontation.
– Litigation.
How To Prepare For Public Relations Crisis?
– Identify things that can go wrong & become highly visible, assess
weaknesses throughout the organization.
– Assign priorities based on which weaknesses are most urgent & most
– Draft questions, answers & resolutions for each potential crisis scenario.
– Focus on the two most important tasks – what to do & what to say –
during the first critical hours following a crisis.
– Develop a strategy to contain & counteract, not react & respond.
Countering Crisis With Strategy.
7 C’s of PR are effective means of strategy to counter crisis
7 C’s of PR explained.
1. Credibility.
Communication starts with Belief, built by the institution on performance.
2. Context.
A communication program must confirm not contradict the message.
3. Content.
Message should have meaning for recipients.
4. Clarity.
Message must be put in simple words.
5. Continuity & Consistency.
Communication is an unending process, requires repetition to achieve results but with variation.
6. Channels.
All established channels of communication should be used.
7. Capability of the audience.
Take into consideration the habits, reading ability, and prior knowledge.
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Lesson 12
Practicing Public Relations is a psychology in itself. We will determine the importance of it and also explain
and define various methods of communication. We will also explain the different communication methods
for various companies as well.
Psychology of Public Relations
--- Basically the purpose of public Relations is to
“create understanding & knowledge.”
--- But come what may, the message should be short & simple. As for example The word “STOP” is
simpler than “Do not move” “or
Stay where you are”.
How Do We Communicate?
5 Main methods
1. By words, whether printed or spoken.
2. By sound, such as music or sound effects.
3. By movement, such as action in films, video, TV, or by gestures & body
4. By the use of symbols such as symbols such as identity logos, badges &
5. By the use of colors which have different effects or meanings.
PR For Utility Companies
Utility Companies & its Public.
Generally following can be classified as utility companies;
A. Electricity B. Gas C. Water
In fact all utilities have basically similar approach and problems.
– For utility the word Publics is generally synonymous to Customers.
– Generally, A utility with good public relations is with customer –oriented
objectives, sound management & the ability not only to give customers
good service but to communicate with them favorably in every way.
Objectives Of PR In A Utility Company.
– The utility company is well managed & efficiently run.
– The company is always striving to improve its services.
– Its rates are fair.
– It is an honest & ethical company, with no discriminatory practices in
regard to customers & to any firm / s dealing with it.
– Company also takes good care of its employees.
– It will help in the improvement of environment.
– It will not indulge in profiteering.
– It will keep its employees informed about its business & better orientation.
How PR Helps Utility Companies
– Releases to newspapers & financial journals concerning earnings,
refinancing operations, personnel changes & other business news.
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– Attractive & informative quarterly reports to stockholders.
– Answering all stockholders queries as promptly as possible.
– Special releases on annual reports & meetings.
– An annual report advertisement.
– Detailed economic analysis & review once a year. Some times statistical
booklets are issued separately & sometimes included with the annual report.
Advertising Essential For Utility Companies.
6 reasons.
1. Inform public on the best use of the service. This helps in increasing customer satisfaction.
2. To increase sales of its products.
3. To inform the public about company & its plans.
4. To improve the company image.
5. To encourage area development.
6. To attract investor’s money and confidence.
We can always review and check company’s activities. through regular check by following 6
– What is the company doing now?
– If some practice is discontinued, where was it done before?
– Who is doing it?
– How is it being done; what tools are used?
– What needs to be done?
– Who should do it?
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Lesson 13
Public Relations in its applications vary from one organization to another. In this lecture we will identify
these different roles and purposes. We will also determine assignments and different techniques required
therein besides the support provided by the public relation program.
Public Relations For Trade Associations
Predominantly, Public Relations is a significant function of most of these associations.
Purposes Of Trade Association P R Programmes.
– Promoting sales through product publicity.
– Creating consumer understanding of how to use the industry’s products.
– Overcoming inequities or other problems in the competitive situation.
– Creating public understanding of the regulation of an industry by
– Combating government interference in or competition with an industry.
– Creating public support for legislative proposals that the industry favors
or public opposition to legislation it opposes.
– Obtaining public recognition for the social & economic contributions that
an industry makes to the nation.
– Recruiting qualified people for careers in an industry.
– Creating public understanding of the industry’s labor policies & of its
labor union relations.
Steps To Develop Trade Association PR Programmes.
1. Analysis of the public relations situation.
2. Definition of problem area.
3. Identification of concerned publics.
4. Establishment of specific objectives.
5. Planning of program.
6. Implementation of program.
7. Periodic appraisal of progress.
Techniques of Trade Association PR.
– Research
PR primarily adopts two universally accepted methods for conducting research
a) Public opinion.
b) Industry data.
– Publicity & personal contacts with media people.
– Institutional advertising.
– Motion pictures, slides & cd roms.
– Periodic publications.
– Pamphlets.
– Instructional leaflets.
To Sum up as per “Reuel Elton”
– Trade Association does not order, it advises.
– It does not coerce, it persuades.
– It does not issue mandates, or even instructions.
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– It uses only the moving eloquence of a reasoned appeal to the self interest
of its members.
Public Relations For Financial Institutions.
– Banking institutions.
– Leasing companies.
– Insurance companies.
– Stock exchanges.
Usual Assignments For PR
1 Measuring opinions towards the company of shareholders, financial analysts & legislators.
2. Recommending communication strategy, particularly for corporate goals.
3. Assisting with preparation of financial literature, such as letters to new shareholders, interim &
annual reports, dividend enclosures etc.
4. Making arrangements & preparing informational materials for financial meetings, facility tours &
presentations for the investor groups, analysts & financial media.
5. Writing financial news releases & handling of inquiries from financial media.
One of the important role of Financial PR is in the preparation of annual reports.
What Should Annual Reports Contain
– An attractive & distinctive cover.
– An inviting design that helps reader get the main message.
– A table of contents and / or highlights.
– Identification of members of the Board of directors.
– A statement or letter from the chairman or the CEO or both, summarizing
the past year’s events & emphasizing goals for the future.
– Consolidated balance statements of earnings, shareholder’s interest, &
operating cash flows for the year.
– Financial highlights & comparisons with at least the previous year, but
often with the past 5~10 years.
– Auditor’s statement of independence & adhering to accepted accounting
Public Relations Typical Support.
It is essential to identify the type of technical support PR can provide which is enumerated below:
– Helping with physical arrangements.
– Creating handouts & other on site communications.
– Assisting with tours & souvenirs.
– Accommodating news media, including all necessary arrangements.
– Generating publicity support.
– Preparing Q&A sheets for top executives in anticipation of questions from
Role Of Public Relations In Government
“A popular government without popular information or a means of acquiring it, is but a prologue to a farce
or tragedy, or perhaps both.” James Madison
Government public relations rests on 2 fundamental premises:
1. A democratic government must report its activities to the citizens
2. That effective government administration requires active citizen participation & support.
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Overall Goals For Government PR Plan.
– Informing constituents about the activities of the government agency;
– Ensuring active cooperation in government program e.g. voting, seat
belt use, anti smoking ordinances etc.
– Fostering citizen support for established policies & programs e.g.
foreign aid, welfare etc.
Public Relations For (NPO) - Non Profit Organizations.
Aims Of PR In N.P.O’s.
– To gain acceptance of an organization’s mission.
– To develop channels of communication with those an organization serves.
– To create & maintain a favorable climate for fund raising.
– To inform & motivate key organizational constituents such as employees,
voluntary workers, trustees to dedicate themselves & work productively in
support of the organization’s mission, goals & objectives.
Changing Functions Of PR In N.P.O’s.
1. Paid advertising.
2. Communication selectivity & reach.
3. Marketing concepts & management by objectives have emerged as important part of
communication strategy.
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Lesson 14
Continuing with the role of public relations we will in this lecture study the PR aspects in labor matters
while determining the role in labor unions in relation to community. We will also find out what role PR can
play for religious groups and also explain the acrostics of public relations.
.PR Aspects Of Labour Matters.
– Identification of key groups; & analysis of the company’s responsibilities
towards them.
– Anticipation & observation of their reactions to the company.
– Development of understanding of the company, its aims, and actions.
Community Public Relations
Importance Of Community Public Relations.
– It makes friends.
– It is good business.
– It helps the welfare of your employees.
– It is social obligation of modern day business.
What it calls for
– Understanding the community.
– Organizing to fit the community relationship needs.
– Conducting the business in tune with the community.
– Sharing time, talents, facilities and money.
– Informing the community about what you are doing & why?
Public Relations For Religious Groups.
An Acrostic Of Public Relations
Putting yourself in the other person’s place.
Understanding the public,& especially those units vital to you & your ministry.
Being aware of latest & most effective techniques & approaches in gaining cooperation.
Launching a program that makes full use of all channels of understanding & support.
Influencing your congregation in such a way that everyone becomes an active agent in PR programs.
Charting your course after careful study by
1. analyzing the problem and…
2. solving it in a manner that wins support & approval.
R cognizing the fact that actions speak louder than words.
Encouraging, advising & stimulating associates, employees.
Linking all phases & divisions of your religious programs so that all work in harmony & unity.
Analyzing each situation for its effects on individuals & groups.
Thinking & planning in terms of the greatest good for the greatest number.
Interpreting your program to show that it is interesting, timely & informative.
Organizing your setup so that goodwill grows from within.
Naming friendly, competent, enthusiastic persons to positions which demand a “public relations
Seeking at all times to keep your public informed through full, frank & frequent reports.
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Problems Of PR In Religious Groups.
– The intangible nature of many religious activities.
– The sacred nature of many religious activities requiring dignified approach.
– The problem of showing the practical worth of some religious values.
– The problem of interpreting a program that follows a traditional pattern.
– The difficulty of knowing at which level to project ideas so they will appeal
to persons of all ages.
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Lesson 15
Practicing Public Relations for educational institution is entirely different. We will also provide guidelines
for a good PR man in this regard. Now a days newspapers, Radio and TV have also become very conscious
of their PR requirements so we will identify various connotations and the role PR can play in better
relations between a newspaper management and its employees.
Public Relations For Educational Institutions
For a good PR professional he / she should:
– Possess integrity, strength of character & good judgment.
– Know how to plumb & judge public opinion.
– Have a strong desire to help and understand people.
– Have the ability to organize.
– Have a logical & objective mind.
– Have a keen sense of tact & diplomacy.
– Have the ability to inspire cooperative action by his colleagues & by the
institution’s publics.
– Have the courage of his convictions. and
– Understand importance of communications.
List Of Good PR For Employees.
The management of educational institutions should ensure that it will provide
– Pleasant working conditions.
– Equitable salary scale.
– Fair promotion policy.
– Recognition for faithful service & achievements.
– Considerate policy on vacations & sick leaves.
– Weekly offs / leaves, exchange professorships.
– Retirement benefits.
– Special tuition rates or scholarships for children of employees.
– Cards or letters of appreciations.
– Respects when ill, birthday & Eid greetings.
– Displays & exhibits.
– Copies of important news releases.
– Clippings of these stories.
Public Relations For Newspapers
General principles and essentials of PR for newspapers are similar to those of various organizations yet
these may differ for identification and application purposes.
Publics Of Newspapers.
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– Employees.
– Readers.
– Advertisers.
– General public i.e. the community.
– The trade.
– Government Officials.
– Shareholders.
Problems Of Newspapers Employees.
– Failure to be treated as human beings
– Failure to consider a partner in the enterprise.
– No visible career advancement.
– A feeling that management is trying to keep labor from earning enough
– Resentment against in charge because of incompetence, favoritism.
– A feeling that management fights ,never cooperates with labor/unions.
– Simple physical discomforts.
Newspapers Major PR Problems
a. Need to strengthening goodwill of the paper.
b. Monopoly ownership of the newspapers.
c. Newsprint shortage, criticism from readers.
d. Employee relations.
Newspapers PR With a Purpose.
– Newspaper Public Relations should be its promotion with a purpose.
– A good newspaper to be portrayed as a symbol & an institution.
– Newspaper should be portrayed as practicing good citizenship.
– Newspaper is progressive & fair.
– Newspaper renders justice to all & fights injustice to anyone.
– Newspaper is tolerant & encourages mutual understanding among
persons of all faiths & origins.
– Newspaper preaches local way of life, expounding its faults as well as its
Public Relations For Radio & TV
With the communication horizon expanding immensely, Radio and TV have also entered a new phase
where besides government owned privately owned stations even in our part of the world are opening up in
big numbers.
Two Types.
1. State Owned.
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2. Privately Owned.
Major Keys To Success.
– Station.
– Programmes.
– Business practices.
– Commercial standards.
10 Little Public Relations Things For Radio/Tv To Do.
1. Guest speakers / Dignitaries.
2. Officials should be freely available.
3. Make your talent available to perform.
4. Welcome newcomers to the community.
5. Invite meetings of women clubs, civic organizations to your station.
6. Organize community Radio & TV workshops with nationally known guest speakers.
7. Maintain up-to-date lists of various categories aside from business prospects.
8. Leave no opportunity to participate in a noble cause.
9. Help community in case of a disaster.
10. In case of an error, it should immediately take the public into confidence.
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Lesson 16
Public Relations and advertising work in very close coordination in various activities. We will establish as to
why advertising is used for PR communication and how does advertising help PR. We will also study
corporate public relations and its importance. PR counsel service is also becoming popular, which will also
be dealt with in this lecture.
. Why Advertising?
– Developed in to an important technique long before most of the other
– It financially supports so many of the media of communication.
– It is always immediately apparent to be a communication from an
interested party seeking to reach the public.
– It is essential to the sale of vast quantities of goods produced.
– It is always clearly visible & often measurable.
How Does Advertising Help PR?
– Conveys information like
1. Company planning to establish a new plant.
2. Notifying personnel of changes in work schedules, layoffs or recalls.
3. Explanation of interruptions in service & what the public should do.
4. A report on change of company name & why?
5. Explanation of the issues in a strike or work stoppage.
6. Reports on company’s activities to desired public.
7. Contributing to the company’s image.
Corporate Public Relations
Role Of PR
Basically creating & maintaining corporate Goodwill --- protecting that which the company has & building
sustained goodwill for the future.
2 Different Postures.
– Defensive in the face of an attack.
– Positive in the effort to enhance goodwill.
PR To Provide 4 Basic Services
Functions of PR Department.
1. Public Relations Advice & Counsel.
2. Corporate Publicity.
3. Product Publicity.
4. Community relations.
5. Shareholder relations.
6. Public Relations Programs.
7. Corporate donations.
8. Government relations.
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9. Guest relations.
10. Internal communications
Place & Function Of Public Relations Counsel
Who should be a PR counsel?
1. Man with extensive training.
2. Man with good judgment.
3. Man with the ability to think in sharp, logical patterns.
4. Ability to express himself clearly, both orally & in writing.
5. Ability to plan on a broad scale – going below the surface far beyond the immediate horizon.
6. Executive ability to direct extensive operations involving much detail & many abstract elements.
7. Sales ability, to know how to put over an idea, a product or a cause.
8. Constant objectivity --- keeping himself in the background, able to evaluate any situation from the
outsider’s view point.
9. Open-mindedness – even after almost all the facts seem to lead to one conclusion.
10. Humility, to be able to acknowledge that his judgment may be wrong.
11. Courage to be willing to lose a client if continuing would require compromising his convictions &
12. Ability to put just as much stress on details as on vast plans.
13. Interest in people, in their ideas, in why they do things.
14. Lively imagination, tempered by good judgment.
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Lesson 17
This lecture will explain various functions and roles of public relations in marketing and how does it provide support in this effort. The students will also be apprised of the role of public relations in market education, besides providing a guide line in relation to the market mix and for devising an effective market education strategy.
Public Relations has become a very important profession as it provides the desired support as and when needed for the implementation of various programs including marketing. In fact marketing now a days primarily depends upon the support provided by the public relations department .The major components of the support provided by PR in marketing are enumerated below:
1. Publicizing news & events.
2. Promoting established products or services.
3. Creating a favorable reputation of the company.
4. Arranging & publicizing public appearance of marketing spokespersons.
5. Probing public opinion. (research)
6. Attracting news media coverage of sales conferences, trade shows &other sales promotion events.
7. Assisting in programs concerning consumerism.
8. The following figure will explain the role of PR in marketing by using four P’s signifying different segments of this role. The basic purpose of dividing the role in four “P’s” as illustrated in above figure is to explain the scope in which PR provides support to marketing.
• The first “P” denotes Product meaning thereby the PR determines the
features by ascertaining its quality and standard.
• The second “P” pertains to the place of origin and the territory of marketing.
• The third “P” determines the price keeping in mind the market trend ,
acceptability and the prevalent competition. and ;
• The fourth “P” ascertains the role in the promotion of the product.
PR And Marketing Mix.
1. Conception, innovation or modification of new product.
2. The place of the product in product life cycle.
3. Marketing research.
4. Naming & Branding.
5. Product image.
6. Market segment.
4 P’s to PR Role in marketing.
Public Relations
7. Pricing.
8. Product mix, rationalization & standardization.
9. Packaging.
10. Distribution.
11. Sales force.
12. Market education.
13. Corporate & financial public relations.
14. Test marketing.
15. Advertising.
16. Industrial relations.
17. Advertising research.
18. Sales promotion.
19. The after market; after sales service, spares, guarantees, instructions.
20. Maintaining customer interest & loyalty.
Public Relations & Market Education
3 Fold Effect Of Market Education In Advertising.
1. Will help to make advertising more quickly acceptable & productive in response.
2. Could make less weighty advertising possible.
3. Whatever advertising is conducted, it is likely to be more economical.
-- Thus overall marketing expenses could be reduced if more was spent on Public Relations.
How To Educate The Market
2 Kinds of Market Education
One kind of market education prepares the market in advance… Also called pre-selling.
Second kind of marketing education occurs with products & services that are already on the market.
2 Types of Market
1st type of market: The people who sell your products or service --- Trade.
2nd type of market: The people who buy or use your products --- Consumers or users.
Effects Of Adopting Market Education Strategy.
1. It helps to minimize sales resistance.
2. Easier for the sales force to achieve ‘adequate distribution’ prior to advertising.
3. It helps to reduce the cost of advertising.
4. It makes advertising more effective.
Techniques Adopted For Market Education.
1. A media relations campaign in press, radio and TV.
2. Testing of prototype by potential users often providing material for media relations.
3. Production of slides, videos & other audio & visual aids for use at dealers, customers conventions
4. Work visits for dealers.
5. Special campaigns aimed at particular opinion leaders or influential groups.
6. The production of printed material which may be needed to support these activities.
Lesson 18
Public relations a very vital role in the image building and developing identity in the corporate structure.
This lecture will identify and explain various aspects and highlights of public relation relations activity in the
achievement of this objective and helps in developing the basic psyche of image and identity. This lecture
will also cover elements of corporate image and identify corporate identity essentials and basic components
of corporate identity.
Corporate Image & Corporate Identity
These are basically 2 different things.
One should always remember that corporate image is mental i.e.
What one thinks about the company?; while corporate identity is physical .
i.e. how one sees or identifies it?
Elements Which Constitute A Total Corporate Image.
1. The date of founding of company.
2. It has plants / factories all over the country.
3. It makes building materials, but diversified in aluminum windows.
4. It has excellent industrial relations record & has a profit sharing scheme.
5. Chairman/CEO plays an important role in trade association affairs.
6. Share prices are steady but rising, dividends are conservative, and profits have been invested in new
factory equipment.
Elements Involved In Corporate Identity.
1. Paint on vehicles & other forms of transportation.
2. All stationery, invoices, business cards, letterheads etc.
3. Name displays on factories, head office buildings etc.
4. Exhibition stands, showrooms, mobile exhibitions etc.
5. Sales literature, price lists, catalogues, etc.
6. Labels, packaging & containers.
7. House journals.
8. Instructional leaflets, service manuals.
9. Uniforms, overalls, caps, lapel badges etc.
10. Point of sales display materials.
11. Advertisements in all visible media.
12. Credits on Video tapes & slide presentations.
13. Diaries & calendars.
14. Giveaways, company ties etc.
15. Annual reports.
Checklist Of Things Which Affect Corporate Image.
1. The after market.
2. Is advertising credible?
3. Is your website credible?
4. How good are your industrial relations?
5. How convenient is your packaging or delivery services?
6. How good are your trade relations?
7. How does the stock market treat you?
8. How do people like your premises?
9. How do you deal with the correspondence?
a) What is the quality of your correspondence?
b) Are your letters replied the same day?
Corporate Identity Essentials
Basic Components Of Corporate Identity
Lesson 19
The use and benefit of Internet and Email has been greatly identified as a useful tool for public relations
practice. But how and when to use this is a question which needs to be pondered upon in the modern day
practice of public relations. This and the use of laptops or note book will also be looked at and its
advantages and disadvantages will also be compared in this lecture.
How To Develop E-PR
This is the age of electronic communication. It is therefore important to know the different aspects of
developing PR in this sector.
Immediate Points To Consider.
1. Immediate Impressions.
2. Wise use of colors & illustrations in a purposeful way.
3. Quick download of information possible from the site.
4. Use small images, storing them as highly compressed file.
5. Your site should /could include:
a) An overall mission statement.
b) Details of products or services.
c) Secure means of ordering.
d) Compact, relevant & informative material easily readable.
e) Information about key personnel & company locations.
f) Good links to other /own, and / or relevant sites.
g) Publicity about awards, ’good works’.
h) Frequently asked questions. (FAQs)
I) membership or registration offers.
j ) Competitions, quizzes or other entertaining items.
k) Some form of feedback.
Your site should not include:
1. Unnecessary flashy & fancy graphics.
2. Curious backgrounds that render text almost impossible to read.
3. A lead page that merely shows your logo or company name.
4. Unclear and useless links or other devices that viewer may not recognize.
Using Email As PR Tool:
1. Email is addressed to individuals, who each receive a personally addressed item with no copy
marked elsewhere.
2. Email is sent to individuals on a list, so that all know who else has received it.
3. Email is posted on web so that anyone who wants to, can download it.
4. Email is available to be sent to auto responder to anyone who logs in.
E - Press Releases.
A. Start with a bold heading – FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE.
B. Choose an eye catching headline, short, relevant, truthful & to the point.
C. Keep the size to maximum of 500 words.
D. Include your web address (URL) for future contact.
E. Use simple & readable fonts.
F. Do not have large attachments.
Signature Files – The new PR Tool.
• Simple Messages that conclude all your emails.
• These are seen by every e-mail recipient.
• This keeps your names & concepts in mind.
• Useful & legitimate way of promoting your key purpose.
Writing An E Press Release.
Internet - a useful medium for press releases.
Special recommendations:
• Start with a bold heading.
• Add a date always.
• Choose eye catching headline – short & relevant.
• Use a simple font e.g. Arial & avoid block letters.
• Avoid attachments to a press release.
How To Develop E-PR Using Laptops & LCD Panels Well
The Up Side The Down Side
• Many excellent graphics
programs available.
• Many striking visual
effects possible.
• Visual parts of
presentations can be
prepared quickly.
• Programs can make not
• Electronic visuals but with other features.
• Lend high tech credibility to presenter
• Encourages a display for
every thought.
• Requires special equipment.
• Long setup / boot up times.
• Can detract attention from
• Easy to overdo visual effects.
• May require dim room lighting.
• May be hard to tailor. Techniques For Using Laptops For Presentations.
• Don’t overdo visual effects; don’t make a visual for every single thought.
• If possible index slides for quick reference tailoring to your requirements.
• Have plan B --- a hard copy version of your slides --- as a stand by.
• Rehearse carefully & thoroughly.
• Get there early; check everything twice.
• If using a TV monitor use at least 30 inch screen. (better to use LCD data show).
• If using an LCD Panel & reflective screen, try to get a super high resolution projector.
• Allow sufficient setup / boot up time.
• Ensure image is large enough to be seen & is clearly readable.
• If presenting in a darkened room , emphasize your voice dynamics.
• If you anticipate long discussion on slides turn off screen saver.
• For commands, use a remote portable mouse as opposed to tapping the laptop.

