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Old Thursday, September 26, 2013
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Originally Posted by Qurban Ali Qureshi View Post


Thanks SADIA SHAFIQ correcting me. you mean i should explain it with proper examples of daily life. I should reflect the examples of press freedom and responsibility in the democratic society?
Yes , you are right . You give me information but I have asked your opinion . What do you think press freedom and responsibility goes side by side .

If you say yes , then tell how? And If you reflect negative opinion , then must tell why ?Tell it in the context of world (general) and then Pakistan (particular).
If you will not give examples from Pakistan , you would not be awarded with good marks . For this , just go for one book to sketch syllabus outline, then read newspapers , articles , and watch movies , dramas and shows to analyze the current trends . It will enable to draw a sketch of paper in which you are going to appear .

Hope you have gotten what I have told . You may contradict with what I have said

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He commeted on the above questions.so examiner will give 12 marks.
Dear member ,

examiner will give 12 marks for a good question . If you have done marvelous then will be 14 , some time extra-ordinary work fetch 16 or 16+ marks .
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sadia shafiq kindly check my answer as well and suggest changes.

critically analyze the watchdog and lapdog role of public and private T.V. channels in pakistan??

Watchdog journalism

The term watchdog journalism is strongly related to the practice of investigative journalism. A watchdog is defined as "a person or group of persons that acts as a protector or guardian against inefficiency, illegal practices, etc." by the Collins English Dictionary. In news journalism, a watchdog journalist also fulfills this function of being a guardian. To perform in an investigative manner, the journalist is in the "role" of a watchdog. Watchdog journalism can be located in a variety of news media, such as radio, television, Internet, and print media where it may be seen as "a unique strength of newspapers".

LAPDOG JOURNALISM

The term lapdog is also used to describe a submissive person, such as a "yes" man, or an institution that can be very easily controlled

Functions of a media as watchdog

The role of a media as a watchdog can be that of a protector or guardian. To act as a guardian and is to supply the citizens with information they must have "to prevent the abuse of power",and to "warn citizens about those that are doing them harm". In order to conduct their role as a watchdog, journalists need to have a certain distance from the powers and challenge them, as opposed to "propagandist" journalists, who are loyal to the ruling powers and elites. Because of the power distance and its overseeing function, watchdog journalism often officiates as the fourth estate, or is used in the context of that term The array of topics for watchdog journalism is wide and includes "personal scandals, financial wrongdoing,political corruption, enrichment in public office, and other types of wrongdoing".In order to expose wrongdoings the watchdog aims at "finding hidden evidence".[15] The aforementioned aspects are necessary for the role of the watchdog journalist to help "maintain order" and "warn against disorder.

WATCHDOG ROLE of PRIVATE TV CHANNELS

The skilled and bold personality of anchor person raises people’s voice and clearly asks the real point of the crisis as in “live with talat” or “CAPITAL TALK”

They analyze government actions, either in favor or against the masses and develop the opinions of the experts.

Media is serving as true democratic notion of people’s participation. The general peoples’ criticism, analysis, and comments are added. which also act as a catharsis.

The ruling feel shame while speaking bluff in live shows before the millions of the citizens. As is usually observed in “awam kee adalat”

Media successfully informs the whole world against any injustice and shows world’criticism which compel the government to change its autocratic orders as in “news eye”

Role of PTV as a lapdog


Before the mushroom growth of private tv channels, there was only one tv channel, ptv. it was dominated by the government which always played manufactured news, record success in stock market,poor becoming millionaire through rozgar scheme, big power is extremely happy and corrupt politicians are being chased away.
Even today, in this age of information PTV officials try to keep the country’s people into darkness by presenting the one side of the picture or that news which are in favor of the US or against Taliban.
PTV authorities try to please their masters by giving the one-sided news, comments and analysis and even cannot tolerate the anti-US or pro-Taliban news and pictures. Specially,the PTV is State-controlled and people could not trust in its news and comments.

Ptv- a “watchdog”.

