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Journalism & Mass Communication Notes and Topics on Journalism

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  #91  
Old Friday, November 08, 2013
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comments, criticism and suggestions are strongly encouraged. qurban i would encourage you to answer past papers as well. your journalism question solving ability is quite commendable. sadia shafiq kindly comment on my answers as i accept you as a valuable critic in this regard. all the others are also strongly encouraged to contribute answers and comment and criticize.


Q3) News’ have in depth influence in any society. Discuss the effects of different news on Pakistan Society.

News : it is the report of a recent event.

Introduction: news is a form of a communication. In the past, news was transmitted as word of mouth. But even then man had an appetite for information of people, events, objects near and far. With the passage of time, technology transformed the media of news transmission. Print media started to develop and flourish over time. Later it was replaced by radio and then television. Today, social media is also an important sources of news. In a nutshell, it may be rightly said that man has advanced over time yet his appetite for news remains unsatiated.
It is an acronym of north east west south.

Impact of different news in Pakistan
a) Political news

i) Political news provide the citizens information of recent policies enacted by the government. For e.g information of anti sexual harassment act enacted has helped create a better working environment for the women.

ii) It also projects the reaction of the general mass to different policies. For e.g price hike in electricity tariffs and the news of strikes in reaction keeps the government apprised of the gavity of the situation.

iii) Political news act as a bridge between the policy makers and the general public particularly, during election campaigns, different political parties try to obtain first-hand knowledge of the grievances and issues of the general lot and plan their manifestoes, accordingly.

iv) At times, political news also mobilize public opinion as in the case of restoration of judiciary.

b) Educational news

i) Such news help the audience to be informed About the geographical facts and scientific terms.

ii) Educational news also helps individuals form a realistic point a view of the world and different communities for e.g Pakistanis may perceive Indians as being hypocrites and brutal but the recent projection of the “soft image” of india is just the contrary.

iii) Similarly, news of inventions and discoveries all around the world keeps the audience at par with the rest of the world.

c) Social news
These news show examples to socialize the mass with the norms of the society

i) Social news helps the audience to socialize the beliefs and relationships of the society, in order to operate successfully in the society.

ii) Similarly, by socializing with the beliefs and relationships of the society, such news also refrain individuals from adopting socially repulsive behaviour.

iii) Nowadays, social news are also playing a proactive role in diminishing superstitious beliefs by exposing fake peers, astrologers etc.

iv) Timely news can help in averting disastrous consequences such as the news of flood or tsunami or earthquakes at the proper time could help in preventing huge losses.

Religious news

i) Religious news relating to holy days, months, events creates religious awareness among individuals.

ii) By providing a coverage of religious events, majalis etc, news helps to keep traditions and rituals alive.

Economic news

i) News also broadcast information relating to the rise and fall of prices in stock, gold, shares etc. in this way, people remain informed of recent economic trends

ii) Economic news also provide information about new investments, developmental programes, saving schemes and helps the citizens of the country maximize the potential of their resources.

iii) There are certain channels which provide news of price of daily commodities which prevents exploitation of consumers in the hands of the product sellers.

Weather news

i) The news of the weather forecast has a strong impact on Pakistani society, where many individuals plan their business and leisure trips in view of the weather changes.

ii) Weather forecast is also very important for the farmers who have to remain mindful of sowing, harvesting and cutting of the crops at proper times.

Cultural news

i) Cultural news are important in transmitting the knowledge to the next generation i.e ensures continuity of cultural norms.

ii) It also helps to diminish cultural gaps between different nations by broadcasting similarities and justifying differences.

Entertainment news

i) Entertainment news helps the audience to be aware of recent movie releases, box office success ,reviews, birthdays, deaths, accidents of their favourite celebrities.

ii) Such news are a breath of fresh air for the Pakistanis who are accustomed to the “hard news” of violence, brutality and terrorism in one form or another.

iii) These news are also relating to exhibitions, fairs, designer shop openings etc act as mentally relaxant.


Critical analysis: news is the report of recent events. They have an indelible mark on any society, in its integration and disintegration, cohesion and variation. Every type of news, be it religious, social, political, cultural or any other type has an impact, sometimes short-term and rarely long-term.
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  #92  
Old Tuesday, November 12, 2013
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Q3. Considering that Media are given greater importance, describe the freedom of media.
Q9. In a globalized world, discuss and evaluate the concepts of "Free Press" and "Responsibility" in the developing and developed societies.


Introduction: media is the fourth pillar of state. It plays a pivotal role in the dissemination of information. Due to its ability to act as a opinion maker, it is the responsibility of media to bring to the citizens the whole truth. In this regard, media should undertake all the measures necessary to get to the truth. However, with liberty comes responsibility.

Free media:
Statement of universal rights” every citizen shall have the right to freedom of opinion and expression, this freedom means the liberty to make an opinion without any interference and to express the same through any media regardless of boundaries”
this suggests the freedom to expression and communication using all the media including electronic, print etc. although this implies absence of interference. in practice, it is usually achieved only through legal and constitutional means.
In matters of government documents, each government has the right to declare certain documents as certified, confidential with regard to the protection of national interest. therefore, any government can declare any document to be public or to be reserved from disclosure to public.

Importance of free press:
The primary responsibility of media is to present the truth, it owes its loyalty to the citizens. Media is the primary source of dissemination of information. It not only presents the basic news but all the views. This variety of news helps the citizens to comprehend the issue in a better way and form their own perspective. In addition, free press also helps the individuals to understand their role and respond appropriately .