Lesson 20
This lecture will cover the importance of sponsorship as a public relations effective tool and its benefits.
The important public of public relations i.e. employees will also be discussed with its importance and how
to keep good communications with them are essential points discussed in this lecture as well.
Why Sponsorship?
“A wise man will make more opportunities than he finds.”
-- Francis bacon
4 Questions?
1. Why Sponsor?
2. What should you sponsor?
3. What are the total costs involved?
4. How can the sponsorship be organized?
Sponsorship—An Important PR Tool
1. Why Sponsor?
• Want to enter a new segment of market.
• Increase familiarity with your name.
• Want to improve customer relations.
• Enhance your corporate image.
• Show how your products perform.
• Want maximum media coverage.
• Support your distributors.
• Want your company known in export markets.
• Want to increase goodwill.
• To be able to offer Hospitality to business guests.
What To Sponsor?
How Does PR Support Employees Communication
Important Questions
•How much employees know about board room decisions?—
Should they or should they not?
•How much interest management takes in employees’ attitudes and aspirations.
•To what extent modern technologies like internet, mobile phones, pagers and PC’s are exploited for better
communication with employees.
How Does PR Communicate With Employees
•Knowing the difference between Management -- Employee and Employee -- Management
communications – downward & upward & even sideways internal communication.
•Do you have anyone directly responsible for managing such communication? “as it is a challenge!”
What Are Employees Aspirations?
• Are they secure?
• Are their salaries higher?
• Do they have longer holidays?
• Do they have shorter working hours?
• Do they have greater safety?
• Do they have opportunities for promotion?
• Are they given equity ownership?
• Do they have more participation in decision making?
Other Methods
E- Newspapers.
Using website to keep information available.
Video Magazines.
Occasional playing of information on video or through interactive CD.
Notice Boards.
Controlled notice boards are very effective way to communicate with employees.
PR & Communication Audit
• Employees very critical of company’s advertising.
• Employees require more access to policy information.
•Issue a questionnaire to employees to know what they want & expect on various subjects.
• Employees expect more profit than shown.
Positive Indicators.
• Reduction in staff losses.
• Reduction in absenteeism.
• Increased take up of equity schemes.
• Better understanding of organization’s policies.
•Better understanding of the organization’s managerial structure, & who is responsible for each function.
• There is evidence of greater job satisfaction.
PR & Communication Audit
Good Fair Poor Bad
Working conditions
Salary / wages
Bonus / Profit sharing
Promotion prospects.
Staff training program.
Special facilities
Communication with Management
Company business Prospects.
Company environment Behavior.
Company’s image

Communication Audit
Inside the
Outside the
Communication Audit
Shapes the MESSAGE
To build the POSITIONING
(Which DIFFERENTIATES the organization from its competitors)
Lesson 21
In this lecture we will explain the importance of house journal, its history, types and its application and utility in the public relations practice. We will also explain different publics and furthermore cover the role of public relations in customer relations with its different aspects. We will also briefly touch the subject of exhibitions and seminars, its different kinds, aspects and different purposes.
House Journals
This is more or less a 150 year old PR Medium or a form of public relations. These have been given different names like, house organs, employees’ newspapers, company newspapers or newsletters also.
However, before we study the purpose and types we will study the employee response to such a publication.
•Do the employees welcome such journal.
•Do they regard it rather cynically as something imposed by management?
•Are employees invited to contribute to the contents? – Reader participation Very important.
•Are employees (Readers) critical letters permitted/printed?
•Does it look like it interests the employees or it only satisfies the vanity of the management?
Types Of House Journals.
•Sales Bulletin – Normally exchanged between a sales manager & sales staff which could even be weekly.
•Newsletter – A digest of news for busy employees like management, technicians and also acts as external
•The magazine – This contains feature articles & pictures and its frequency can be monthly or quarterly.
•Tabloid newspaper – It resembles a popular newspaper.
•Wall newspaper – This is a very useful form of staff communication who are contained in one location
like a factory, a store or a hospital. It will be something like a poster – something like used by Pakistan /
British rail for its stations etc.
Possible Publics Of House Journals
The Trade…. Distributors which can be educated about a company and its products.
Users. Formulators, designers,& others who could be shown how to use products such as materials,
components or ingredients.
Professionals…. To whom Products & services of interest can be described and explained.
Patrons ….The in-flight magazine are a good example, or like the ones supplied to hotel guests.
Customers…. Journals issued or sent to customers, generally free of charge.
Opinion Leaders…. Those who matter need to be informed.
How PR Can Conduct Good Customer Relations.
Basically public relations depend on 2 major requirements for good customer relations.
•Quality products or services.
•Responsible acceptance of after market needs.
Secret Of Good Customer Relations.
•To determine what customer wants & would like.
•What problems of product or services need to be addressed?
•What doubts the product or services raise?
•Attractive and smart Packing has to be designed
•The after market policies have to be seriously devised and implemented.
The After Market ( After Sales )
•Can your customers find spares and / or service agent easily?
•Do you train service engineers?
•Do you provide them with explanatory manual?
•Does your product carry an explicit, well illustrated service manual?
•Does the guarantee with your product has complicated & infuriating exclusion clauses?
Exhibitions & PR 4 Aspects.
•Participation in a public or trade exhibition.
•Public relations support for a participant.
•Exhibitor’s promoter’s public relations.
•Public relations exhibition.
Special Characteristics
Following characteristics need to be kept in mind.
•Personal Confrontation.
Exhibitions & PR
Public Relations Support to the participants.
Following is the main service of support public relations can provide in an exhibition to the participants.
•Contact the Exhibition officer to offer support.
•Identify & approach the Chief guest for visiting the stand during the tour.
•Ensure coverage in the media.
•Make available company’s important officials in the press conference of the exhibition.
•Secure exclusive media coverage during exhibition.
•Advise, inform & advise export promotion department about your product.
•Producers of relevant Radio & TV programs are invited to provide information about future products.
Exhibition Promoter’s Public Relations.
Following support public relations can provide to a promoter of an exhibition;
•Organize PR activities like press conference, issue of news releases to announce future exhibitions.
•Release a diary of all upcoming exhibitions.
•Cooperation with government exhibition agencies, which circulate information about exhibitions.
•Seek advance information from exhibitors.
•Cooperate in arrangements for the official opening.
•Arrange full press coverage of the official opening.
•Release “curtain raisers” for the upcoming exhibitions.
•Maintain a PR office throughout the exhibition.
•Coordinate with exhibitors for any special activity.
•Produce an end of exhibition report on exhibitor’s comments.
Various kinds Of PR Exhibitions.
•Portable Exhibitions – Modular, which could be taken apart and moved to site.
•Permanent Exhibitions – Usually at company premises but can be at trade centers as well.
•Mobile Exhibitions – Moving from place to place, floats etc.

Lesson 22
A public relations professional or a counsel has to be prepared for the crisis as because of his devious
nature of business he may have a magic wand to overcome them. In this lecture we will explain the
meaning, type of crisis and how does the PR professional overcome them. We will also explain the do’s and
don’ts in a crisis and cover the role in dealing with opinion leaders besides suggesting the ways to conduct
interviews and to deal with interviewers and reporters.
Crisis & Public Relations
Meaning of crisis
The best meaning which is appropriate from PR point of view is that crisis means
“both danger & opportunity”. Or an appropriate response to a challenge depends upon an appropriate
2 Things Necessary For Preparedness.
1. Better to have a crisis committee consisting of CEO, Personnel manager, works manager, now a days
security officer & Public relations manager.
2. These people should have regular contact by meeting for an overview & regular appraisal of the
Do’s In A Crisis Situation.
Basically in a crisis situation like an individual a public relation professional or the management tends to
panic. Therefore following are important things to do and not to do in order to face and resolve the crisis in
an efficient manner. Firstly let us identify the Do’s in such a situation.
•Gather all facts.
•Only credible spokespeople to speak or talk.
•Be accessible to the media.
•Report crisis yourself.
•Provide sufficient evidence of statements.
•Record events as the crisis evolve.
•Update crisis communications plan periodically.
Dont’s In A Crisis Situation.
Following are the Don’ts in a crisis which must be avoided at all costs to face them effectively.
•Avoid “no comment” as it leads to speculation.
•Don’t debate the subject.
•Don’t attempt to assess blame, rather address & solve the problem at hand.
•Don’t over react & exaggerate the situation.
•Don’t deviate from corporate policy or agreed upon crisis procedures.
•Don’t make “off the record” statements, there is no such thing.
A typical PR Crisis Situation
In order to explain a crisis and how to overcome them following example of
Survey report for Buner Poppy Substitution Project: (Pakistan) by PNCB is explained below:.
•Buner in Lower Swat where almost 1/3rd of total opium poppy was being cultivated.
•The survey was to be conducted over an area of 600 square miles or 155,400 hectares.
•It was an area with poor communication & transport facilities.
•The people living in this area were hostile to the idea of abandoning poppy cultivation.
•The concerned staff was apprehensive for non cooperation of the residents.
Objectives of the Plan, To convince inhabitants that:
•This socio economic survey was in their interest.
•That the Government wanted to develop this neglected & under-developed area.
•The Government could launch development schemes only after collecting the necessary data through a
•Furthermore the inhabitants were to be assured that the proposed development schemes would open up
new avenues for jobs & bring the area (Buner) at par with rest of the country.
Plan Of Action Adopted
Once the objectives were determined and identified following plan of action was adopted:
•Specially written articles were inserted in newspapers.
•Radio & TV was used to run special programs in local dialects (Pushto & Gojri) mainly spoken in the
•Leaders of public opinion, including headmasters, notable religious figures apprised of the importance of
the survey & motivated to lend their support.
Results. Of Action Plan
The above carefully devised plan of action resulted in following manner:
•Inhabitants became cooperative and were ready to help.
•They also not only provided all help but also extended hospitality.
•The earlier resistance faded and the survey went on smoothly.
•The inhabitants were convinced that survey was in their interest and for their benefit..
How To Deal With Opinion Leaders.
•Who are opinion leaders.(Whose opinions are listened to with respect.)
•What can they do?
•They can be dangerous & / or indispensable.
•They can help or hinder.
•They have to be identified.
How To Deal With Reporters & Interviewers.
Reporters and Interviewers are generally well prepared and critical people .It is therefore essential that they
are tackled carefully and professionally.
Keys To Tackle Effectively.
Following the keys to tackle them effectively.
Interview at your place.
Here you are the Host
The big question is, why does the Journalist want an interview?
•Make sure you know your facts.
•Do your homework.
•Be articulate, as this shows confidence.
•Welcome journalists courteously. Thank them for coming.
•Do not fudge issues. Always have some answers ready.
•You are the host. They are your guests so look after them well.
Interviews In The Studio
Here you are the Guest
•How do you sound?
•Be more guarded, and don’t be provoked.
•Speak slowly, confidently, in a warm attractive style.
•You should sound as if you are enjoying the broadcast and communicating with the audience.
Lesson 23
In this lecture we will apprise the students with an important tool of public relations that is “Advertising”.
We will cover brief history, definition, objectives, types and the future of advertising. We will also acquaint
the students with publicity campaigns; and the guiding principles to public relations thinking
Brief History.
Advertising was used as popular form of spreading information throughout ages. Egyptians are considered
as originators of advertising & it began to flourish there around 3200 B.C. Later on ancient Romans learnt
this art from Egyptians. In England the first printed advertisement pertaining to sale of a book was
published in 1477.Newspaper was the first major revolution in advertising while the second major
revolution was the introduction of TV.
Definition Of Advertising.
“A form of communication which intends to promote the sales of goods, products or services , to influence public Opinion , to
gain political support , to advance a particular Cause , or to elicit some other response desired by the advertiser.”
(British Institute of Advertising).
“Any paid form of non - personal presentation and promotional ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.”
(American Marketing Association).
Broad Objectives Of Advertising
1. To produce awareness and knowledge about the product or service.
2. To create liking and preference for it.
3. To stimulate thought and action about it.
Specific Objectives Of Advertising
•To build primary demand. This is done in case of launch of a new product
•To introduce a price deal. This shows the competitiveness of the product.
•To inform about a product’s availability. Once the product is in market you have to inform the target
public about its availability.
•To build brand recognition or brand preference, or brand insistence. In order to create the
acceptance and recognition of the brand.
•To help salesperson by building an awareness of a product among retailers. Mainly used to acquaint
the retailers about the product.
•To inform about a new product’s price or features. The main purpose is to inform about the product’s
pricing and highlight its special features against the competition.
Following important objectives can be achieved through advertising:
•To create a reputation for service, reliability or research strength.
•To increase market share.
•To modify existing product according to the requirements of the buyers.
•To increase the frequency of use of a product.
•To inform about new uses of a product.
•To build overall company image.
•To effect immediate buying action.
•To reach new areas or new segments of population within the existing areas.
•To develop overseas market.
Types Of Advertising
• Direct Advertising.
Such as packaging, wrapping paper, book jackets etc.
• Indirect Advertising.
Greeting cards, various gift items & souvenirs.
Future Of Advertising
•Information Technology.
•Current Popular Means Of Entertainment.
Publicity Campaigns
7 “W” Notes.
•W hat is the objective of the campaign.
•W hat problems you want to address through it
•W hat extent do you anticipate to achieve the results.
•W hat media will you prefer to use? For staff, local residents & all publics.
•W hat will be the likely cost?
•W ho is going to launch the campaign.
•W hen is the campaign planned to be launched?
Public Relations Thinking ( Guiding Principles ).
•Declare your interest.
•Fitting the organization’s purpose & aims.
•Think through to the possible consequences.
•Do not make assumptions. Use knowledge to take decisions..
•Research the background before taking any step or action..
•Have clear objectives or positive results..
•Think as specifically as possible about relationship.
•Use as many channels as possible.
•Make sure your messages are consistent.
•Approach different publics in and on their own terms.
•Think through everything – be prepared.