On the other hand, the government has lauded and paraised Ptv muoltitude times for playing an important role in “national integration” and “promoting liberal democratic image” of the country among the comity of nations.
Former Secretary Information and Broadcasting Mansoor Suhail on the 46th anniversary of Ptv stated that the PTV was promoting Pakistani culture all over the world. Presently over 60 private TV channels and 130 radio channels were operating in the country. Despite all this competition, the PTV was playing very important role, he added

Private Tv channels as a lapdog

Apart from PTV, some private tv channels have also adopted a similar pattern. According to International Herald Tribune:
“The media no longer dares to scrutinize judicial conduct for fear of “contempt” proceedings by a judiciary that has had the temerity to hold a hearing on whether parliament could amend the constitution. Journalists self-censor out of fear of military and intelligence agencies. But the media has remained free to propagate an Islamist, nationalist, and anti-Western line.”
While media has the responsibility to be a government watch dog, government is not the only social institution that must be checked. When President Zardari threatened to ban jokes against him, there was a media uproar. But when the judiciary threatens ‘contempt’ against those who question them, the media is silent. Is this not an equally or possibly even worse abuse of power?
When the Governor Punjab is assassinated by a man brainwashed by a jihadi mindset, the TV anchors do not condemn this act of violence. Rather, they ask the question, “Is he a hero?” This is not a new development, either. We saw the same self censorship when extremists burnt alive a group of Christians in Gojra. As it was written:
The media that has become the self proclaimed flag bearers of truth and honesty finds it very easy to attack politicians, abuse them and threaten them with a judicial or military coup. But it is scared when it has to talk about extremists and terrorists.

Conclusion:


It is the responsibility of the mass media to act as a “watchdog” and to keep the populace appraised of the recent events, policies and propaganda. Unfortuanately,while some tv channels have played a positive role inthis regard,there are certain others that have failed to come up to the expectations and remain a “lapdog”.

please everyone evaluate,analyze and give comments
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Post Q2. what are ethical issues associated with online journalism and also suggest ways t

Q2. what are ethical issues associated with online journalism and also suggest ways to solve these ethical issues. CE-2012

Outline
-Online Journalism.
-characteristics of Online Journalism.
-Ethical issues associated with Online Journalism.
-Ways to solve Ethical Issues of Online Journalism.
-Conclusion.

Online Journalism:
It is a form of the traditional journalism practiced through the medium of internet. In other words it is the online version of the traditional journalism.
It is profession of aggregating news reports, issues, events, stories which are produced and distributed through out the internet.

-Characteristics of Online Journalism:
1-unlike print journalism internet made it globally. It has global users and accessible across the world.
2-Unlike print journalism it does not have the space issues. It easily covers all types of news not local to a country but globally. It contains the news items, stories and articles in the depth and details.
3- unlike print journalism it carries the power of the update. News items ,stories and articles can be easily updated . It covers the news 24 hours. News can be published as soon as it occurs any time.
4-Blogs and discussion forums on the news sites promote and encourage the readers to participate in the news process and share their own opinions.
5-News archiving ability provides access to news of any time or date.
6- It is the quickest, cheapest and efficient form of the journalism.
7-Unlike the print journalism it does not contain the fears of the dead-lines .
8- More features can be added to the news items, stories and articles Likes the Videos, moving pictures ,discussion boxes etc.
9- Mistakes and errors can be corrected after publication.

-Ethical issues associated with Online Journalism

1- Competition
Competition it the big threat to the online journalism. It has affected the accuracy, transparency and quality of the news. Competition encourages the news providing websites to cover all types of news. CNN and other news websites which cover the news 24 hourly, have the intentions to publish the news as soon as it occurs. This approach of the news prevails the speed of news over quality. Journalists are found in conflict in choosing between to publish immediate information or waiting for verifying the facts and accuracy. For example Pakistan's elections held on 11 May 2013, Different Media like Geo, A.R.Y news, Express News etc. announced the unofficial results of the election of 2013 on their websites and channels and claimed to be announced the results first. These were unofficial results but competition made them to do such type of activity.

2- Copyright issues.
Due to easily accessible information copyrights have lost their values. Journalists and news makers just copy and past the Whole articles, stories, Videos, photographs etc. They even do not mention the references of the sources. Due to this approach readers can not distinguish between the official and unofficial websites.