Responsibility of media

With freedom comes responsibility, therefore media should respond towards freedom in a responsible way. it is the responsibility of media to present whole truth to the citizens and to avoid influence from those they cover. In addition, it should refrain from taking bribes or letting their personal social, political and religious views from affecting their journalistic abilities. Media should not present pictures or sounds in a way that is misleading. efforts should be undertaken to avoid anonymous sources. Media should not let the freedom granted affect anyone’s private life or reputation. In case a news is to be published or broadcasted against anyone, the subject of the news should be given the opportunity to justify himself. similarly, children, women and trauma victims should be handled sensitively.


Status of press/media in world:
Normally, the freedom of media in any society is influenced by the political ideology and socio-economic conditions prevailing in the country.
a) Freedom of press in developed countries:
Most often, media enjoys complete freedom and liberty in developed countries. particularly, in Britain, media operates independently without interference from the Queen. In U.SA, constitution embodies freedom of press. In france, media is allowed to operate without any interference. The 2012, press freedom index indicated countries like finland, Norway, Estonia to have absolute freedom of press. However, this is not an absolute condition. Particularly, in chechnaya , Russia, journalists are not allowed to operate freely and fulfil their journalistic obligations.

b) Freedom of press in developing countries:
The status of press freedom in developing countries demands special treatment. It is often assumed that in such countries, press is controlled by loan-paying countries. Political leaders are often the influence of developed countries and they operate media as a puppet in their hands. Multinational cooperations operating in such developing countries often influence media to project their vested interests. particularly, in Pakistan and Nigeria, often before elections, media is issued strict code of conduct.


Critical analysis: media plays an important role in any society, particularly in the contemporary world. It ensures stability of government s and especially a democratic government. However, many developing countries challenge the freedom of press.
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  #93  
Old Friday, November 15, 2013
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comments, criticism and suggestions are strongly encouraged. come on qurban, zohaib babar, and sadia. please respond.


Q8: "Public Relations is deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its public", explain.

Q8. In modern society what role does public relations and P.R.O play in any organization?

Mention the role and responsibilities of a good P.R.O.


Public relations
“ it is the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its public”.
In this case, public stands for the recipient of information or the target audience or selective group of individuals.
In other words PR stands for “performance” and “recognition”. Therefore PR may be defined as the “efforts taken up the PRO to get the performance of an organization recognized.”


Goals of public relations
• It is a confidence building measure
• It is aimed at developing trust and understanding between the organization and the public
• In addition, PR is aimed at removing misunderstanding and countering any propaganda between the public and the organization.
PR is also used to keep people apprised of recent policies, rules and guidelines.
• It is aimed at bridging the gap between an organization and the public

Characteristics of PR

PR is basically an organized publicity
• It is the professional winning of friends and influencing people
PR is aimed at mobilizing opinion in an organization’s favour
PR is what the practitioner thinks it is. It implies that all the strategies and techniques employed by the practitioner to develop understanding between the organization and its public
• It is much more than propaganda, advertising and publicity.
PR is a combination of journalism, mass communication, ethics, philosophy, and several other related brances.
• Often PRO employ different tools such as print media, electronic media and even social media. It also manipulates media to its advantage.


Qualification & experience
• Often, a PR officer has a degree in mass communication, journalism, social sciences. Sometimes, a PR officer holds a postgraduate in language English or urdu (depending upon the audience)
PR officer has an experience of working in media related fields such as TV, radio, advertising etc.
PR officer should have a presentable personality
PR officer should be a person of integrity and credibility
PR officer should have a clarity about PR publicity

Role and resposiblities
PR officer should draft
a. Press releases
b. Handouts
c. Speeches of the head of organization
PR officer should organize conferences, seminars and walks
• He should compile press clippings
• He should draft denials and corrections
• He should ensure early publication of denials
• Publicity designed should use strategies to reach out to maximum public
• He should be available round the clock to the media

PR in the context of Pakistan
Unfortunately in Pakistan there is little awareness of PR. Often it is misunderstood with advertising. However, government uses PR officers in order to bride communication gap and to keep the people informed of recent advances. At the same time it is aimed at removing any misunderstanding and countering propaganda. Unlikely, many a times, image of organization is compromised i.e focus is shifted from organization to individual image building.

Critical analysis: PR is used by individuals, organizations and governments to uplift their image and to overcome any negative publicity. The image building of an organization and nation depends upon many factors but the most important factor is the expertise of the PR officer.
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  #94  
Old Friday, November 15, 2013
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please please people.help me tackle this question.do you think this outline is ok? or should anything be added? what is the examiner trying to ask?


Q4. Describe news, "which is the real soul of journalism" with examples?

outline:

news definition
history of news from newsletter to social media
factors affecting importance of news

a) immediacy
b) proximity
c) prominence
d) size
e) novelty
f) importance
g) emotional appeal
h) crime and sex
i) conflict
g) consequence
h) progress and advancement

functions of news
a) inform
b) entertain
c) to educate
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  #95  
Old Tuesday, November 26, 2013
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If anyone has material on folowing topics, please share :

1) Concept of Embedded Journalism.
2) Role of Journalism in Socio-Economic Development of a Country.

Thanks.
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Old Friday, December 27, 2013
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FM radio channels have revolutionized the broadcast landscape in Pakistani and have become one of the preferred sources of entertainment for youngsters", give your arguments for or against this statement.

Differentiate news “components” from “news values”

please please someone help me with these questions. an outline, guideline,link anything suitably relevant would be highly appreciated.
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