Lesson 24
Public Relations now –a-days has become very important in view of the rapid changes taking place in the global economics and political circumstances. In this lecture it is this role and its significance which the students will be explained besides its applications and utility in this perspective. In view of the population explosion specifically in the developing countries retail business has become very popular and useful. How can public relations help the retailers both large and small will be explained too?
International Public Relations
•Rapid changes in world economies require greater interchange of techniques.
•Understanding differing attitudes.
•Increase in importance of foreign trade.
Basic PR Role
1. To counteract unfavorable government, political, or consumer attitude.
2. To build company’s prestige abroad.
3. To reinforce those groups of “pro-company” people who form the hard core of favorable opinion
(about) & knowledge of the company.
4. To support its overseas advertising & selling program.
Public Relations For Retailers
Large Retailers.
Basically, it is reasonable to ask
” What do people think of the store?”
Policy Outline
•It is an upcoming organization with a solid background of history & accomplishments.
•A liberal, progressive policy.
•Merchandise fairly priced & widely used.
•Fair salary range.
•Progressive & efficient executives.
•Proper operation & only reasonable profits.
•An intelligent hiring & employee training program & policy of promoting from within the store wherever
•Part of the life of the city, interested & wanting to be helpful in everything that pertains to the general
welfare of the community.
What Are Publics Of Retailers.
Media Used
•Paid advertising, including institutional ads. Newspapers, radio, TV & magazines.
•Printed information, bulletins, catalogs & leaflets.
•Store suggestion service.
•Window & interior displays.
•Store promotions – fashion and civic.
•Direct Mail.
•Visitors open house, entertainment.
•Employees’ treatment of public.
Within Store Contacts
•Salespeople to public.
•Credit department to public.
•Delivery department to public.
•Telephone operators.
•Adjustment department to public.
•Elevator operators to public.
•Mail order department to public.
Small Retailers.
•Be fair to all customers.
•Set a price on each item.
•Be scrupulously honest.
•Provide liberal guarantees.
•Offer as much service as you can afford.
•Remember little things that please
Briefly, a question
What does PR do for Retailers?
•Public Relations produces sales & profits
•Public Relations produces more net profit for everyone engaged in retailing.
•Good Public relations plan is insurance for success or it acts as “stabilizer” for business.
•It helps in the growth of the retailer/store.
Lesson 25
In the modern days public relations services are also hired by way of consultants so as to keep the company
image steady and strong. The students will be explained the definition of a public relations consultant
besides evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of such an exercise., We will also study the ethics of
public relations with special reference to the professional conduct and character of the public relations
consultant. Moreover, the students will also be told about the market and its related dilemmas as well as the
public relations role in educating the market.
Definition of A PR Consultant?
“ It is the provision of specified & creative services by an individual or a group of individuals qualified to do
so by reason of experience and training by way of professional fees paid for its services by clients under an
agreed contract.”

Advantages Of A PR Consultancy.
•It is an independent advisor, able & willing to criticize.
•It has wide experience gained with many clients requiring diversity of techniques.
•It is familiar with more media than the staff PR manager.
•It has more facilities & has access to specialist services with whom good working relations are enjoyed, like
printers, photographers, research units, translators etc.
•It has skilled specialist staff.
•It may have central urban location close to media, venues for receptions & suppliers of services.
•It is remote from the internal organization of clients.
•Generally works through only one person in the client organization, or at best through only a few people
& lacks internal line of communication.
•It is limited in operations to the size of fee unlike the staff PR manager who works full time.
•It has to share loyalties between clients.
•It may know little about the client’s trade, industry or special interest.
Ethics Of Public Relations
As is normally said:
“It pays to be honest”. A business is more likely to succeed if it is trusted. Similarly in PR credibility is vital,
i.e. not only it is believable but it should also be true.
You must have also heard an old saying; “Honesty is the best policy”
PR Professional’s Conduct Towards Practice Of PR.
•Should have a positive duty to observe the highest standards in the practice of public relations & to deal
fairly & honestly with employers & clients.
•Be aware of, understand & observe the above in letter & spirit.
•Conduct his or her professional activities with regard to the public interest.
•Has a positive duty at all times to respect the truth and not disseminate false or misleading information
Ethics Of Public Relations
•Honor confidences received or given in the course of professional activity.
•Should not misuse information regarding his or her employer’s or client’s business for personal gain.
•Shall make every effort not to publish or otherwise disseminate false information.
•Will not conduct in a manner which is likely to be detrimental to the interest of the reputation of a public
relation professional.
•Will never use inside information for personal gain.
•Will maintain complete secrecy if working for many clients during the course of their professional duties.
PR In Developing Countries
Problems of PR in developing countries.
1. Communication
Because of lack of western style media
•Distances between cities & remote rural communities.
•Poor literacy.
•Numerous ethnic groups.
•Many regional languages & dialects.
•Religious & tribal taboos.
2. Marketing
Two Dilemmas
1. Half the population will be under 15 years of age
2. Many rural people may be subsistence farmers who sell little of their produce.
At least if not more half will probably be outside the cash economy, thus having no buying power.
3. Publics
Only 10~20%
read newspapers, and own television sets
As A Result
People have attitudes and expectations similar to those in the West but even so 80% will not, & women in
particular may generally suffer an inferior position.
4. Mass Communication
Because of low literacy rate and around 70% population living below poverty line newspapers only reach a
specific segment of society. Moreover, different regional languages also result in limited readership. So there
is, even these days, a big handicap in mass communication.
5. Advertising Dilemmas
Normally those who advertise even to the educated, literate, well to do minorities either have very little
knowledge of the product or have no understanding of the public.
As A Result
Such advertising will be bad PR for the companies concerned
6. Educating The Market
PR situation in developing countries is totally different to the West. EDUCATION an essential
characteristic of PR is the primary aspect of development.
As A Result
PR job is to educate the market.
Media In Developing Countries

Differences from Western Media
•Unlikely to be the mass media in same sense that most people read newspapers & watch television, though
radio may be widespread.
•The media may have to go to people living in distant locations with inadequate traveling facilities.
•Media regarded as popular or mass in the west may be regarded as elitist or minority media.
•Most media will be divided into editions which serve different language groups. This will make circulations
•Traditional or folk media may have more appeal.
Public Relations Consultancy
Definition of a PR consultant?
“ It is the provision of specified & creative services by an individual or a group of individuals qualified to do
so by reason of experience and training by way of professional fees paid for its services by clients under an
agreed contract.”
Advantages Of A PR Consultancy.
•It is an independent advisor, able & willing to criticize.
•It has wide experience gained with many clients requiring diversity of techniques.
•It is familiar with more media than the staff PR manager.
•It has more facilities & has access to specialist services with whom good working relations are enjoyed, like
printers, photographers, research units, translators etc.
•It has skilled specialist staff.
•It may have central urban location close to media, venues for receptions & suppliers of services.
•It is remote from the internal organization of clients.
•Generally works through only one person in the client organization, or at best through only a few people
& lacks internal line of communication.
•It is limited in operations to the size of fee unlike the staff PR manager who works full time.
•It has to share loyalties between clients.
•It may know little about the client’s trade, industry or special interest.
How Can Political PR Help
Somehow or the other businesses are bound to be affected by Politics…
Has to be identified!
…. How, when & why political action?
Is it going to help or harm you!
• Do you include Political PR as part of your in-house PR Program?
• Do you identify the MPs and Councilors who take a special interest in your subjects (and not just
your trade or industry) & how to plan to lobby them?
• Which ministries or local government departments should you approach through civil servants?

Lesson 26
As public relations play a vital role in proving support in marketing; it is imperative that students should be
apprised with its role in market education. Simultaneously we will also study the importance of public
relations in providing support and help in the exports keeping in mind the global perspectives. We will also
study the latest trends in public relations and will discuss the restructuring of the role of public relations in
modern days.
How To Educate Market
2 Kinds of Market Education
•To prepare the market in Advance.
•For Products & Services already on the market.
2 Kinds Of Markets
•People who sell your product. -- SELLERS
•People who buy your product.-- BUYERS
Effects Of Market Education Strategy
• It helps to minimize sales resistance.
• Makes easier for sales force to achieve ‘adequate distribution’ prior to advertising.
• It helps to reduce the cost of advertising.
• It makes advertising more effective because market is always well aware of the product or service.
How To Educate Market Techniques To Be Applied
•A media relations campaign ranging over press, radio and TV as appropriate.
•Testing of prototypes by potential users.. This often means providing material for media relations.
•Special slides, videos, CD’s, for presentations to dealers, customers & the media.
•Work visits for dealers.
•Special campaigns aimed at particular opinion leaders.
•Production of printed material needed to support these activities.
How To Educate Market Test marketing Program Tactics.
•Training sales staff.
•Providing sales people with counter-top demonstration units e.g. slide video.
•Works visits.
•Dealer conferences with presentations of product & advertising.
•Distribution of dealer magazines. ( If available )
•Trade press receptions.
•Picture stories of the pack, stills from TV commercials & details of media schedules.
How Can PR Help Exports
There is an old English proverb
“One half of the world does not know how the other half lives.”
Important Points To Consider
•Determine & Identify any adverse or resistant behavior.
•Identify markets where sales are possible.
•Determine priority markets.
•Analyze opportunities for using PR.
•Define Methods.

Typical Questions To Determine Methods
What should be done?
•Support an existing agency subsidiary or licensee.
•Back up traveling overseas sales force.
•Prepare grounds for entry into new foreign market.
•Determine that not only market demand can be satisfied but that you are welcome.
•Keep on repeating the PR criteria of media relations that your material must be of interest and value to the
target public.
Usual Acceptable Methods
• Publishing Promotional literature.
• External house journals.
• Sales tours.
• Use of Videos or CD ROMs.
• On the spot service.
• Trade fairs & Exhibitions.
Public Relations Trends
Need To Re - Evaluate
What it is and where it is going?
•To find a balance between a) Communications products manufacturing b) strategic counseling & training
of all members of organizations for their responsibility --- since relationship-building is everyone’s job.
PR has to broaden its view of the world we live in & of the institutions that employ us.
•To provide strategic advice to understand the business we are in – not only the public relations part , but
the business itself.
New Names For PR
•British practitioners now call PR as “REPUTATION MANAGEMENT”.
•Burston Marsteller largest PR firm “PERCEPTION MANAGEMENT”
the new name.
Restructuring PR Roles.
Corporate downsizing & subsequent outsourcing is considered to be the order of the day. According to John
Budd PR needs to be “Re - invented rather than re- engineered.”
PR now has to emphasize on 2 major functions.
•Editorial … like PR communication, will attend to high priority, high profile & high leverage needs of the
•Public policy and programming …similar to PR management role. It is the heart, soul & nerve centre of the
Organizational Changes
The important point is that should these organizational changes be in “management & editorial” as per
John Budd or in “Strategy & execution” as opined by Harold Burson.
2 ways of organizing PR functions have emerged.
•In house corporate model, if the company is national or international in its scope. ( A mix of strategist &
•A small core of specialists with outside contracting for regional or smaller companies. (primarily
strategist with tactics services bought)

Lesson 27
As has been reiterated on many occasions role of public relations has completely changed from indirect to
direct and very active on global basis, so it is essential that modern day values of public relations should be
identified for better understanding. It is in this perspective that the ethics of public relations have also to be
redefined and studied again.. The students will also be informed about the six public relations management
golden principles.
Modern Day Values Of PR