3-Plagiarism
Collection of information from different sources and making them own is also a big thread to the online journalism. Collectors do not mention the references and links of the sources from where the information were collected. Due to this approach the credibility of the journalists and writers comes in danger.

4-Blogs issues
Use of blogs is another factor distorting the function of the online journalism. Although blogs are the great form of additional information which may not be provided by the news providers, it is not the reliable form of information. People involved in the blogging may not be qualified journalist.
These blogs are not monitored by the editors and qualifiers journalists. They may misguide the readers. Due to blogging it becomes very hard to distinguish between the news reporters and the an unofficial person.

-Way to solve Ethical Issues of Online Journalism

1- News providers first priority should be the flow of accurate, true and factual information. Speed should not be prevailed over the accuracy and transparency of the news. Although competition affects the quality of the news, articles and stories, news providers should encourage the articles, stories and news items which are based on reals observations. They should conduct interviews from the qualified person,and use reliable sources of information to make these news items ,stories and articles. Stories and articles should be neutral and contain the facts and figures so that they are not criticized by the readers.
2-If journalists and news providers uses the other sources as means of gathering information ,they should clearly mentioned those sources in their news items ,stories or articles. They should use links and references. If they are afraid that these links or references will be disappeared then they should use the names of anthers, dates of publications and other mandatory details in their stories and articles. so that the copy right issues can be minimized.
3-Journalist should be sincere with their professions. They should practiced their responsibilities. The materials which they provide in the stories and articles should not be offensive and cause of criticism. The purposes of the stories and articles should not be social and morals degradation. These stories and articles should be written by keeping in mind the society and country sketch because these stories are read out globally.
4- journalism should avoid plagiarism and give the credit to the real person.
5- Newspapers websites should avoid the advertisements that may cause of offensiveness and social degradation.

-Conclusion
Ethical issues are associated with journalism from it birth. These are associated with all types of Journalism. they can not be completely overcome but minimized.
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Problems of ethics in journalism - CE-2012

1.Historical background and starting points for a discussion on ethics
I consider it particularly appropriate for a German communications scholar to be writing an introductory essay on the ethics of journalism in an international context, for the ethical debate had already begun in Germany in the 17th century. In 1676 two publications, by Ahasver Fritsch and Christian Weise, dealt with the pros and cons of the new periodicals of the time. Ways of distinguishing what is true from what is false were already being discussed then. Addressing the issue of news selection in 1688, Daniel Hartnack argued that the regular publication of newspapers would create a need for news independent of world events. This writer not only saw the problem of portraying life through journalism, but also pointed out that newspapers appearing regularly were going to have to be filled with information. Finally, in 1690,
Tobias Peucer discussed what was newsworthy for a newspaper. Specifically, he asked about news selection criteria and made a list of newsworthy events, wherein the unusual was seen as especially newsworthy, and not so much the regular and the mundane as that which was private. In a 1695 book about "the pleasure and usefulness of newspapers" ("Zeitungs Lust und Nutz") by Kaspar Stieler there was similar discussion about what was newsworthy and a good read. One can trace this discussion in Germany even further back in time, for already the lyric poet, Freidank (circa 1215-1240), recognised what made for interesting news: "Bad news gets louder and louder. Good news dies quickly away."
A discussion about ethics first became urgent the moment journalists became aware of the power they wielded. Ineffectual journalism needs no ethics. And yet surveys done in Germany showed that journalists themselves are more likely to believe that they are relatively lacking in power and influence. This (wrong!) opinion makes absolute sense, for behaviour that has no effect does not need to be subject to public control.
The question of ethics poses itself further at the point when there is no longer any strict censorship, for ethical behaviour presupposes freedom of choice. Only those who can freely influence their own behaviour, and who demonstrate responsibility for it, can be judged according to ethical standards. The legitimacy of newspaper censorship was in general not called into question until the 18th century. Rather, the theorists of the absolutist state legitimised censorship on the grounds of raison d'état. Criticism of the head of state was dangerous. The king of Prussia, Friedrich II (the Great, 1740-1786), to get better press coverage had journalists thrashed (among other things) if they did not report the way he wanted them to. Even now in many countries criticism of leading politicians is forbidden, and at times highly risky. Journalists are still beaten, too. In 1995, Abou Sangare, an editor in the Ivory Coast, published an article attacking the security minister, Gaston Koné. TIME (August 14, 1995) gives the following account: "Soon after the story appeared, Sangare was summoned to Koné's office and ordered to drop his trousers - whereupon four policemen took turns pummelling him with truncheons while the Minister looked on." Cabinet minister Laurent
Fologo
defended this treatment of a genuine democrat, as follows: "The opposition press degrades us. They need to be more mature." A president of the court in the Ivory Coast who had just sentenced a journalist to a year in prison for an "attack on the honour and dignity of the president," said, "we have a culture which obliges us to honour the head of state."
This kind of arrogance has unfortunately spread worldwide. In many parts of the world there has never been freedom of the press and in many countries where it exists in law journalists making an effort to write the truth are murdered or hounded like criminals.
The functions a society assigns to the press or mass media are also decisive to journalistic ethics. Many politicians want the press to be an instrument functioning as a government-controlled transmission belt, so to speak, helping to carry out important processes of social change. Many ideas about a development journalism have come from this type of assumption. But to be effective development journalism can in no way be "government-say-so-journalism" - journalism has to be critical. Critical does not mean destructive, but positive about development, for no planning and no government is infallible. There is corruption and mismanagement everywhere and in the interests of the public they must be exposed.

In Germany, journalism has a public purpose in a legal sense. It is to obtain and distribute news about events of public interest, take a position on them, apply criticism to them, and so contribute to shaping public opinion. Through this, journalism takes on an especially meaningful task in democracy, for which it has special rights (the right to refuse to divulge sources; a right to claim information from authorities), but also special duties. The most important duty is to report fully and correctly, which involves making sure that all news is checked over before it is distributed, with attention paid where necessary to truth, content and also background information. In Germany, a tension is drawn in the field of journalistic ethics between freedom of speech on the one hand, and the individual right to privacy and freedom from media harassment on the other. The communications scholar Wolfgang Donsbach pinpointed this: "The ethic of journalism consists of the seriousness of its efforts to represent the truth. This seriousness, on the other hand, depends on the ability and readiness to exhaust the possibilities for discovery, and to use them in a neutral way. A journalist who does not research certain aspects of a conflict, depriving a few odd people involved of the chance to offer their perspectives, or who chooses certain figures from a set of statistics which support his or her point of view, is not only behaving unprofessionally, but also unethically". If you take this thinking further, you come to a central theme of the ethics of journalism: the distinction between news and opinion, as well as the problem of a possible mixture of the journalistic role with one that is political. Journalists, like any human being, have a particular view of things. They do not see the "truth." They can only attempt to report as objectively as possible, and in doing this, indicate their personal opinion as such. A journalist or an editor who starts the day's work asking, "What can we do today for the government or the opposition?" deserts the field of journalism and becomes a political actor himself/herself.

There are further aspects of journalistic behaviour that require ethical judgement. Specifically, tact and fairness are needed in gathering and using information. In reporting a crime or catastrophe, for example, there is the danger of the victim being victimised a second time through the media coverage. Or certain forms of reporting - for instance, depiction on television news of acts of violence in social conflicts - might intensify those conflicts. Mass media have also driven branches of industry or businesses into near or complete ruin. This happened in Germany with reports about canned fish being allegedly contaminated by worms and noodles produced with allegedly polluted eggs. Whereas in these cases the journalists were confronted with the consequences of their actions, most times journalists remain ignorant of the effects of their reporting.
Journalists are, firstly, reporters, who should report as objectively and neutrally as possible, but without simplifying matters too much in the process. They are, secondly, opinion formers, offering an interpretation of events. This raises the question as to how far they distinguish between news and opinion, and as to how far the reporting is rational, or emotional. Lastly, they work, at least in a few countries, as the "fourth estate."
"The Fourth Estate" is a messy expression and it is not clear who gives journalists legitimacy to control government. Without the fulfilment of this role, though, several cases of abuse of power and of corruption in Germany and other countries would not have been exposed (e.g. Watergate in the US). A democracy needs journalists as watchdogs, even though the journalists are not above the state. But that begs the question: who’s watching the watchdogs?