• Public relations represent & articulate the desire & interests of various publics to society’s sometimes
unresponsive institutions. While interpreting & speaking for publics, it also speaks to them for the
• Public relations help establish smoother relationships between institutions & society by encouraging
mutual adjustments to benefit society.
• Public relations offers for the communication system to help in keeping people informed about various
aspects of their lives.
• Public relations personnel can frequently help stimulate an institution’s social conscience.
• Public relations functions in all aspects of life, since its principles reflect the basic human impulses of
seeking acceptance, cooperation and/or affection from others. PR practice just formalizes that activity.
• Public relations can help management formulate better objectives, advocate them and reach them.
There are basically Three ways to get people to do what they want
1. Power. 2. Patronage . 3. Persuasion.
Public Response To Persuasive Information.
Phase I. Awareness Also called presentation
Phase II. Information Also called attending.
Phase III. Evaluation. Also called comprehending
Phase IV. Trial Also called yielding
Phase V. Adoption Also called retaining
Phase VI. Reinforcement Another aspect of retaining
Ethics Of Public Relations
Although the importance of ethics has been discussed earlier too yet in order to emphasize and stress upon
its paramount importance it is being reproduced here again specially in the context of obtaining positive
public response.
As is normally said:
“It pays to be honest”. A business is more likely to succeed if it is trusted. Similarly in Public Relations
credibility is vital , i.e. not only it is believable but it should also be true. You must have also heard an old
saying; “Honesty is the best policy.” Lee Jaffe,1st female PR Gold Anvil winner said “Never, never, do
anything or say anything that you are unwilling to see in print.”
Why Honesty Is Important
•Dishonesty leads to lack of trust and cynicism.
•Lying is an exercise in coercion, forcing someone to act differently from the way he or she would have
behaved if given the truth.
•Lying is resented by those deceived, even if the deceived ones are liars themselves.
•Dishonesty is likely to be discovered & no climate for credibility can be reestablished.
•Decisions about when to lie are often made without calculating either alternatives or consequences.
•A lie often demands another lie to cover it up, and then others to maintain them.
Ethics are founded on moral principles.
Judgments about an organization’s standing are based on 3 areas:
1. Ethics
2. Social Responsibility
3. Financial Responsibility
Ethics Of Public Relations
•Decisions about what is right or wrong some hold to be absolute: to others situation is the factor.
•The fact that the PR works to change people’s views causes the individual practitioner ethics to be closely
connected to the organizational responsibility.
•Political PR people often find themselves caught in the middle of conflicts resulting from use of news
media by public officials & vice versa.
•Ultimately the ethical, responsible practice of public relations is a personal choice.
PR Professional’s Conduct Towards Practice Of PR.
•He should have a positive duty to observe the highest standards in the practice of public relations & to
deal fairly & honestly with employers & clients.
•He should be aware of understand & observe the above in letter & spirit.
•Conduct his or her professional activities with regard to the public interest.
•He has a positive duty at all times to respect the truth and not disseminate false or misleading information
•He should honor confidences received or given in the course of professional activity.
•He should not misuse information regarding his or her employer’s or client’s business for personal gain.
•He shall make every effort not to publish or otherwise disseminate false information.
•He will not conduct in a manner which is likely to be detrimental to the interest of the reputation of a
public relation professional.
•He will never use inside information for personal gain.
•He will maintain complete secrecy if working for many clients during the course of their professional
To Sum Up --- 6 PR Management Golden Principles.
1. Tell the truth. Let public know what is happening and provide an accurate picture of company’s
character & practices.
2. Prove it with action. Public perception is determined 90% by doing & 10 % by talking.
3. Listen to the customer. Determine their needs and wants.
4. Manage for tomorrow. Anticipate public reaction & eliminate practices that create difficulties. Create
5. Conduct public relations as if the whole company depended on it. It does. Corporate relation is a
management function. The PR practitioner is a policy maker not just the publicist.
Remain calm, patient and good humored. Lay the groundwork for public relations miracles with consistent,
calm & reasoned attention to information and contacts, because when & if crisis come you will be prepared
& know exactly what to do to defuse it
Lesson 28
As has often been explained the choice of media in a public relations campaign is very important. However,
in order to make this choice it is essential that the public relations professional should be aware of the
advantages and disadvantages of different media. This will enable him to select the appropriate media for
better and positive results.
Communication Channels & Media---- Television
Now a days Television has become a very important media with the advent of round the clock coverage and
“presence always” on every occasion.
1. Combines sight, sound & motion
2. Permits physical demonstration.
3. Believability due to immediacy of message.
4. High impact of message.
5. Huge Audiences.
6. Good product identification.
7. Popular medium.
1. Message limited by restricted time
2. No possibility of referral to message.
3. Availabilities sometimes difficult to
4. High time costs.
5. Waste coverage.
6. High production cost.
7. Poor color transmission.
Communication Channels & Media--- Radio
Although Radio had lost its charm as an effective and desired media yet it has bounced back with distances
increasing to and from residence to place of work, the in car radio and popular programming has
reinvented its importance as an effective media.
1. Selectivity of geographical markets.
2. Good saturation of local markets.
3. Ease of changing advertising copy.
4. Relatively low cost.
1. Message limited by restricted time segments.
2. No possibility for consumer referral to
3. No visual appeal.
4. Waste coverage.
Communication Channels & Media---Newspapers
News papers since its emergence as important media is still in extensive use as effective media.
1. Selectivity of geographical markets.
2. Ease of changing advertising copy.
3. Reaches all income groups.
4. Ease of scheduling advertisements.
5. Relatively low cost.
6. Good medium for manufacturer/dealer
1. High cost for national coverage.
2. Shortness of message life.
3. Waste circulation.
4. Differences of sizes & formats.
5. Rate differential between local / national
6. Sometimes poor color reproduction.
Communication Channels & Media Magazines
Magazines are also useful media as typical subject magazines can serve the media campaign purposes to a
great extent.
1. Selectivity of audience.
2. Reaches more affluent consumers.
3. Offers prestige to an advertiser.
4 Pass along readership.
5. Good color reproduction.
1. Often duplicate circulation.
2. Usually cannot dominate in a local market.
3. Long closing dates.
4. No immediacy of message.
5. Sometimes high production cost.
Communication Channels & Media Direct Mail
Direct mailing method is very commonly used as it is an inexpensive and easy method of conveying the
message to the desired public.
1. Extremely selective.
2. Message can be very personalized.
3. Little competition with other advertisements.
4. Easy to measure effect of advertisements.
5. Provides easy means for consumer action.
1. Often has poor image.
2. Can be quite expensive.
3. Many restrictive postal regulations.
4. Problems in maintaining mailing lists.
Communication Channels & Media Pamphlets & Booklets
Pamphlets help a great deal in communicating the detailed message at point of sales and also as an enclosure
with the direct mail.
1. Offer detailed message at point of sale.
2. Supplement a personal sales presentation.
3. Offer to potential buyers a good referral
4. Good color reproduction.
1. Dealers often fail to use.
2. May have a relatively high unit cost.
3. Few creative specialists.
4. Effectiveness difficult to measure.
Communication Channels & Media -Media Transit Posters
This is also an effective media channel.
1. Selectivity of geographical markets.
2. Captive audience.
3. Very low cost.
4. Good color reproduction.
5. High repetitive value.
1. Cannot be employed in all areas.
2. Waste circulation.
3. Surroundings may be disreputable.
4. Few creative specialists.
Communication Channels & Media
( Point Of Purchase Displays )
1. Presents message at point of sale.
2. Great flexibility for creativity.
3. Ability to demonstrate product in use.
4. Good color reproduction.
5. Repetitive value.
1. Dealer apathy in installation.
2. Long production period.
3. High unit cost.
4. Shipping problems.
5. Space problem.
Communication Channels & Media
Advertising Specialists
Advertising specialists can also be a useful media channel.
1. Unique presentation.
2. High repetitive value.
3. Has a “gift” quality.
4. Relatively long life.
1. Subject to fads.
2. Message must be short.
3. May have relatively high unit cost.
4. Effectiveness difficult to measure.
Publicity Through Mass Media Follow 6 Rules
1. Make sure information you offer is appropriate to the medium in content & style, and that it is
2. Check all facts carefully for accuracy & double check for missing information.
3. To deal with any questions, depute a person.
4. Include captions on photographs with felt pen.
5. Never call to find why a story was not published or when will it appears.
6. Do not send out a note asking for clippings as newspapers do not run clippings.
Cardinal Rules For Direct Mail
7 Rules Governing Direct Mail.
1. Concentrate on objective of mailing.
2. Use correct mailing list.
3. Write copy what the product or service does for the recipient.
4. Design the layout & format to fit the image of the product or service you are presenting.
5. Make it easy for the prospect to take the action you want.
6. Tell the story at least THREE times & repeat mailings 2 or 3 times.
7. Research all direct mail by testing the offer, package & list for attractiveness & make alternative
Lesson 29
In this lecture we will study different tactics and techniques used and employed by public relations
professionals, to make the public relations strategy work effectively. Moreover, we will also study the
preparation of annual reports, its different stages and managing meetings or speeches .We will identify the
organizational responsibilities and methodology for the public relations professionals to be in action.
Tactics & Techniques
Production Time Table Of Annual Reports.
Week 1:
Start analysis of previous books, develop goals, themes, contact department heads for ideas copy, circulate
time table with delivery date.
Week 2:
Begin rough design exploration. Begin copy outline.
Week 3, 4:
Continue with design and copy outline.
Week 5:
First design review & copy outline.
Week 6:
Start photography. Develop copy & comprehensive design.
Week 7, 8:
Continue developing copy & comprehensive design.
Week 9:
Begin production & time estimating.
Week 10:
Final review of comprehensive design with photos. Review Copy.
Week 11:
Start retouching. Develop charts, illustrations, typesetting if needed & possible.
Week 12, 13:
Typesetting & mechanicals.
Week 14:
Copy to printer, check proof.
Week 15, 17:
Printing & binding.
Week 18:
How To Prepare For Meeting Or Speech
1. Prepare in advance – A day or a at least 2 hours before.
2. Ensure that no disturbance occurs from adjoining areas.
3. Check out the sound system.
4. Find access to lighting controls.
5. Check access to electrical outlets.
6. Have spare heavy duty extension cables ready.
7. Have proper number of chairs & tables on hand & place them correctly.
8. Make arrangements for water & sufficient glasses, cups for tea or coffee.
9. Locate a telephone besides a cell phone.
10. Make out name tags & have additional blank tags in hand.
11. Set up a table for guest information.
12. Maintain a list of guests.
13. Have attendants to help guests.
14. Prepare a program of activities for the speaker & for guests too.
15. Have information kits ready for guests & Press.
16. Be sure all computer components are compatible.

Lesson 30
In the last lecture the students were briefly told about public relations being in action .We will now study
about its role in campaigns and its role in effectively combating rumors and then how to overcome and
recover from problems occurring out of rumors.
3 Objectives.
• To address an issue.
• To solve a problem.
• To improve a situation.
Purpose Is To Accomplish These By :
• Changing a behavior.
• Modifying a law or opinion.
• Retaining a desirable behavior, law or opinion.
6 Types Of Campaigns.
1. Simple awareness.
2. Offer information along with awareness.
3. Public education campaign.
4. Re enforce the attitudes & behaviors of those who agree.
5. Change or attempt to change attitudes, behaviors of those who do not agree.
6. Carry out behavior modification campaigns.
Characteristics Of Successful Campaigns.
1. Assessment of needs, goals & capabilities of priority publics.
2. Systematic campaign planning & production.
3. Continuous monitoring & evaluation.
4. Consideration of complementary role of media.
5. Selection of appropriate media
Campaign Model:
1. Definitive Mission statement.( Values )
• the distilled essence of organization’s reason for being.
• Implies its positioning, goals, policies.
This is carried out by ….
2. Corporate culture. (Shared values)
• Demonstrated by role model.
• re enforced by rituals, stories.
• the source of teamwork, morale, productivity
3. Positive Public Relationships (Expressed values).
• more than marketing or communication
• the source of loyalty, credibility, trust.
Over a period this creates…
4. Reputation. (Understood values)
• Generates latent readiness to like, accept, trust, and believe.
• a self powering force that lies at the core of all human interface.
• honor & integrity of its maker.
How PR Helps To Deal With Rumors
•Analyze the scope & seriousness of the nature & impact of the rumor before planning & engaging in any
active correction.
•Analyze the specific causes, motives, sources and dissemination of the rumors.
•Confer with persons affected by or being damaged by rumors. Level with them & assure them of your
concern & collect authentic information regarding the matter.
•Immediately (& massively, if it appears advisable) supply complete & authentic information regarding the
•Feed the rumors yourself with counter rumors placed by trusted colleagues & confidants.
•Call key status & informal leaders, opinion molders and other influential people together to discuss &
clarify the situation & to solicit their support & assistance.
•Avoid referring to the rumor in disseminating truth. You should not try to reinforce rumors itself, unless it
already is in wide circulation.
•Conduct meetings with the staff & others at the grass root level to dispel rumors, if necessary.
How To Recover & Evaluate
•Determine the causes of crisis (rumors).
•It is imperative to undercut rumors & speculations that may have been rampant.
•Decide which strategies & policies can be developed that will prevent similar or related crisis.
•Ask whether the crisis plan itself worked and whether changes should be made in it. i.e.(fine tuning)
•Evaluate the performance of all personnel in the crisis situation.
Lesson 31
So far we have studied various aspects of Public Relations with special reference to its different publics and
their identification. In this lecture the students will be explained more about the Publics and Public opinion
and how to identify and determine priority publics. The important ways of handling public and public
opinion will also be explained. Moreover, the students will also be acquainted with the laws of public
PR Publics & Public Opinion Identifying & Describing Publics
There are various types of publics and types of public opinion.
PR publics & Public Opinion
• Modern Day Publics
• Media Publics
• Employee Publics
• Member Publics
• Community Publics
• Government Publics
• Investor Publics
• Consumer Publics
• International Publics
• Special Publics
Identifying Priority Publics
It is important to note and know the method of identifying priority publics. The following index named as
public vulnerability importance is an easy and comprehensible appropriate method to do this.
Through Public Vulnerability Importance. (PVI) Index.
P + V = I
Scale (1~10) Scale (1~10)
Potential for Vulnerability of Importance of
Organizations organizations for publics to
to influence being affected organizations
Audience or Public
__________________________________________________ ______________
__________________________________________________ ______________
__________________________________________________ ______________
3 Ways To Describe Priority Publics
1. Nominatively--- just by giving public a name , such as “stockholders”.
2. Demographically--- by a look at public’s statistical characteristics such as age, gender,
income, education.
3. Psycho graphically --- by examining the public’s defining emotional and behavioral
6 Segments of Public. As per Global Values.
Altruists slightly older, more women than men.
Strivers more male , medium age.
Fun seekers more men than women , younger.
Creative even split between men & women.
Devout older, more women than men, anchored in religion, faith, tradition.
Intimates slightly more women than men, younger, focused on personal relationship.
Tackling Issues In Relation To Public Opinion.
1. Sensing the problem. (Research)
2. Defining the problem. (through judgement & priority setting)
3. Deriving solutions. (through policy & strategy selection)
4. Implementing them.
5. Evaluating outcomes.
Tips On Influencing Publics. (S Plous Univ.of Illinois)
If Goal Is Attitude Change
• Do not use graphic images unless accompanied by specific actions people can execute.
• Go to public instead of asking them to come to you.
• Do not assume that attitude change is essential for behavioral change
If Goal Is Behavioural Change
• Use moral arguments as adjuncts rather than main arguments.
• Do not offend the people you seek to change.
“Laws” Of Public Opinion – (Hadley Cantril)
• Opinion is highly sensitive to important events.
• Opinion is generally determined more by events than by words – unless those words are themselves
interpreted as events.
• Verbal statements have maximum importance when opinion is unstructured, & people seek
interpretation from a reliable source.
• By & large public opinion does not anticipate emergencies – it only reacts to them.
• Opinion is basically determined by self – interest.
• Once self interest is involved, opinion is not easily changed.
• Public opinion, like individual is colored by desire.
• Opinion does not remain aroused for any long period of time unless opinion is aroused by words --
is sustained by events.
• Events of unusual magnitude are likely to swing public opinion temporarily from one extreme to
another. Opinion does not become stabilized until the implications of events are seen with some
• The important psychological dimensions of opinion are direction, intensity, breadth and depth.
3 2 Corporat

Lesson 32
Public relations strategy can be more effective and successful if it is backed up by research for collecting and remaining abreast with happenings and events pertaining to either the relevant subject or generalized facts
required and usable in appropriate situations. This is what we will cover in this lecture besides identifying methods to conduct research and various desired objectives, advantages and procedures to evaluate the
benefits and results of such research.
PR & Research
What is research is an important question required to be answered. Two eminent management and public relations experts defined and explained research as under:
“Research is the one important source of
Ideas for public relations practice.”
--- Edward J. Robinson
Management Training & development Authority.
“We can’t manage what we don’t measure.”
David R. Drobis
Chairman, CEO, Ketchum Public Relations Worldwide.
“No Public Relations strategy can succeed without background and knowledge of a Situation.”
--- M. Tariq Bucha
President Pakistan Public Relations Society.
2 Methods.
Following are two main universally accepted methods of conducting research.
• Primary
Collecting raw data that has not been compiled before.
• Secondary
Reading or consulting available material that someone else has compiled before.
What Questions Need Answers.
While conducting research there are certain important questions which need to addressed and answered.
• Who are our publics?
• What is our action / message?
• What channels of communication reach our publics?
• What should we do to keep in touch?
• How will this activity be understood by our publics?
• What will our publics say or do as a result of our efforts?
• What is their feeling about us?
What Does Research Do?
One important question is regarding the objects achieved by research. Following are few important support
factors resulting from research.
• It supports audience.
• It supports media & trend analysis.
• It does message testing
• It does issue monitoring, forecasting & evaluating.
• It often provides essential data for effectively presenting information.
Research Sources.
Following are two important and significant sources of research.
• Scholarly
Academic institutions and faculty do scholarly research, sometimes with funding from the government,
foundations or from professional associations.
• Commercial
This is done by research firms, advertising and Public relations firms / agencies & other marketing related
How To Use Research?
It is imperative and pertinent to determine what the possible ways to use research with advantage are.
Basically 6 ways.
• To formulate strategy.
• To gauge success.
• To test messages.
• To size up competition.
• To get publicity.
• To sway opinion.
Planning Phase Of Research
In order to get positive results from research it is essential to plan it properly as below:
• Issue forecasting.
• Learning about publics.
• Prioritize publics by Issues.
• Interpreting behavior of publics.
• Planning media use.
• Considering Possible Outcomes.
Using Research For Final Evaluation.
For final evaluation research can provide major help and support.
•Complete the goal results,& interpret their significance to the specific objectives set ,to the organization’s
overall objectives & mission.
•Evaluate the impact of actions taken on your publics to see what their attitudes are now.
•Determine how the organization’s overall objective and mission have been affected.
Measure The Program’s Impact In 3 Areas:
•Financial Responsibility -- going beyond market share to public’s perception of how an organization
gets & spends its money.
•Ethics --- the perception by publics of an organization’s standards of behavior, a moral judgment of the
consequences of what it says and does.
•Social Responsibility - public’s perception of whether an organization is a good citizen, e.g. whether it
contributes to social, political & economic health of global society.

Lesson 33
As explained in the previous lecture research has a very important place in drafting or compiling a Public
relations plan. It is only through research that PR professionals will be able to conceive and devise a
practical and result oriented strategy or a plan. In this lecture deeper study into role of research in public
relations plan and strategy will be studied and explained.
Social & cultural change
No. who repeat behaviour
No. who behave as desired
No. who change opinions
No. who learn message content
No. who attend to message & activities
No. of messages placed & implemented
Messages sent to media & activities designed
Quality of messages & activity presentation
Appropriateness of message & activity content
Adequacy of information for designing program
Basically 2 Classifications
Basically there are two main and practical accepted methods of research.
1. Formal
2 types -- qualitative & quantitative, can be conducted in a laboratory or in the field.
2. Informal
This is conducted without generally agreed upon rules & procedures and results of which can be
used for description & not for prediction.
• State the problem.
• Select a manageable (& measurable) portion of the problem.
• Establish definitions to be used in the measurement.
• Conduct a search in published literature for studies similar in subject or research approach.
• Develop a hypothesis.
• Design experiments.
• Obtain the data.
• Analyze the data.
• Interpret the data to make inferences and generalizations.
• Communicate the results.
• Unobtrusive Measures.
These are used to gather information, permits researchers to study someone or something without
interfering with or interrupting what is going on.
• Journalistic Research.
Journalists are also trained to gather Information from the primary (mainly interviews) & secondary
sources (public records, media files, libraries.)
• Opinion & Communication Audits.
Audits could be:
Social, Economic or Political.
• Generally, researchers concentrate on observational data.
• Communication pundits attempt to evaluate various publics responses to an organization’s
communication efforts.
• Publicity Analysis.
Clippings from print media and transcripts from broadcast publicity can also be used to determine
the quantity & quality of coverage.
Questionnaires For Survey
How To Prepare A Questionnaire?
• Are the words understandable?
• Do they contain abbreviations, jargons or unconventional phrases?
• Are questions technically correct?
• Are they too vague?
• Are they biased?
• Are questions offensive?
• Do they require too much effort to answer?
Lesson 34
As a public relations professional you must be able to comprehend as to what different phases can do to
solve various problems encountered by them. Moreover, students will also be apprised about the working of
management of public relations.
How Does The Management Of PR Work?
Basically there are two major and important ways to do this.
PR department’s role as part of the management team to develop problem solving strategies for entire organization.
• Relates to PR department’s own efforts to integrate & coordinate its work with that of the
R Research R Research
A Action O Objectives
C Communication P Programming
E Evaluation E Evaluation
--John Marston -- Jerry Hendrix
Problems Solving Strategies
In order to evolve problem solving strategies we have to determine a procedure to handle them but the main question is Where do you start?
• Assemble readily available facts.
• Determine which publics are affected or involved.
• Decide if additional research is needed to define problems & evaluate its scope.