2. Journalistic ethics: Individualistic aspects

Already highly topical in his time, Kaspar Stieler, referred to above, addressed the unintentional effects of portraying violence in the mass media. He argued that descriptions of crimes can trigger copycat repetitions of them. Here he demonstrated quite the most important problem of an individualistic journalistic ethic: must the journalist take responsibility for the positive and negative consequences of his or her actions, or not? The sociologist Max Weber took up and developed this topic again in 1920. Weber differentiated, as ethical positions, between the ethic of responsibility, in which the correctness of an action is judged primarily according to its foreseeable consequences, and not according to the motives which are the basis of the action, and the ethic of conviction [ In an existing US translation of Weber, Gesinnungsethik is translated as ethic of ultimate ends . This was felt to be unsuitable in the context of this article and there fore I have offered another expression: the ethic of conviction .], in which the correctness of an action is judged primarily on the conviction motivating it, and not on its expected consequences. Consequently, all ethically oriented actions can be seen under two fundamentally different and contrasting maxims. Weber, however, does not interpret the ethics of responsibility and of conviction as absolute opposites, but sees complementary elements which only together really constitute a genuine human being.

In Politics as a vocation (Politik als Beruf) Weber uses this typology in the analysis of political and journalistic actions. A pure follower of the ethic of conviction refuses responsibility for the consequences of his or her actions (1964 p.183): "It is the world which is stupid and mean, and not I; responsibility for the consequences does not affect me, but the others, in whose service I work, and whose stupidity or meanness I will eradicate." The cost of the consequences of the action need not be paid for by the follower of the ethic of conviction (nor does he or she want to pay). If the consequences of an action flowing from pure conviction are detrimental to others, then the follower of the ethic of conviction holds not the perpetrator of the action responsible, but blames either the world for the stupidity of other people, or God's will. The perpetrator is duty-bound to strive with all his or her might for the absolute value, regardless of consequences.
Characteristic of the ethic of conviction is the absolute duty to tell the truth. Here it should be observed that the ethic of conviction has nothing to do with irresponsibility, just as the ethic of responsibility has nothing to do with a lack of conviction. To act according to the ethic of responsibility means not only to deal with the choice of the means to achieve an objective, but also comprises the weighing up of respective goals and values against each other. One must not only consider the direct effects of an action, but one must also calculate the indirect effects, for instance on other goals and values. The person whose actions are motivated by the ethic of responsibility assumes responsibility for the intended and unintended consequences of their action. In contrast to the follower of the ethic of conviction, the follower of the ethic of responsibility does not believe that the negative consequences of his or her action can be off-loaded on to others.

In Politics as a vocation, Max Weber asks how far politicians and journalists are prepared to assume responsibility for the consequences of their actions. Politicians, according to the essence of Weber's analysis, behave according to the ethic of responsibility, and they act in a calculated and rational manner. Politicians assume responsibility for their actions and weigh up the aims, means and possible consequences. Journalists, on the other hand, behave in accordance with the ethic of conviction, in that they strive for truth and shun responsibility for the consequences of their action - although it remains generally unclear what "assuming responsibility" means.
The amount of activity motivated by the ethics of conviction or responsibility among German journalists was researched by Hans Mathias Kepplinger and Inge Vohl (1979). Television journalists were asked whether they were prepared to assume responsibility for their professional activities. A distinction was made between responsibility for the accuracy in reporting and responsibility for the consequences of reporting. With regard to responsibility for accuracy in reporting, more than 80% thought that a journalist should be made responsible, should his or her reporting prove afterwards to be false or untrue, owing to insufficient research. This readiness to assume responsibility increases according to the degree of professional experience. Regarding responsibility for the

consequences of reporting, a distinction was made between positive and negative consequences. More than 85% of the journalists questioned took the view that morally a journalist has rendered outstanding service if positive consequences result from his or her reporting. Conversely, however, only 25% of the journalists held the view that journalists were also morally responsible for the negative consequences of a report.

Following Weber’s tenets, one can argue that if only 25% of journalists are prepared to assume responsibility for the unintentional, negative consequences of journalistic activity, then journalists tend to act according to the ethics of conviction. On the other hand, though, journalists are prepared to assume responsibility for false reporting. According to this study, journalists act according to the ethics of conviction when it involves assuming responsibility for the unintended consequences of a report. Whoever takes responsibility for the accuracy of his or her report is in no way obliged to take responsibility for its unintended consequences. Kepplinger argues that because the absolute duty to tell the truth is characteristic of conduct which follows the ethic of conviction, he has discovered in journalists a behaviour oriented to the ethic of conviction.

In a second German study, Mühlberger (1979) carried out research on local journalists, whose most important task was to expose social conflicts and injustices and keep a check on those holding political power. Mühlberger checked whether criticism produced by journalists in the course of their work is motivated by the ethic of responsibility, or whether they are more likely to produce unconsidered criticism, even if the consequences cannot be seen clearly. So, by way of example, the journalists were asked whether they would report on a doctor's professional error if the doctor might have to stop practising as a result and if the doctor’s departure might mean a loss for the patients. To act according to the ethic of conviction would mean publishing without consideration for the doctor and the patients. To act according to the ethic of responsibility would mean sacrificing the report in consideration of the patients. Fifty-four percent of those asked chose to act according to the ethic of responsibility, 34% opted for the ethic of conviction. Fundamentally, though, actions following the ethic of responsibility and actions following the ethic of conviction are not mutually exclusive. To take further the example of the doctor: should the fictitious doctor be "caught out" by a second or third professional error, then the share of journalists whose behaviour is oriented around the ethic of conviction would surely increase. From case to case, there are obviously different boundaries, which shift between the ethic of responsibility and the ethic of conviction, or from which an orientation toward the ethic of responsibility or to that of conviction might lead to identical behaviour.

Mühlberger (1979) also researched behaviour with respect to information sources in a case study. The journalists were confronted with the problem that a good and important informant has come across a wrong decision, which would be of interest to the public. The following options were available as responses: publishing the wrong decision with no consideration for the parties involved, no matter what the consequences (ethic of conviction); the wrong decision is published in a toned down form, as gently as possible for the informant involved (ethic of responsibility). It was found that journalists who tend towards acting according to the ethic of responsibility with respect to the public would also sooner act according to the ethic of responsibility with respect to informants. Local journalists are therefore motivated, according to Mühlberger's interpretation, by the ethic of responsibility because they are confronted by the consequences of their actions directly and enduringly. Geographical and social proximity allows the local journalists, at least within certain limits, to calculate the consequences of their actions. Hence it is possible that the ethic of conviction is not an inevitable attitude of journalists, but a consequence of their specific professional situation. In other words, lack of information on the consequences of reporting is a big influence on behaviour. As soon as the journalists have this kind of information, they will be motivated by the ethic of responsibility. [ It could be objected in this context that Mühlberger has not quite succeeded in operationalising ethically responsible behaviour. If journalists did not go easy on informants, the sources would probably dry up. In other words, it is in the self-interest of the journalists to go easy on the informants.

In discussing the question of the ethics of responsibility and of conviction, one must distinguish between different journalistic roles, which make different demands on ethical orientation. Thus, from publishers, managing editors etc., who bear responsibility for the welfare of their media organisation, behaviour more motivated by the ethics of responsibility can be expected. The same goes, surely, for information gatherers who must maintain contact with the information sources. Orientation based on the ethics of conviction can be found more in journalists who have no commitment to colleagues and informants, or who, according to their professional self-image, see themselves as a kind of "fourth estate" or as an organ of control over the government.
In the context of the above, it should certainly not be forgotten that journalistic actions which in general cannot be categorised under the ethics of responsibility or of conviction are not uncommon. There is a kind of journalism which is foul and simply morally reprehensible. This includes false reporting, lies and war-mongering. In 1994, Rwanda's Radio Milles Collines actively stirred up the civil war and genocide by calling on the Hutu majority to rise up against the Tutsi minority. There are several examples of this kind of behaviour, which will not be listed here. Without any doubt, though, this kind of behaviour, undeserving of the name "journalism," brings journalists into disrepute, for their reputation is very often judged on the actions of the worst among them.