Where do you go from here?
• Formulate a hypothesis, assemble facts to test the hypothesis & revise if hypothesis is disproved.
• Elements to consider in this planning:
a) What is objective of PR effort – What specifically do you want to accomplish? (be
able to state this in concrete terms).
b) What image of company you want to project?
c) What publics are targets & why?
Who Are Other Audiences Whose Opinions Matter?
• What message do you have for each public?
• What media can you use to carry these messages?
• What response do you want from each audience?
• What budget can you use for this – regular allocated budget or a special fund?
• What is the best timing for action?
• Review problems or obstacles that might arise & make contingency plans for these.
• Build in monitoring devices to know; how are you doing?
Once It Is All Over—
It is important to find out how to know what happened!
• Plan for evaluation.
• Evaluate all aspects :
1. Impact : Informational, attitudinal & behavioral.
2. Output : Media efforts & results.
• Communicate results.
In Brief!
• Find the central core of difficulty.
• Check your total list of publics involved in the problem.
• Determine the problem’s status in terms of potential harm to the organization.
• List the related difficulties to be considered.
• Explore the alternatives.
• List the desired objectives.
• See how the solution fits into the long range plans which are shaped to what you see as the
• What are the immediate plans & how do these fit with long range plans?
• Short term solutions that do not fit with long range objectives & are not consonant with “mission
statement” are wrong. Don’t do them - Start over
Procedure For Handling Problem Internally.
• Detail the plan & submit to the policy executive for approval.
• Get approval in writing.
• Keep all people directly involved informed on continuing basis throughout the move toward
solving the public relations problem.
Intervening Situations. Some Barriers.
But all said and done despite all best intentions and efforts there can still be certain situations like the ones
mentioned below which could prove a hindrance
• Information you don’t know.
• Effects of the way you look at the problem.
• Limitations faced by you. (restrictions on the choices the situation offers)
• Your personal limitations. (or management’s)
• Problems associated with upsetting the equilibrium of organization or of others.
Lesson 35
Basically while improving upon the definition of public relations the word mutual understanding between
the organization and its publics was rethought and defined to be persuasion for better understanding and
the philosophy pertaining to the persuasion and communication theories in the modern perspective.
Main Definitions Of Public Relations
•“It is a planned & sustained effort to establish & maintain
mutual understanding between an organization & its publics.”
•“It is a phenomenon & necessity of ourtimes.”
--- Edward Bernays
•Word Persuasion would be better than mutual understanding.
Quentin Bell
Public Opinion is the collective opinion of groups of people.
2 things sure about public opinion:
•It will change
•Those who hold an opinion were somehow persuaded to think as they do.
2 Theoretical Model of PR Practice
Communication Model
encoding Audience Response
Awareness Latent Triggering Behavior
readiness event
Behavioral Model
Medium Decoding
Persuasive Strategies Based On 3 Elements
Media Orientation
Whom to tell – How to tell
What Media to communicate
( Choice of medium is very critical. It must be believable e.g. Television
Which is highly credible with mass penetration?
Message Orientation
1. Actually message must be evaluated.
2. To be effective persuasive appeals must combine the rational & the emotional.
3. To be persuasive, a message has to present something of value to the target public.
4. Must be compatible with that public’s motives.

•Source Orientation.
1. Source of information has big effect on persuasion.
2. People tend to believe sources that are like them, like they want to be , or like they perceive
themselves to be.
3. Research has suggested that source credentials may not matter as much as a message’s plausibility &
message quality.
Propaganda & Persuasion Appeals
Some misleading propaganda devices.
1. Name Calling.
Positive or negative.
2. Glittering Generalities.
Throngs of greeters. Enthusiastic crowds
3. Transfer.
Famous person’s aura is transferred to less known persons.
4. Testimonial.
Actual endorsement - not transfer.
5. Card stacking.
Telling one side of story.
6. Emotional stereotypes.
All kinds of images are so designed like “good Pakistani”, “housewife”, “foreigner” etc.
7. Illicit Silence.
Basically holding information that would correct a false impression.
Persuasion & Communication Theories
There are 5 important elements
--- Robert Cialdini.
1. Consistency
2. Reciprocity
3. Social validation
4. Authority
5. Scarcity
Based on the above 5 elements there are 4 principles of persuasion to be kept in mind--
Earl Newman
(Built on concept of personal identification with an idea or a problem).
1. Identification.
2. Suggestion of action.
3. Familiarity & Trust.
4. Clarity.
Lesson 36
In order to communicate more effectively and positively it is essential that the students should understand
the communication concepts and theories guiding them. In this context consumer behavior is very critical
and needs careful monitoring. In this lecture we will explain the principles and necessary actions to
implement them and monitor them, .we will once again explain the importance of research in these theories
and concepts.
8 Principles Apply To Consumer Behavior
1. Unpleasant appeals can be learned as readily as pleasant ones.
2. Appeals made over a period of time are more effective.
3. Unique messages are better remembered.
4. It is easier to recognize an appeal than to recall it.
5. Knowledge of results increases learning of a message
6. Repetition is more effective when related to satisfaction.
7. Messages are easier to learn when they do not interfere with earlier habits.
8. Learning a new pattern of behavior can interfere with remembering something else.
Research and Persuasion
Research Critical —
It should be understood that research is always very critical in all areas of public relations.
Firstly —
How to collect data.. Whether yourself-In-house – OR – buy research services.
According to Earl Babbie —
FIVE practices which should be safeguarded in a research study.
•Ensuring voluntary participation of all subjects, including employees when the research is of internal
•Preventing harm to the subjects, either psychologically or through analysis & reporting.
•Protecting participants through anonymity &/or confidentiality, the latter occurring when researcher
identifies participant but does not reveal information.
•Avoiding deceiving participants something not always possible but highly desirable.
•Reporting & analyzing results fairly & accurately so others are not misled by the findings.
Research involves actual accumulation & storage of information.
As to how research information is used.
How Are PR Practitioners Hampered In Their Efforts To Influence Management?
•Lack of access to management.
•Restraints on information collection.
•Roadblocks to dissemination of timely accurate information.
•A narrow definition of the role of public relations.
Public Relations Responsibility
“Corruption Of Judgment”
Dispute is not over facts.
•It is in the interpretation of facts.
•And it is over conflicting value systems.
In Fact The Best Course Is
Return to the following formula for socially responsible PR decision making
•Who are the Publics?
•What are the interests of each in the decision or situation?
•How will an institution’s policy or action affect each of these publics?
•What social values are involved?
•What values are in conflict?
•What will the effects be?
•Can the effects be defended?
SO consequently
If the PR person who loses public’s perspective in fact foregoes public responsibility & has become the
“persuaded” rather than the “persuader”.
Lesson 37
With the increased awareness of ones rights and the democratic principles and practices in place it is
important to know the legal implications in the use of public relations plans and strategies. The students will
also be acquainted with important methods to stay out of trouble. We will also explain various
repercussions and implications of libel, slander and defamation. We will also discuss regarding public
relations role in legal matters.
As Samuel Johnson opined
“The law is the last result of human wisdom acting upon human experience for the benefit of public.”
Francis Maitland Balfour said
“ Law: a mousetrap easy to enter, but not easy to get out of.”
Liabilities Of Practicing PR
1. Normal legal exposure, like encountered by any other person.
2. Work oriented legal exposure such as found in the course of normal PR or publicity activities.
3. Extraneous legal exposure including everything from testifying as an expert witness to getting sports
event tickets for a client, to lobbying without registering as a lobbyist or reporting income and expenses
from such activities.
Legal Problems: Civil & Criminal According to Morton Simons
5 situations where PR practitioner may be subjected to legal implications.
1. Participates in the illegal action.
2. Counsels, guides & directs the policy behind it.
3. Takes a large personal part in it.
4. Sets up a propaganda agency to fight enemies of it.
5. Cooperates to further it.
How To Stay Out Of Trouble
Best way to stay out of trouble is to maintain good relationship with the attorney of the organization…!
5 ways can be helpful
1. Recognize your individual responsibility for your action.
2. Know your business.
3. Ignore the vague lines between advertising & PR, because the law often does.
4. Decide how far you are willing to go to run a risk of jail ,fine, a cease or desist order or a corrective
5. “Know your enemy” specially which Government agency is likely to go after you.
5 Good Points For PR Persons
1. Be careful about headlines & pictures.
2. Carefully select every word, even the smallest one.
3. Use numbers where essential or important.
4. Be aware about the ingredients behind the product.
5. Only repeat a slogan where necessary.
Defamation: Libel & Slander
2 Kinds of Libel: Civil & Criminal
Libel: “written or otherwise published defamation”
Slander: “spoken defamation”.
Civil Libel: this is non criminal – such as malicious publication tending to tarnish the reputation of a living person… Injuring his repute.
Criminal Libel: breach of peace or treason --- involves inciting to riot or some other form of violence against the government.
Defence Against Libel Basically Three (3)
1. Truth: substantial proof that is admissible in court.
2. Privilege: a fair and true report of a public, official or judicial proceeding.
3. Fair Comment: statements made in an honest belief that they are true.
Rights Of Privacy
Rights of privacy apply only to people, and not to organizations..
4 types of violations
1. Intrusion into solitude.
2. Portraying someone in a false light.
3. Public disclosure of private information.
4. Appropriation. Using a person’s name or likeness for commercial purposes without person’s consent. In
fact it is the privacy violation that causes most PR problems.
Contracts & Consents
Normally PR practitioner should not get involved in contracts etc.
Should know about at least 5 such forms:
1. Model Release. When models are required for some campaign etc.
2. Employee Contract. Basically job related contracts.
3. Photo Agreement. Rights to release and use pictures for particular events.
4. Work For Hire. To hire personnel for some project etc.
5. Printing Contract. Contracts for getting some printing jobs to be carried out by printer etc.
Lesson 38
Like research case studies provide a very vital resource of data to think and plan various strategies which
would have proved useful or even would not have worked. We will explain the methods of how to use these
and also show how these help in overcoming crises or difficult situations. This lecture will also help the students in knowing about important rules to follow in learning from experience obtained from the case studies.F oreover, we will also apprise the students regarding the various images of public relations as
defined and understood by modern public relations practitioners.
a Roman Poet & Playwright said —
“That a man is wise to some purpose who Gains his wisdom at the expense and from the experience of another.”
Francis Bacon,
an Author, Statesman & a Philosopher said --
“Learning teaches how to carry things in suspense, without prejudice, till you resolve.”
How To Use Case Studies
•Find a solution to a PR Problem using specific guidelines as suggested by an existing case.
PR practitioners may dissect a historical case as a learning experience to determine what worked and what
did not and why.
How Can Case Studies Help
A. Case Analysis
Analysis of historical case can be broken into 4 parts.
1. Summary of the case.
An explanation of the nature of problem or problems background -- & the research based purposes of PR
actions taken to address the situation.
2. Additional research into publics.
An assessment of impact of the problem, situation or proposed action; a prioritization of the publics & an
explanation of what was done to overcome that.
3. Description of institution involved
What it does, what it is? Copies of progress reports be examined & included in the analysis. The action
taken & all communication efforts made should be explained in detail.
4. Consideration & evaluation.
What worked particularly well & what could have been improved.
Learning From Experience.
9 Cardinal Rules
1. Get started early & use material from executive speech, because it already has been researched &
cleared for release.
2. Use arguments people can relate to ones that affect them.
3. Show what impact winning on your issue will have on the major concerns of the day.
4. Do not put all your arguments into one release.
5. Present only your case, not the opposition’s.
6. Use positive approach to refer to the other side, like “less informed” or “well intentioned.”
7. Keep in touch with the lobbyist to get feedback on which arguments are working the best.
8. Don’t just cover news media. Send to all channels.
9. Keep in mind the key objective is to win, not to merely accumulate more clippings, editorials and
To Sum Up…. Case Studies
Demonstrate how campaigns to achieve specific public relations objectives are planned, implemented &
May be used in 2 ways
1. Case studies may pose a problem & outline a possible solution according to specific guidelines, as
suggested by an existing case.
2. Case as a learning experience as to what worked , what did not & why.
Analysis Of A Historical Case Broken Into 4 Parts.
1. A summary & Research based purposes of PR actions;
2. Additional research into publics, an assessment of the impact of problem, situation or proposed
action & an explanation of what was done to deal with the problem.
3. Detailed description of the institution involved in the problem.
4. Consideration & evaluation of what worked pretty well & what could have been improved.
Images Of Public Relations
5 Kinds
•The Mirror Image.
This is the “people” especially its leaders believe to be the impression outsiders have about the organization.
•The Current Image
This is the one held by people outside the organization & it may be based on experience or on poor
information and understanding.
•The Wish Image
This is the desired image, the one which management wishes to achieve.
•The Corporate Image
This is the image of the organization itself rather than that of the products or services.
•The Multiple Image
A number of individuals, branches or other representations can each create a particular image which does
not conform to a uniform image for the total organization.
Lesson 39
Printing is and has been an important tool of public relations. It is important that a PR professional should
know about the printing processes, its fundamentals and its various important segments required for
outstanding results etc. besides explaining about different processes and printing methods.
Why is printing important in PR?
---A principle medium for disseminating information, a primary function of PR.
Fundamentals Of Printing
•Types & uses of printed material in public relations.
•Methods of distributing public relations printed matter.
•Printing processes & techniques.
•Preparing copy for printing.
Why Important?
PR professional should know about print, printers, printing methods & printing Requirements.
Important to distinguish between 5 main processes of printing.
1. Letterpress 2. Lithography
3. Photogravure 4. Flexography
5. Silk Screen
PR and Printing Processes
(Relief process – Printing surface raised)
Printing Plate (Type, blocks, electro etc)
Printing Plate (Photographic)
( Planographic process – Printing surface level )
Printing Plate ( Photographic )
Photogravure : Recessed surface
Grid or resist formed by edges of cells etched into surface
Typography: The point System
Letterpress words in metal, while wooden words used for printing large posters. Typefaces (individual type designs) are measured by point system originating to USA. Typical typestyles were 6, 12 & so on e.g.
See below:
Fonts: A in 12 points A in 20 points A in 24 points & so on
Style: A in ARIAL style A in Calligrapher style & so on
Different Names Of Fonts In Use
It is a printing process that works by taking hard type (lead, magnesium, and polymer) applying ink to it and the having it striking paper under great pressure. It works in much the same way a rubber stamp works except the hard type actually penetrates the paper leaving a product that has depth and feel. Both can be adjusted by varying the amount of pressure.
Offset Printing
In the early part of 20th century, it was discovered that ink could be transferred from the lithographic surface to an intermediate rubber surface & then to paper. The rubber intermediate, called a blanket, can transfer ink to paper and to a wide variety of materials that cannot be printed directly, including plastics & metals. As the soft blanket conforms to the texture of the surface to be printed, lithographic image quality is
Photogravure Printing
Photogravure prints an image from an etched copper engraving plate that is created from a transparency of a photographic image. The photogravure printing process produces a photographic image composed of fine lines rather than dots.
Silk Screen Printing
This is based on the Stencil principle. The printing area being cutout to allow the ink or paint to be pressed through the space which is covered with a screen of silk, nylon or organdie mesh. This is an old Chinese
Types Of Paper Used For Printing
1. Newsprint
A cheap, absorbent paper suitable for newspapers.
2. Offset paper
A super calendared & polished paper suitable for magazines, letterheads, prestigious stationery.
3. Imitation Art
A polished paper with china clay content.
4. Art Paper
A high class paper with a coating of china clay or similar substance on one or both sides which is highly
5. Antique Paper
A very rough, bulky, absorbent paper.
Some important tips for printing.
Copy Tips
•Copy should be typewritten in double spaced lines.
•At least 1 inch should be allowed for margins on left & right side of paper.
•Don’t carry a paragraph to another page.
PR And Printing Processes
•Place the word “continued or more” at the bottom of page if copy continues to next page.
•Number pages.
•Clearly indicate end of copy.
Artwork Tips
Photos, drawings, tint blocks & other decorative matter should be marked for size & position in the
finished job.
Layout Tips
•In selecting type variations for a layout select type that will reflect the message you wish to convey.
•Select type variations which will harmonize & avoid too many type variations.
•Best to confine to family of one type family.
Fundamentals Of Printing
•Types & uses of printed material in public relations.
•Methods of distributing public relations printed matter.
•Printing processes & techniques.
•Preparing copy for printing.
Lesson 40
Public relations professional has very often either to speak or make arrangements and prepare its
management chief or other department heads to deliver speeches for various reasons at different occasions .It is important that these should be well written, well spoken and convey clearly the objective for which
these are being made. In this lecture we will inform the students about various stages and advantages of making such speeches and how to conduct them and use these to the advantage of the organization.
“Just saying a few words”---- Basically this implies that to speak less but with authority and with facts will be the best and effective policy. This implies that it is the best and a most desirable low key & high
quality approach to PR
Key Benefits
• It helps promote you as an expert in PR.
• It develops awareness of your company, group or cause.
• It offers you an opportunity to obtain feedback from people you do business with.
• It helps generate sales & business leads.
• It is good means of networking with potential contacts.
• It generates follow up opportunities to speak to other interested groups.
• It is cost effective. You don’t pay to make speeches & very often it can actually earn you money.
How To Prepare
In order to be effective it is imperative that the speaker should answer following questions.
• Who will be in the audience & how many of them will there be?
• What will be their interest?
• Will they be male or female or both & of what age?
• What attitudes will they have, about your subject & the world in general?
• Are they hostile to certain subjects & enthusiastic about others?
• Are there issues particularly troubling them at the moment?
• How much do they know about the subject?
• Has the audience listened to a similar talk recently?
• How long will you be expected to talk?
• Will there be question answer session afterwards?
• Will there be a PA (public address) system to amplify your voice?
What to say?
Be Interesting
Budget your time
Be entertaining
How To Develop Your Speech
1. Decide key points.
2. Create a logical order.
3. Draft the speech.
4. Your final notes.
Preparing To Speak
• Practice makes perfect.(Rehearse and read it many times)
• Delivering your speech.(Style) Speak slowly, clearly and do not shout.
• Case history: (Without preparation many speakers cut a sorry figure.)
• Following up your speech.(Distribute your speech to the press)
Why You Might Turn Down Speech
• It will take too long to research & write the speech.
• It won’t lead to other opportunities.
• You can make a more profitable speech elsewhere on the same night.
• Not enough of the right people will hear your speech to warrant the effort.
• There may be others to speak who you don’t want to speak against.
Exploiting Existing Public Speaking Opportunities.
• Effective way is organizing seminars.
• Seminars are great opportunity for market research & to obtain desired feedback.
Organizing A Seminar
• The venue.
• Setting up the fee.
• Promotion.
• Finalizing numbers.
• Preparing the work materials.
To Sum Up --- Remember
• Collect Data.
• Make Notes.
• Rehearse.
• Speak slowly yet with authority.
• Be short & precise.
• Don’t shout.
• Keep note of audience mood.
• Don’t use difficult words.

Lesson 41
Public relations profession is very demanding and has to remain always on its toes as it will and can always be confronted with unexpected situations. The students will be prepared how to face and counter these eventualities. In this lecture they will also be explained about the emerging public relations trends and responsibilities in this very competitive world. It would be very appropriate to say that a PR professional has to always remain on “Red Alert!”. Moreover, the students will also be apprised about today’s technology and its advantages for the public relations professional.
“It is good thing to make mistakes, so long as you find out & rectify quickly”.
--- John Keynes.
The Golden Rule: Be Prepared
•Know your local press contacts.
•Know the people personally.
•Decide on the spokesperson.
•Imagine worst case scenarios.
When The Worst Does Happen?
•Avoid a cover-up.
•Do not alienate the press.
•Give the basic facts.
•What to say if confronted.
•When to take legal advice.
•Your right to silence.
•Wrapping up the bad news.
Some Possible PR Ideas
•Setting up a social interest group.
•Offering achievement awards.
•Setting up an amenity scheme.
•Supporting a special interest group.
•Donating materials to a good cause.
•Donating funds.
•Protecting the environment.
•Nominate a special day.
•Devise a competition.
•Offer a special skill.
•Produce a mini business mini-guide.
•Obtain professional membership.
•Smarten up your premises.
•Offering advice.
•Attend meetings.
•Sponsor a team.
•Organize a race/walk.
•Involve a celebrity.
•Celebrate a birthday.
•Go “Green”
•Link to an educational program
Emerging PR Principles & Trends
•Variety of impressions.
Evaluation Of PR Services
6 criticisms of PR
•Too Much a “Yes Man”
PR man often not very articulate.
PR man has inadequate grasp of business & economics generally.
PR man does not often understand the operations of the company.
PR man frequently remains ignorant or unaware about company’s immediate problems.
PR man is too sensitive on the point of whether his advice is taken or not.Moves Towards Professionalism.
5 major factors that retarded maturity of PR as a profession.
•Grew very rapidly.
•Covers exceedingly wide scope.
•Forces within & outside created misunderstanding.
•Best pr service is often intangible & comparatively immeasurable.
•Very little enforement of defined standards pr professionals required to meet
•Public Relations must deal with changes in attitude.
•Public Relations must lead its target and not follow it.
•Public Relations should probe into the minds of people.
•Public Relations should make use of the greatest resource i.e. human intellect & creativeness.
Today’s Technology & PR
Today’s PR Professional should know
•Use of computers for storing, sending, receiving & printing information & art.
•About growth of satellite transmission, cable video.
•Growth of specialized pr services.
•Computerized graphic design services.
Key Points -- Six “S” Theory
•Strong competition.
•Stiff opposition.
•Serious opinion leaders.
•Systematic evaluation.
•Social demands.
•Skeptical press.

Lesson 42
In this lecture the students will be apprised of the dreams and realities of PR. The difference between image and reputation will be explained, besides informing them regarding the ways in which PR professional can
take charge of the identity of an organization.
What do you mean “That’s good PR”?
• We sense presence of good PR because it gives us a favourable impression.
• We approve of it because it confirms our needs & wants of the moment.
• We do or admire PR for its planned effect on others.
Why Bother About Finer Points If PR Does The Trick?
PR offers no quick fix even when it promises to.
PR does not just happen, nor is it result of an aptitude or instinct.
PR is unable to do a good job with substandard materials. In fact it exposes weaknesses.
PR can be the impetus to getting the product right first by attending to finer points before
developing the PR policy.
Difference Between Image & Reputation
• Reputation is based on all impressions gained by the publics.
• Image is based on awareness, perceptions & approval.
• Reputation is based on beliefs developed from distance, without benefit of contact.
• Image is composite perception of a company, its products & services.
Can PR Be Self Taught?
• But patience & application is needed for sustained success.
PR techniques are easy to learn.
• How to books & courses can be used.
PR practice is wide ranging & concentration on certain areas is likely to secure satisfying results
earlier than expected.

PR Irons Out Ups & Downs Of Daily Operations?
• Understanding of human behaviour.
• Anticipation of future trends & their consequences.
• Harmonization of conflicting private & public interests.
• Generation of greater goodwill internally & externally.
• Avoidance of misunderstandings & disputes.
• Promotion of positive corporate culture.
What Has PR To Do With Education?
There are 3 Key areas where PR supports education
• Lobbying of decision-makers in Government & local government.
• Issues management, which is probably of greatest importance internally.
• Community relations, where emphasis is likely to be on support for parent oriented events &
Do Small Businesses Need PR To Survive?
• A food manufacturer may depend upon a few buyers representing major food retailers or department stores.
• A professional services company may have half a dozen retained clients such as large companies or local authorities.
• A specialist subcontractor may work mainly for just 2 or 3 of its industry’s leading names.
Still PR Will Be Essential...For
• Start ups --- to lure broad spread of customers.
• Additionally --how it gets on with its sources of finance ,suppliers & other key publics.
Who Takes Charge Of Identity?
• Corporate values as reflected in the way “things get done?”
• The brands, to optimize the reputation strengths.
• Service characteristics, so that the identity complements them.
• Sponsorships to emphasize corporate social responsibility.
• Design, for coherent appearance & ready recognition.
•Age & structure of the organization to ensure consistency & credibility.

Lesson 43
In many situations PR acts or moves as an “over drive” mode,In fact it has to be very proactive without proving expensive and ensure results beneficial for the organization. Moreover, it would also be discussed
whether exhibitions should be held or not and what are the advantages of such exhibitions.
How Proactive Should Be For An Effective PR Presence?
•Are we obtaining our fair share of shout?
•How much can we turn into usable intelligence?
•Does our image & our reputation satisfy our needs?
•How are we doing at meeting our customer’s communication expectations?
•Can we fairly claim to be creative in what we are doing?
How To Maintain Momentum Without Increasing Costs?
•Momentum implies a growing level of commitment which might need extra expenditure.
•In PR work curtailing cost may be possible for a while. (e.g.) larger the public to be addressed larger the
•Going to opinion leaders direct a good way to cut costs.
How International Is PR?
•It is said that 100,000 PR students under training in China.
•The Russian PR people at the trade’s European federation pass a resolution against providing PR services
to terrorist organizations.
•Argentinians denied access to their bank deposits demonstrate volubly before the news media.
“In fact PR is humanity’s new mechanism
for talking with or shouting at , next door
or across the world”
Should We Do Exhibitions?
Think Hard! -- Consider choices! Then ask following questions?
•How long has the event been going?
•What official support does it enjoy?
•Are there any supporting conferences?
•Is it a trade ,public or combined event?
•What is the reputation of organizer?
•What have been recent attendances?
•What other hard facts can the organizer provide?
Important Key Components
•Design of the stand.
•Management & control of the stand.
PR support before & afterwards.
What Is A Design Brief?
•Organizational background
•Market background
•Product background
•Existing materials
•Present visual symbols & applications
What If TV Wants Interview At Short Notice?
•Which programme, what transmission time & how long on air?
•Is the interview to be in studio, at an outdoor location or on our premises?
•What is the subject to be discussed, what are topics to be included?
•Does the interviewer has sufficient information to work on
•Can we have a “dry run beforehand?”
Are There Any Golden Rules To Write Press Releases?
•Who did it / is doing it / will be doing it?
•What was happening / is happening / will happen?
•Where did it happen / is it happening / will it happen?
•When did it happen / is it happening / will it happen?
•Why did it happen / is happening / will it happen?
•How did it happen / is it happening / will it happen?
What Is A Press Pack?
•A collection of information compiled for use by a journalist.
•It may comprise a press release, fact sheets, captioned photographs & relevant printed matter ,e.g.
corporate brochure.
•Generally prepared for an event like an exhibition or annual general meeting.
Why Write A Letter To The Editor?
•It reminds the editor of who the sender is,& his or her reputation as a source of “good stories”, well researched & written.
•It is a neat way of making an enquiry or offering “follow up”, where seeing the item is necessary first before the receiver can respond.
•It can be means of developing the contact further, by sketching possible future contact, availability of more or different material , forthcoming events & so on.
How do we know if we are making the most of our PR function?
•How often have departments called on PR for support?
•Is senior management involving the PR before decisions are taken, or only afterwards?
•Does PR get involved in communications between departments?
•Are we seeing PR more as a management function or a technical service?
•Could we be using PR more in our “futures” thinking?
Lesson 44
There will be lot of upheavals and problems in practicing public relations. Despite all this public relation
professionals should not get deterred and they should get on with PR for the achievement of the desired or
required objectives. This chapter will explain the problems and methods how to get on in various situations.

Why Marketing & PR People See Things Differently?
•Marketing is solely concerned with customers, while PR is about creating most favourable overall conditions for the organization.
•Marketing is highly focused on delivering sales, while PR scans entire operational environment.
•Marketing aims to identify, anticipate & satisfy customer’s needs profitably, while PR embraces all
communication designed to best serve the organization’s interests.
•Marketing directs its energies towards external markets ,while PR works both outside & inside organization.
What Is “Marketing Public Relations”?
When PR is part of promotion within marketing mix, to fulfill marketing objectives , as against PR relating
to Finance or HRM it is described as “marketing public relations”.
PR also has keen interest in other aspects of marketing mix too, e.g. in
1. Physical evidence. ( corporate identity)
2. People. (customer-contacting employees)
3. Process. (service production & delivery)
4. Product. (or service) – 5.Price.
6. Place. (distribution)
Why Should Marketing Take PR Seriously?
•Educating markets ahead of marketing activities;
•Maintaining & strengthening brand loyalties;
•Generating direct sales leads;
•Identifying & evaluating potential markets;
•Motivating sales force & distribution chain;
•Reviving & sustaining mature & declining products.
What Can PR Contribute To The Development Of The Marketing Plan?
•Provide market intelligence;
•Assist in gathering data;
•Identify any potential inconsistencies in messages, as between customers & other publics;
•Indicate potential communications synergies;
•Offer a view based on broader experience of total operating environment.
What Are Main Areas Where Other Departments Should Consult With The PR Function?
•To obtain advice about a communication problem;
•For help in communicating externally e.g. with a supplier;
•To facilitate or mediate internal communications between units;
•To bring news & views from outside;
•To undertake marketing communications.
Where does PR fit in the structure?
---- Because PR “spans boundaries” in all directions; it supports all sub systems, including those concerned
with production, maintenance, planning & change management
So PR people should
•Liaise between organization & external publics & individuals;
•Assist other sub systems within organization in their communications direct with outside world;
•Assist other sub systems in their communications one with another;
PR should be found at any given time working throughout most of the organization.
What should we look for in trying to avoid crises?
Aim to avoid -----
•Anyone who says that there will be never be one;
•Anyone who says crises are strictly for others , not for us;
•Anyone who says planning for crises is a waste of time.
What makes a “good” crises?
What Can Go Wrong?
•Mass panic, making nonsense of best – laid plans;
•Too many people wanting to be spokes persons;
•Wanting to run away from media enquiries;
•Getting angry with the intrusiveness of media;
•Speculation about causes to satisfy media demands or personal motives;
•Not being prepared to ask for help;
•Not listening to friends who want to help;
•Allowing lawyers to dictate how to deal with the problem;
The most important tool of public relations is newsletter .Despite various developments in the technique
and applications of PR newsletter stills maintains significant importance as a public relations tool.In this
lecture fundamentals of a successful newsletter will be highlighted besides explaining its
role,importance,different types and kinds.
Important Segments
Definition By Purpose.
Demographic distribution of the reading audience.
Psychographic consideration- of why the audience is reading your
4 categories ---
• Constituency newsletter.
• Employee or member newsletter.
• For profit newsletters.
• Advocacy newsletters.
Defined By Distribution
Vertical Publications
Newsletters that are distributed within the organization…as these are for everyone from clerk to CEO.
Horizontal Publications
Newsletters that are distributed to a more narrowly defined group with a common interest.
Defined By Format.
2 Elements.
• Size.
• Cover Design.
Common design 8 1/2 X 11 inch page.
Using 11 x 17 inch paper
Defined By Frequency
• Published on a regular basis.
• Information should be timely.
• Can be published weekly, monthly or quarterly.
• Primary purpose to keep in touch.
Management By Objective ( MOB )
3 Objectives:
• Entertainment.
• Information.
• Persuasion.
The Right Questions
• Is newsletter a proper medium for your Message?
• Defining target audience.
• Defining a goal.
• Setting objectives & evaluate techniques to achieve the goals set.
• Developing editorial statement.
Planning --- Making The Right Choice.
• Determining quality.
• Determining format.
• Determining frequency.
• Determining budget for publication.
• Selecting content.
• Deciding on a design.
• Selecting an effective name.
Implementation - Doing Right Things.
• Gathering information for stories.
• Writing stories & editing them.
• Writing headlines.
• Arranging or taking photos.
• Obtaining additional artwork.
• Copy fitting stories.
• Typesetting stories.
• Printing the newsletter.
• Distributing the newsletter.
Evaluation --- Keeping It On Right Track.
• Testing your message in advance of distribution.
• Monitoring effectiveness of the newsletter.
• Evaluating messages during & following the programme.
This is a sample text for the Newsletter This is a sample text
for the Newsletter This is a sample text for the Newsletter
This is a sample text for the Newsletter This is a sample text
for the Newsletter This is a sample text for the Newsletter
This is a sample text for the Newsletter This is a sample text
for the Newsletter This is a sample text for the Newsletter
This is a sample text for the Newsletter This is a sample text
for the Newsletter This is a sample text for the Newsletter
This is a sample text for the Newsletter This is a sample text
for the Newsletter This is a sample text for the Newsletter
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Learning Objectives

Students will be able to:

1. Define mass communication.
3. Identify public communication and mass media.
4. Understand the different components of mass communication.
5. Understand the effects of mass communication.
6. Gain an interest in the field of mass communications.


Basic Principles of Mass Communication:
~As the field of communication is expanding, the forms of communication are developing as, well, such as, mass communication.
I. What is mass communication?
1. Mass communication is a formalized process in which the sending of messages to a large number of individuals takes place.
2. Includes public communication and mass media
II. Who is the audience?
1. The audience varies in age, sex, income, religion, nationality and occupation.
2. The audience is an extremely large and diverse group of individuals who come in
contact with information through the various methods of mass media.
III. Functions of Mass Communication
1. Surveillance: Awareness being provoked in the audience through the media giving information via news channels.
2. Correlation: Information being given to the audience after it has been interpreted and changed.
3. Socialization: Information is presented appropriately to the audience depending on beliefs, values or society’s norms and experiences.
4. Entertainment: Provides entertainment to the audience by providing an out-let for “regular” or “normal” life styles.
5. Advertising or Commercializing: Providing information for economic gain.
IV. What are the techniques to distribute messages?
~ Messages can be transmitted to a massive number of people using some of the following
1. Internet:
A. E-mail
B. Bulletin Boards
C. Blogging
D. Yahoo
E. My Space
F. Facebook
G. Pop-ups
H. Instant messaging
2. Television:
A. Educational programming
B. News channels
C. Sports channels
D. Political/Economical channels
E. History channels
F. Weather channels
G. Paid programming channels
H. Entertainment channels
3. News papers-Magazines-Books-Journals:
A. Country
B. State
C. City
D. Local
E. Community
F. Campus/Universities
4. Radio:
A. Satellite
B. Announcements
C. Advertisements
D. Music
5. Movies/Film:
A. Documentary-Historical
B. Horror
C. Action
D. Culture
E. Educational
F. Comedy
V. Effects of Mass Communication
1. The audience can be controlled through messages.
2. The audience can be misinformed through messages.
3. Limits individuality
4. Devalues traditional pastimes such as fishing, riding a bike, and walking in the park.
5. Possible change in behaviors, attitudes and beliefs of the audience.


1. Communication- Simultaneous experience of self & other.
2. Mass- A large number.
3. Mass communication- Mass communication is a formalized process in which the sending of messages to a large number of individuals takes place.
4. Public communication- Live presentations such as speeches and concerts.
5. Mass media- Technique used to transmit messages.
6. Surveillance- Information and news provided through the media.
7. Correlation- Information presented to the audience after selection, interpretation and critiques.
8. Socialization- Information presented to the audience depending on beliefs, values, norms and experiences.
9. Entertainment- Provides entertainment to the audience by providing an out-let for “regular” or
“normal” life styles.
10. Advertising or Commercializing- Providing information for economic gain.