In my conviction responsible journalism presupposes that journalism assumes the characteristics of a profession. In other words, it should have expertise in the sense of a technical skill, and autonomy in the sense of self-regulation through a professional body. The question whether or not journalism has the characteristics of a profession is also at the heart of the discussion on ethics, for professions define themselves through self-regulation, as well as with regard to the norms which regulate professional life, and their interpretation in exceptional cases. Technical expertise (writing, editing, researching, dealing with technology, etc.) is quite uncontroversial here. On the other hand, there could be considerable difficulties in bringing about journalistic autonomy (that is, independence from state control), for politicians strive to control journalism to obtain favourable coverage of their activities. A further controversial point is whether the journalist should be a generalist or a specialist (e.g. science journalist, business journalist, etc.).This is still very close to the as yet unresolved argument as to whether or not one must be born a journalist (in other words, to possess certain character traits, such as the ability to endure clashes with politicians).
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Introduction:

Freedom of the press - where to draw the line?

Ethics (the term comes from the Greek word ethos: custom or practice) is that branch of philosophy whose purpose is to describe moral sentiment, as well as to establish norms for good and fair behaviour. In the context of journalism, this is a question about what is good and what is right journalistically. In the search for answers to these questions, my assumption is that democracy, though afflicted with many weaknesses, is nevertheless the best form of government. A functioning democracy is founded on a communications sector that functions adequately and allows informed public opinion to develop freely.

This is why, in a democracy, journalists have a special political purpose and responsibility. Democracy is, above all, a culture of dialogue, in which the opinions of dissenters are respected. For example, the highest German court (the constitutional court, the "Bundesverfassungsgericht") holds that freedom of the press and freedom of speech are the essential elements of a democratic state, because only the continuous struggle between opinions and constant intellectual debate will safeguard democracy. It is not surprising that coups d'état which crushed democratic societies prioritised destruction of free media. So do totalitarian regimes, often using extreme brutality, do their utmost to prevent press freedom emerging.

Freedom of speech and the media is an achievement of the European enlightenment, which must be fought for over and over again and always be defended. Every society has experienced that the powerful in politics and business don't want their affairs critically observed by the media and so find themselves under public scrutiny. Corruption and abuse of power happen everywhere, all the time, and fighting them is a task central to democratic journalism.

I am working on the assumption that in a complex, pluralist, modern society there can be no one absolutely correct ethic. A single journalistic ethic always valid everywhere in the world is currently just as unthinkable. In different countries, a variety of elements form the focus of the ethical debate. Currently in the US (1997), the debate is above all about violence and decency; in the UK it is about tabloid journalism (e.g. reporting on the royal family); in Israel the secrecy of military intelligence is under discussion; and in Germany the impact of the commercialisation of TV (scramble for ratings, superficialisation of programming, sensationalism) is at the forefront of the ethical debate.

You can keep adding to these lists ad infinitum. In the following pages, however, the assumption will be made that there is indeed a fundamental and generally acceptable basis for a journalistic ethic - namely human rights. The argument put at international level that human rights are a typical Western invention that may not count in other cultural contexts is in my view intentionally deceptive. In arguing like this, regimes that hold human rights in contempt want to distract attention from their own disgraceful acts in any way they can.

I am nevertheless aware that my position throughout could have an ethnocentric bias and it is possible that I am under the spell of a logic denounced strikingly by Nigeria's Chinweizu, in his poem "Coloniser's logic":
"The natives are unintelligent - We can't understand their language."
In order to avoid this kind of ethnocentric perspective, authors from different regions were asked to take a position on the journalistic ethic. There were then two possibilities:

1. No terms of reference would be given for the writing of the articles, and for the aspects of ethics being dealt with. The possible advantage would be that a wide variety of points of view would be brought together, albeit at the cost of comparability. The result would ideally be a multi-faceted mosaic of the international ethical debate.