Mass Communication Activity # 1

1. Students will be able to recognize the specific techniques of mass communication.
2. Students will be able to produce a message and transmit it to a massive audience
3. Students will be able to acknowledge the different ways messages are interpreted.


1. Poster boards
2. Markers
3. Writing utensil
4. Internet for research


Students will beak off into groups ranging from 2-3 people in each group. Students will then pick a technique of mass communication this can be radio, television (commercials), film etc..
Students will work collectively to produce a message to present to the class. Each student will participate equally in presentation to the class. The class will evaluate the presentation by writing a paragraph on what message was received from the presentation.
Example Topics:
1. Presentation on STD’s
2. Effects of sex without protection
3. Eating healthy
4. Watching sports


The groups will be given feed back from each of their classmates based on:
1. Was the presentation organized
2. Did everyone one of the group members participate
3. What was the message and was it successful delivered

Mass Communication Activity #2

1. Students will recognize the strategies that advertisement companies use to market
products to a massive audience.
2. Students will acknowledge the usage of mass communication in the regular day.
3. Students will also recognize the effects on the individual as well as society.


Television Commercials
Writing Utensil


Students will watch a number of commercials as a class. Next, students will pick two commercials and write responses for each one. Each response should include the following:
1. Was the commercial funny, serious, interesting or boring
2. What was the message
3. How did the message effect them or was it effective.
Students will then pick one response to present to the class.
Example of commercial topics:
1. Food
2. Deodorant brands
3. Perfume /Cologne
4. Shoes


Student’s assessment will depend upon the following:
1. Did the student pay attention
2. What was the message
3. What was the effect of the message

Test: Mass Communication

1. What is mass communication?
A. Information and news provided through the media
B. An opposed audience
C. a formalized process in which the sending of messages to a large number of
individuals takes place.
D. Simultaneous experience of self & other.
2. All of the following are examples of techniques to distribute messages except:
A. Radio
B. Television
C. Internet
D. All of the above
3. Surveillance is one of the following:
A. Probation
B. Functions of mass communication
C. Parts of the audience
D. Type of persuasive presentation
4. Which of the following is an example of Functions of mass communication?
A. Blogging
B. Internet
C. Entertainment
D. None of the above
5. What is Correlation?
A. Information presented to the audience depending on beliefs, values, norms and experiences.
B. Information presented to the audience after selection, interpretation and critiques.
C. Simultaneous experience of self & other.
D. Providing information for economic gain.
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What is communication?

Communication can be defined as the exchange of information between one group or person and another group or person. This communication can be between people within the same organisation (internal communication) or with people or groups outside the organisation (external communication)

The purpose of communication

There are various specific reasons why we communicate. These are:
WHY COMMUNICATE? To give information To gather information To give reassurance To clarify issues To start action
To give information

A common reason for communication is to give information. For example, a manager may want to tell people when a meeting has been arranged, or to inform people of Health and Safety requirements. Communicating with customers to tell them about a new product through advertising and promotion is also an example.

To gather information

People in organisations need information to help them make decisions. For example, the managing director may ask for sales figures from different regions or the personnel manager may want information about accidents and injuries in the workplace. We may also need to communicate with our suppliers to find out the price of goods etc.

To give reassurance

Information is needed to reassure people that they are doing things correctly or that things are happening in an organisation. For example, employees may feel better if they are given a written report on their work. A manager may want a report to reassure him or her that safety checks are being carried out properly.

To clarify issues and points

Communications are required to clarify anything that may be confusing in an organisation. For example, if employees are not sure who they should report to after being absent from work, then this can be made clear in a written notice.

To start action

Communications are important in getting new ideas off the ground. For example, if managers want to introduce a major change in an organisation, they may call everyone together to tell them what will be happening.

To influence action

Communications are required to make sure that things happen in a desired way. For example, if output is falling and costs are rising in a company, managers may need to warn staff that if things don’t improve the business may fold.

In order to communicate effectively, there are certain stages of the communication process that must occur. We can show these stages in the form of a diagram.
Effective communication is a two way process. If there were no feedback, you would not know whether the message has been understood or not.
Communication can occur in different directions. The most common of these are horizontal and vertical.


This occurs among employees at the same level of an organisation structure. This could be staff within the same department or staff with the same level of seniority in different departments (i.e. all of the secretaries).


This occurs when a person who is at a higher level of the organisation structure, communicates with a person or a group who is below them in the structure. Very often this is to give instructions or to pass on important information.


This occurs when a person communicates with a person or group above them in the organisation structure (i.e. someone more senior). This communication often passes on information relating to targets that have been set or is a response to enquiries from more senior staff.
To communicate effectively, you must get the following combination of elements correct.


Knowing exactly what you want to say is one of the most important elements in effective communication. If you do not know what you are saying, how can you expect someone else to understand you? It is generally a good idea to keep messages short and to the point.


The media you choose should be appropriate for the message you are putting across. It could be verbal (spoken), non-verbal (body language, expression, tone of voice) or written (memos, reports, letters, posters
How the message arrives at its destination is also important. The most effective communication goes from the sender to the receiver in one step. However, business sometimes complicate matters by sending messages via other people (such as your boss or secretary). Sometimes information gets muddled (like Chinese whispers).


If you don’t send a message at the right time, you may as well not send it at all as it will be ineffective. Sending Christmas cards in June is not effective, neither is telling someone they have done a good job and then sacking them!


If the above elements have all been carried out effectively then the receiver should be able to communicate back to the sender what the message was, or ask questions relating to it. Feedback also allows the sender to discover whether the communication has been successful or not.

Formal or InFormal

In addition communication can be formal or informal. Formal communications tends to be written (especially in the form of letters, reports and emorandums) or verbal (i.e. meetings). Formal communication involves business related matters. Informal communication tends to be more verbal, face to face (i.e. meeting someone in the corridor) or written (i.e. a poster of a notice board). It generally relates to less important business matters or other issues such as social occasions or ‘the grapevine’ i.e. gossip.


Here is a list of the different communications media which can be used which has been broken down into whether they are mainly used internally (within a business), externally (between businesses) or can be either.
Internal Grapevine (gossip)
Memorandum (memo)
Internal e-mail
Notice board
Employee newsletter
External Postal service
Customer magazine
Public relations material
Either Phone
This is not an exhaustive list but gives you some indication of what is seen as an acceptable way to communicate with external stakeholders of the organisation.
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A law is basically a body of principles or rules which are the basis of a society and are abide by the
society. No system in a society can exist without a law. Human life needs a proper rule of conduct or
principle at every step. It is also important for a successful society. If it will not happen then there will b anarchy and disturbance in a society and it will not exist for long.
There are various definitions of law. Some of them are as follows
1. A rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority.
2. A code of principles based on morality, conscience, or nature.
3. A law is rules of conduct of any organized society, however simple or small, that are enforced by threat of punishment if they are violated. Modern law has a wide sweep and regulates many branches of conduct. A body of rules of conduct of binding legal force and effect, prescribed,recognized, and enforced by controlling authority.
4. A body of rules of conduct of binding legal force and effect, prescribed, recognized, and enforced by controlling authority.
Need and importance of law
There are a number incidents taking place all the time which could be harmful to people. This lead to the need of making law. People need a proper code of life. They need to know their as well as others right only then they could lead a peaceful life. Laws were made by the kings to empower themselves .why laws are too important for a society or for a community! In ancient periods, laws were made due to fear, like prohibited areas in this case animals or the nature were the main force to construct laws or restrictions. Actually, restrictions were the first source of laws that were adopted by human beings. Today, we believe that it was our ancestors those made life very miserable in some context. On the other hand we are highly blessed that we do not need to go in details of such things those are proved by our forefathers’ Experiences. However, it is quite clear that we need some rules and regulation to live. So, that’s why we make laws to be known as knowledgeable creature. We are ruling over other creatures because of the law that is “Survival of the fittest”.

Natural Laws

Even nature has certain laws which are strictly obeyed by nature as well as its creatures. Such as laws of sunrise and sun set, changing of day and nights, revolving of earth around sun, law of birth and death.Such laws are above human control and cannot be altered. We have to obey them. Thus they also affect our customs, culture, traditions and on the whole our whole life.Common laws are dependent on natural laws but natural laws are not dependent on common laws. For example let’s talk about our traffic laws. They were made to control the traffic, to bring a discipline and organization in traffic system. If there would be no laws there would be no discipline n thus it will cause disturbance not for an individual but for a whole society so if has given a sense to society that if they will obey them there would be a discipline and peace.A gentle and sensible man always obey the laws not because of fear but because he has been trained like that since his childhood. But some people obey them because of the fear of being punished. Because if
you will break any law whether its man mane or natural laws you will have to pay for them. In other words you will be punished.
Ethics is a branch of philosophy. It is related to human nature. It reflects our behaviour.It plays an important role in building up our nature and behavior. As a society is made by people and their behavior and ethics plays an important role in organizing our behaviors so it is an important part of a society.


Following are some of the definitions of ethics as is defined by some philosophers.Ethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with moral component of human life.

Ethics are involved in a society to a great extent. Even they are much involved in human life therefore the
more a person is having or following ethics in his life, the more his life become decent, disciplined and
organized. Hence it is an important component of human life.
Ethics can also be defined as It reflects a society’s notions about the rightness or wrongness of an act and the distinctions between virtue and vice.
Ethics is taken as a collection of principles or a code of rules. It consists of such rules which a society adopts in its daily routine. Sometimes some of the rules or principles are set by the society and you have to obey them.
For example drinking is prohibited in an Islamic society but there are no restrictions in western societies on it. Therefore being a Muslim and a part of Muslim society it is compulsory for us to stay away from it.Even for an Islamic state it is unlawful. But if we are in a western society as there is no restriction hence now is the place where our ethics comes into action.
Ethics is often thought of as a set of principles or a code of moral conduct.
As we have discussed in the above example, that there are some places where we are no bounded for
certain things. There are no restrictions on us. It is that time where we have to utilize our personal ethics
to differentiate between right and wrong. Hence ethics regulate our moral conduct.
Another definition of ethics is
Ethics involves the evolution and application of those moral values that a society or culture hasaccepted as its norms It means that there are certain things which are purposed and applied by the society. They are then accepts
as the cultural norms of that society. It also differentiates it from other societies.Hence it has been shown by the above definitions that ethics is a branch of social sciences that deals with the moral conduct of individuals and also it is a collection of certain norms that are formulated and followed by a society.
Ethics and Media
Media has always got a great attraction for people. Since its evolution it has been performing its duty of entertaining as well as guiding people. Weather it is print media or electronic media people always tries to adopt its importance in their daily life. With the evolution 0f print media people had a great thirst for it. They take it as their foremost source of information. Hence media start playing three main roles which are as follows.
• Information
• Entertainment
• Guidance
With the addition of features and columns and magazines people’s interest was enhanced and they started idealizing the writers. They take their writings as for their guidance. Observing that much importance of media, there should be some limitations set for it. So that writers cant go beyond the ethics. Their writings and publications should be checked and controlled. For that matter certain laws to regulate media were formulated to keep a check on it. Hence a code of ethics was formulated for print media which is to be obeyed by the publisher.

Then with the gain in popularity of electronic media again there was a need to put a check on it. So different regulatory committees were made to regulate a code for them. So with the passage of time many codes were formulated and applied for them. By now a proper and complete code of principles is been set for whole media. but still there is another debate of freedom of media due to which changes keep on happening in these4 principles.
Sources of Ethics
There are certain sources of ethics. These sources include those persons, places or people which affect our lives at different stages and thus help us in developing and adopting our ethics.
These sources are as follows.
• Parents
• Peer groups
• Educational institutions
• Teen Age [school level]
• Adult Age [higher studies]
• Observations & Experiences
• Society
Parents are the primary and most important source of ethics. They are the first source whish introduce us
to the worlds. They teach us how top behave, how to talk how to walk, how to eat and above all hoe to
develop our ethics i.e. the way to deal with others.
Peer Group
Our second source of ethics is our peer group. This includes our age fellows and our friends. So it is the first time when you interact with the people other then your family. You gain many things from here also. The most important thing you get from your peer group is the development of your attitude. For example some of the children developed tolerance. Others may gain to react harshly to certain situations .Hence it also play an important role in developing ones self.
Educational Institutions
It includes development at two levels.
School level when we are at a stage of learning and adopting thing. At this period of age children try to copy others. They try to gain the qualities of those personalities which they like the most. So people around him specially teachers try to develop good qualities in them. They try to make them differentiate between right and wrong.
At Higher Educational level when children have both the pictures in front of them. Now they are socially bound to show their ethics. It is the time when others expect the particle side of their ethics they have learned so far. Hence they have to prove themselves what kind of nature he has developed so far.
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Observations & Experiences
After passing through your higher education, the next source is our own observations and experiences.Because at this level we are mature enough to observe our society.
Secondly when we talk about experiences then there are two possibilities.
1. We can learn from others’ experiences
2. We can experience our self.
This is the biggest source of learning as it is effective at all stages of life but becomes even more effective when we comes in our particle life. It is the time or stage which requires more responsibilities and ethical behavior from us.

Journalism ethics and standards include principles of ethics and of good practice to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalists. Historically and currently these principles are most widely known to journalists as their professional "code of ethics" or the "canons of journalism." The basic codes and canons commonly appear in statements drafted by professional journalism associations and individual print broadcast, and online news organizations.Every news organization has only its credibility and reputation to rely on.Tony Burman, editor-in-chief of CBC News While various existing codes have some differences, most share common elements including the principles of — truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity impartiality, fairness and public accountability — as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent reportage to the public.
All members of the press have a duty to maintain the highest professional standards. The Code, which includes this preamble and the public interest exceptions below, sets the benchmark for those ethical standards, protecting both the rights of the individual and the public's right to know. It is the cornerstone of the system of self-regulation to which the industry has made a binding commitment. It is essential that an agreed code be honored not only to the letter but in the full spirit. It should not be interpreted so narrowly as to compromise its commitment to respect the rights of the individual, nor so
broadly that it constitutes an unnecessary interference with freedom of expression or prevents publication in the public interest.
It is the responsibility of editors and publishers to apply the Code to editorial material in both printed and online versions of publications. They should take care to ensure it is observed rigorously by all editorial staff and external contributors, including non-journalists, in printed and online versions of publications.Editors should co-operate swiftly with the PCC in the resolution of complaints. Any publication judged to have breached the Code must print the adjudication in full and with due prominence, including headline
reference to the PCC.
The Press Complaints Commission is charged with enforcing the following Code of Practice which was framed by the newspaper and periodical industry and was ratified by the PCC on 01 August 2007.
Evolution and purpose of codes of journalism
The principles of good journalism are directed toward bringing the highest quality of news reporting to the public, thus fulfilling the mission of timely distribution of information in service of the public interest.
To a large degree, the codes and canons evolved via observation of and response to past ethical lapses by journalists and publishers. Today, it is common for terms of employment to mandate adherence to such
codes equally applicable to both staff and freelance journalists; journalists may face dismissal for ethical failures. Upholding professional standards also enhances the reputation of and trust in a news organization, which boosts the size of the audience it serves.Journalistic codes of ethics are designed as guides through numerous difficulties, such as conflicts of interest, to assist journalists in dealing with ethical dilemmas. The codes and canons provide journalists a framework for self-monitoring and self-correction as they pursue professional assignments.
Codes of practice
While journalists in the United States and European countries have led in formulation and adoption of these standards, such codes can be found in news reporting organizations in most countries with freedom of the press. The written codes and practical standards vary somewhat from country to country and organization to organization, but there is a substantial overlap among mainstream publications and
One of the leading voices in the U.S. on the subject of Journalistic Standards and Ethics is the Society of
Professional Journalists. The Preamble to its Code of Ethics states:

Public enlightenment is the forerunner of justice and the foundation of democracy. The duty of the journalist is to further those ends by seeking truth and providing a fair and comprehensive account of events and issues. Conscientious journalists from all media and specialties strive to serve the
public with thoroughness and honesty. Professional integrity is the cornerstone of a journalist's
The Radio-Television News Directors Association, an organization exclusively centered on electronic journalism, maintains a code of ethics centering on -- public trust, truthfulness, fairness, integrity, independence and accountability. RTDNA publishes a pocket guide to these standards. RTDNA publishes
a pocket guide to these standards.
Examples of journalistic codes of ethics held by international news gathering organizations may be found
as follows:
• British Broadcasting Corporation: Editorial Guidelines
• Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: Journalistic Standard and Practices
• Al Jazeera: Code of Ethics.
• Code of Journalists of the Republic of Slovenia
Definition Code of Ethics
A Code of Ethics is a set of standards, rules, guidelines, and values that govern and guide ethical business behavior in a company, profession, or organization of it's employees, interactions among the employees,and interactions between the employees and the general public.Some codes of ethics have the force of law. Violations of these codes may be subject to administrative (e.g., loss of license), civil or penal remedies. Other codes can be enforced by the promulgating organization alone; a violation of these codes is usually limited to loss of membership in the organization.Other codes are merely advisory and there are no prescribed remedies for violations or even procedures for determining whether a violation even occurred. Furthermore, the effectiveness of codes of ethics depends on the extent to which the management of the organization embraces and supports them.
Common elements The primary themes common to most codes of journalistic standards and ethics are the following.
• Unequivocal separation between news and opinion. In-house editorials and opinion pieces are clearly separated from news pieces. News reporters and editorial staff are distinct.
• Unequivocal separation between advertisements and news. All advertisements must be clearly
identifiable as such.
• Reporter must avoid conflicts of interest — incentives to report a story with a given slant. This
includes not taking bribes and not reporting on stories that affect the reporter's personal,
economic or political interests. See envelope journalism.
• Competing points of view are balanced and fairly characterized.
• Persons who are the subject of adverse news stories are allowed a reasonable opportunity to
respond to the adverse information before the story is published or broadcast.
• Interference with reporting by any entity, including censorship, must be disclosed.
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Code of ethics for Journalists and other Media Professionals
Ethical responsibility to Sources and Subjects

Minimize harm
It is essential that all risks of being inflammatory, misleading, or inconsiderate to subjects and sources be minimized. This is especially relevant to those engaging in original reporting. To minimize possible harm,
we encourage our writers to do the following:
• Ensure facts are correct by getting verification from multiple sources.
• Try to contact the subject of the article whenever possible.
• Not publish an article based solely on speculation, hunches or wild guesses.
• Before publishing, make a mental list of all parties involved in the article and think about how each will feel about the article.
Avoid misrepresentation
Do not publish any sort of interview story without ensuring that the interviewee is absolutely happy with
the articles final text. Even if this means giving up the interview - Wikinews will only lose out if it offends interviewees - remember to respect that they have taken the time to talk to us.
Get all sides of a story
Ensure sources and quotes from both sides of an argument are included in articles to avoid being biased towards either side. Ideally, all opinions expressed in an article should be direct quotes. Wikinews has no
official opinion on anything; however, sources often do.
Respect anonymity
Any source that requests to remain anonymous is fully entitled to this. You are not obliged to bring up the possibility of anonymity, but you are obliged to honor requests for it. It is important not to apply undue pressure to the source if they do not wish to be named. At the same time, anonymous sources can make stories less credible, so it is important to make some effort to persuade reluctant sources to volunteer to go

on the record. Explaining to a source why you would prefer them to go on the record is a gentle and often effective way of persuading them to do so. In any case, the decision rests with the source.
Ethical responsibility to our Readers
To our readers we have the duty to be:
Wikinews is not owned by a corporate entity. It is a project that is under the banner of the non-profit organization, the Wikimedia Foundation.
All Wikimedia Foundation projects must conform to the policy of Neutral point of view. Wikinews is no exception. Our responsibility to our readers is to provide news that contains no bias. This includes removing and re-editing stories that have been determined to advocate a particular point of view to the exclusion of others.
Wikinews wants to be truthful. We want to bring the real information. We work hard to do that. We make sure what is being reported is truthful. We remove and re-edit stories that contain unverified sources and thus may be untruthful.
In relation to being truthful, Wikinews wants to be accountable also. We make sure that what we are reporting to the public can be accounted for. We take blame for stories that contain untruthful
Accuracy and standards for factual reporting
• Reporters are expected to be as accurate as possible given the time allotted to story preparation and the space available, and to seek reliable sources.
• Events with a single eyewitness are reported with attribution. Events with two or more independent eyewitnesses may be reported as fact. Controversial facts are reported with attribution.
• Independent fact-checking by another employee of the publisher is desirable
• Corrections are published when errors are discovered
• Defendants at trial are treated only as having "allegedly" committed crimes, until conviction, when their crimes are generally reported as fact (unless, that is, there is serious controversy about wrongful conviction).
Opinion surveys and statistical information deserve special treatment to communicate in precise terms any conclusions, to contextualize the results, and to specify accuracy, including estimated error and methodological criticism or flaws.
Ethics and standards in practice
As with other ethical codes, there is perennial concern that the standards of journalism are being ignored. One of the most controversial issues in modern reporting is media bias, especially on political issues, but also with regard to cultural and other issues. Sensationalism is also a common complaint. Minor factual errors are also extremely common, as almost anyone who is familiar with the subject of a particular report will quickly realize.
There are also some wider concerns, as the media continue to change, for example that the brevity of
news reports and use of sound bites has reduced fidelity to the truth, and may contribute to a lack of
needed context for public understanding. From outside the profession, the rise of news management
contributes to the real possibility that news media may be deliberately manipulated. Selective reporting (spiking, double standards) are very commonly alleged against newspapers, and by their nature are forms
of bias not easy to establish, or guard against. This section does not address specifics of such matters, but issues of practical compliance, as well as
differences between professional journalists on principles.

Standards and reputation
Among the leading news organizations that voluntarily adopt and attempt to uphold the commonstandards of journalism ethics described herein, adherence and general quality varies considerably. The professionalism, reliability and public accountability of a news organization are three of its most valuable
assets. An organization earns and maintains a strong reputation, in part, through a consistent implementation of ethical standards, which influence its position with the public and within the industry.
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(Islamic & Western Perspective)

Mass media appear to be more practical than abstract and philosophical. However, both news and entertainment convey, reinforce, and are based on certain beliefs and value system. The epistemological and the ethical foundations of contemporary mass media practices are deeply rooted in the western ideologies and philosophies. The major motive behind all mass media structures, practices and processes is based on sales values and governed by the market mechanism.1 Media code of ethics and watchdog mechanism are ignored by the media practitioners because they contradict the prevailing social order and hinder the pursuit of private good. The situation in Muslim countries, or of Muslim media practitioners, is no different from that of the western media.
Western Perspective
Various forms of mass media ethics pertaining to the rights, responsibilities, freedom, and regulation of the press have been debated in European cultures since the introduction of the press in the 15th and early 16th centuries. Most of these debates focused on two areas: professional ethics related to the training of media professionals; and normative philosophical theories of public communication which bear on the professional obligations of media practitioners. The new information technologies of our time have tremendously increased the power and function of the mass media, and at the same time have put enormous pressure on media scholars to rethink and redefine
the parameters of ethics for journalists and media practitioners. On the one hand these new technologies are democratizing the process of communication by encouraging communication between individuals; on the other hand they also provide opportunities for the rich and elite to monopolize the information and manipulate it and thus control others' destinies without their consent or even against their will. This, as an eminent communication scholar Everett Rogers notes, is an epistemological turning point in media analysis and the new communication technologies are the driving force behind this revolution.
Merrill has divided existing media codes of ethics and responsibility into three types: that which is legally defined or determined by governments; that which is professionally defined or determined by the press itself; and that which is pluralistically defined or determined by individual journalists themselves. Merrill
sees the third theory as the only one that is valid, meaningful, and in harmony with the values and goals of western societies, especially American society.
In attempting to compare existing codes of ethics, Thomas W. Cooper has provided a national, ideational, historical, and linguistic context. Placing these codes within a spectrum of emphasis, Cooper illustrated some of the most important polarities by which most of the codes can be explained from 'informal' to 'formal', from 'minimal' to 'ideal', from 'material' to metaphysical', the 'inhibitive' to the 'inspirational', etc While obviously there is no attempt, by western scholars, to compare these codes within the Islamic framework, Claude-Jean Bertrand has noted that the West is more concerned with ethical issues in the context of a 'free press', 'and the rest of the world is more interested in issues regarding 'justice'. Herbert Altschull has used loose categories of market oriented countries, Marxist, and advancing nations, and has described the articles of faith that form the basis of media codes of ethics. There may be numerous contexts and methodological devices by which codes may be classified. However looking at the three perspectives discussed in this article, (John C. Merrill, Thomas Cooper, and Herbert Altschull) one may conclude that most western nations, including the newly liberated nations of East Europe, are increasingly inclined towards a market based theory of responsibility in mass media which is in fact a theory of individual pluralism. Or in clearer terms: the code of ethics is what an individual journalist, or a particular media institution, or a particular society deems fit for the material benefit of the journalist, or the press, or of the society as a whole. Thus the meaning and values assigned to concepts such as news, truth, objectivity, freedom, people's right to know, and facts, may change according to
particular circumstances or according to the needs and priorities of a particular society at a particular time.

This is the most that one can get from reviewing the existing literature on media ethics from western scholars' theses on this issue. Individual codes of ethics may vary from nation to nation only with respect to national priorities, linguistic constraints, cultural diversity, or the type of political structure.
Despite efforts to draw up an internationally agreed code of ethics, in practical terms there exist different codes of journalistic ethics in many nations of the east, west, north and south. The process of mass communication is dictated by a journalist's own vision of what can be most readily sold to the public, and in what form. That is why there are 'codes without conduct, technology without humanity, theory without
reality [practice], global change without personal change, and personal ethics, without world awareness.'
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An Islamic perspective
In practice today there is no journalistic code of ethics based on the principles of Islam, and few scholars have attempted to define an Islamic framework for mass media ethics. However, their thinking did not go
beyond academic discussions. That is why the Muslim Ummah of more than one billion has no control over sources of information and the way it want to disseminate news despite having more than 600 daily newspapers, about 1500 weeklies, 1200 monthly news and views magazines, and about 500 miscellaneous Muslim publications. It is difficult for a researcher to find a well defined Islamic code of journalistic ethics. One can find press codes in Pakistan, Turkey, Indonesia, Egypt, maybe in Iran, and a few more Muslim countries, but most of these reflect, to a great extent, the same secular bias that is part of the existing code of ethics in most other countries. The first Asian Islamic Conference organized by the Mecca-based World Muslim League
in Karachi, Pakistan, in 1978 decided that co-ordination should be developed between Muslim journalists to offset and counter the Western monopoly of the mass media and its anti Islamic propaganda The first International Islamic News Agency (IINA) was established by the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) in 1979 with its headquarters in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, but as Schleifer has noted, 'The most poorly served IINA objectives is its very first one - to consolidate and safeguard the rich cultural heritage of Islam... A more significant limitation to IINA coverage, from a Muslim perspective, is the relatively low amount of intrinsically Islamic news content. The first International Conference of Muslim Journalists held in Jakarta, Indonesia, in 1981 endorsed a covenant for Muslim media professionals emphasizing that: Islamic rules of conduct should form the basis for all Muslim media ractitioners in their journalistic endeavors, and Muslim media should work towards achieving integration of the Muslim individual's personality. It was stated that the consolidation of faith of the Muslim individual in Islamic values and ethical principles should be the main obligation of Muslim media. However, none of the above mentioned efforts could lead to the development, and more mportantly, the practice of an Islamic code of ethics among the Muslim journalists. The reasons being: lack of support from Muslim governments; lack of interest and enthusiasm by Muslim journalists themselves; and lack of support from Muslim scholars as well Muslim society in general. Even the many Islamic magazines and newspapers have not been able to demonstrate that what they practice is inherently different from the secular media. As Schleifer has observed.
'The reverse-secularism of Western and Islamic Movement journalism insists that religion is worthy of reporting only in the political domain, and a political domain of confrontation. The specific danger of "Islamic journalism" to date is that the journalist substitutes the life and activities of the various Islamic movements for the life and activities of the much broader Islamic ally conscious society... of which the political movements are but a small part. When the "Islamic journalist" substitutes the life and drama of Islamic movements for the life and drama of Islamic society, he not only over politicizes Islam but he invariably becomes side-tracked into the same sort of surface reporting of organized political life in the Muslim world that characterizes the secular press and ends up even reporting poorly on many political and public developments of profound importance to Muslims.'14 The above statement is a true reflection of many Muslim magazines such as Impact International of London, The Minaret and The Message, both of the USA, Takbir of Pakistan, Radiance of Delhi, and even Al-Dawah of Egypt. It is evident that an Islamic code of journalistic ethics is inevitable if Muslims wish to have their own information system and also wish to see it play an important and effective role in the flow of news and information across the continents.

Basis for an Islamic Code of ethics

Since a journalist's foremost concern is the dissemination of news, we have to agree upon a definition of news that is permissible within the framework of Quran and Sunnah. Not only that, we have also to consider a process of news gathering, news making and news disseminating that is acceptable within an Islamic framework. And in order to compete with the existing information orders we have to provide theoretical foundations and arguments as well a driving force that will ensure its implementation among Muslim journalists throughout the world.Before defining news and attempting to develop an Islamic code of ethics, let us briefly discuss the basis of the Islamic moral system because it plays a very important role in the realization of the Islamic
worldview within which a Muslim journalist has to operate and which is inherently different from the secular or Western worldview. The central force in the Islamic moral system is the concept of Tawhid - the supremacy and sovereignty of one God. Tawhid also implies unity, coherence, and harmony between all parts of the universe. Not only has this, but the concept of Tawhid signified the existence of a purpose in the creation and liberation of all human kind from bondage and servitude to multiple varieties of gods. The concept of the hereafter becomes a driving force in committing to one God, and the inspiration as well definitive guidelines are provided by the traditions and the life of the Prophet (PBUH). A journalist who uses his/her faculty of observation, reason consciousness, reflection, insight, understanding and wisdom must realize that these are the Amanah (trust) of God and must not be used to injure a human soul for the sake of self-promotion or for selling the news, rather, as Dilnawaz Siddiqui has noted these are to be used in arriving at truth. A journalist must not ignore God's purpose in creating this universe and various forms of life.
Explaining the implications of Tawhid, Hamid Mowlana has noted that the responsibility of a Muslim journalist and the Muslim mass media system would be:To destroy myths. In our contemporary world these myths may include power, progress, science, development, modernization, democracy, achievement, and success. Personalities as they represent these must not be super humanized and super defined... Under the principle of Tawhid another fundamental consideration in communication [another important duty of Muslim journalists] becomes clear: the destruction of thought structures based on dualism, racialism, tribalism, and familial superiority... One of the dualisms according to this principle is the secular notion of the separation of religion and politics.Another guiding principle in the development of an Islamic code of journalistic ethics is the concept of social responsibility. As mentioned earlier, the social responsibility theory on which secular or Western media practices are based is rooted in pluralistic individualism. Whereas the Islamic principle of social responsibility is based on the concept of amar bi al-Maruf wa nahi an al-munkar or commanding right and prohibiting wrong'. This implies that it is the responsibility of every individual and the group, especially the institutions of social or public communication such as the press, radio, television, and cinema, to prepare individuals and society as a whole to accept Islamic principles and act upon them.Throughout Islamic history many institutions as well as channels of mass communications such as mosques, azan, and Friday khutba have used this concept of social responsibility to mobilize public opinion and persuade individuals to work for the collective good of society in general and for their own individual pursuit of good in this world and the hereafter. The Islamic revolution in this country has demonstrated well the strength of such uses of non-traditional means of public communication. However, in a highly individualistic society of ours the press seems to play the opposite role of amar bi Munkar WA nahi an al Maruf. Whether Muslim or non Muslim, the media are more interested in conflict, contention,disorder, and scandal than in peace, stability, continuity, and moral conformity. Unless Muslim media practitioners accept social responsibility as a cornerstone of their profession, no Islamic code of ethics can even be realized.

Challenges, problems and suggestions

A brief conceptual framework for an Islamic code of journalistic ethics has been presented above. There is nothing new in it. It only reminds us that putting such concepts into practice is the most difficult aspect of the entire discussion. No effort has yet materialized in a viable Islamic information system that may end Muslim's reliance on Western sources of information. Muslim media practitioners are dependent on the four transnational news agencies and wire services: the AP, UPI, AFP and Reuters. In a survey conducted in 1986 it was revealed that most Muslim newspapers in Arabic, English, Persian, and Urdu base 90% of their news coverage on these four agencies. Seventy percent of foreign news bureau in Muslim countries belong to the Western news agencies, whereas the number of Muslim countries' news bureau is hardly 5% of the total.18 Ten years on, the situation is not much different. The strong presence of Western news agencies in Muslim countries discourages media practices that do not conform to the norms of these sources of information. Therefore it is essential to develop an alternative and viable source of information that will replace reliance on sources of information whose primary objectives are in contradiction with the basic value system of Islam.Unless Muslim media take a lead in the development of alternative sources of information, and unless they show great willingness to accommodate neglected social groups such as Muslim youth, women,children and the rural population, they will remain confined to a small audience without any practical relevance to the Muslim masses in particular and the world in general. As a consequence the desire to adhere to an Islamic code of ethics would also remain low.It is important to note that Muslim media practitioners.themselves have to develop an independentstructure. Unfortunately there is very little exchange of ideas, experiences, and expertise among Muslim journalists, newspapers, and magazines. As a result, already scarce human and material resources are wasted in duplicating similar efforts. Thus a core group of Muslim media practitioners, drawn from
various countries, could be formed to serve as a media think tank. Such a group should work in close cooperation with those who are actively engaged in defining an Islamic framework for other areas of study i.e. sociology, psychology, political science, philosophy, and anthropology etc., in order to develop a thorough Islamic approach to the process of mass communication.
An important aspect of the development of a professional code of journalistic ethics is the training of Muslim journalists. There are numerous training centers to train journalists in all other aspects of the job, but none where journalists can get training on specifically Islamic aspects. There is an urgent need to establish an Islamic Institute of Mass Media Research and Training. Such an institute could perform many important tasks besides just training journalists:
1) Preparation of a directory of Muslim journalists for world wide and regional co-operation;
2) Preparation of an exhaustive bibliography on the existing literature on the Muslim world media;
3) Preparation of books introducing the basic concepts in mass communication history, methodology, and process with a critical examination of the contemporaryapproaches;
4) Preparation of monographs on specific issues and problems faced by Muslim media and
Muslim journalists related to the editorial tasks, circulation and distribution, advertisement, and effective
use of new communication technologies;
5) Establishment of a media monitoring group in order to keep
up with the Western media's distortion of Islam and Muslim societies as well as to monitor and assess the
press-government relationship in Muslim countries;
6) Organize regional and international seminars
and conferences in which both Muslim and non-Muslim media practitioners can exchange their thoughts
and experiences in order to appreciate the importance of an Islamic code of ethics for journalists.
These are few suggestions towards realizing the goal of developing a workable code of media ethics
within an Islamic framework. To begin with, an active forum of Muslim media practitioners and
academicians could be created to exchange information about codes of journalistic ethics in Muslim
countries, and also to cooperate and co-ordinate with non-Muslim media practitioners, associations and
organizations that have a concern about media, culture and religion. Such forum could later play a key
role in the formation of an international institute for media training and research for Muslim journalists.
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
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