2. Different important aspects of the international ethical debate would be predetermined by myself. And it would be asked that these be dealt with in ways relevant to the respective regions. The disadvantage here is that my view of things, with all its limitations, would be predetermined or forced on the other authors as a structure, so to speak. The advantage comes in enabling an.

international comparison of the ethical debate.


I decided on a compromise. In an introductory essay, I make the points I deem worth discussing. It was asked that these be considered in writing the articles. Thus, throughout, there was a predetermined content structure. At the same time, however, the authors were asked to lay special emphasis on the aspect of the ethical debate which, in their opinion, is either not valued highly enough, not even considered, or ignored as irrelevant. Thus, a situation where unreasonable weight is given to my understanding of journalism or my understanding of the international debate on journalistic ethics should have been avoided.

Incidentally, I am quite aware that my reference to the UN's Universal Declaration on Human Rights from 1948 is by no means unproblematic. After all, the Charter of the United Nations also contains the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. Moreover, many countries reject the position that human rights are universal. I would merely mention one case (of many), in the declaration adopted in Bangkok in 1993 where it was emphasised that human rights must be looked at in various historical, cultural and religious contexts. In interpreting human rights, special traditions and Asian values (Confucianism, Hinduism, Buddhism) must be taken into account. Instead of an individualistic Western understanding of human rights, collective values must become the point of reference, such as the right to a life without hunger, or the right to work. In other words, quite in keeping with the spirit of the 1986 declaration of the UN General Assembly, where a right to development was proclaimed, for states and people.

In this context it is important to refer to the fact that the United Nations stated the following in its "Declaration on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations": "...we reaffirm that democracy, development and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms...are interdependent and mutually reinforcing." This tenet is emphasised again in the same document: "While the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical, cultural and religious backgrounds must be borne in mind, it is the duty of all States, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms, the universal nature of which is beyond question. It is also important for all States to ensure the universality, objectivity and non-selectivity of the consideration of human rights issues." The provocative question is this: Can human rights (in the Western sense) only be achieved in countries that are already developed, and does this also mean that completely different journalistic ethics are the inevitable consequence of this? Moreover, the right to freedom of speech also comprises, in many Western countries, the rights to distribute pornography - an unacceptable interpretation of the concept of freedom of speech for many cultures or countries. The question is: where to draw the boundaries of freedom of speech? This book also tries to answer this question - at least this was the intention. How far this has been achieved is up to the reader to judge. I would like to make clear my normative position on the task of the journalist, with another poem by a Nigerian author, Naiwu Osahon, entitled "The Impotent Observer":

"Don't just sit there gaping at me like an impotent observer because life is a serious matter, suffering is real, and the man writhing in pain is not dancing for amusement."

In other words, I hold the view that a journalist must never be an "Impotent Observer". Journalists can be very "potent" and have proved this many times in the exposure of corruption or of human rights abuses among other things. The power of independent journalism manifests also in the case of the opposition movement in Myanmar, where Nobel Peace Prize laureate, Aung San Suu Kyi, would have been silenced long ago but for international press coverage.

For the assistance I have received in the composition of this introductory essay, in the development of the matrix of questions and in the preparation of the book, I thank, in alphabetical order, Dr. Dieter Bauer, Reinhard Keune and Gunther Lehrke of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation in Bonn.
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sadia shafiq kindly check my answer as well and suggest changes.

critically analyze the watchdog and lapdog role of public and private T.V. channels in pakistan??

Watchdog journalism

The term watchdog journalism is strongly related to the practice of investigative journalism. A watchdog is defined as "a person or group of persons that acts as a protector or guardian against inefficiency, illegal practices, etc." by the Collins English Dictionary. In news journalism, a watchdog journalist also fulfills this function of being a guardian. To perform in an investigative manner, the journalist is in the "role" of a watchdog. Watchdog journalism can be located in a variety of news media, such as radio, television, Internet, and print media where it may be seen as "a unique strength of newspapers".

LAPDOG JOURNALISM

The term lapdog is also used to describe a submissive person, such as a "yes" man, or an institution that can be very easily controlled

Functions of a media as watchdog

The role of a media as a watchdog can be that of a protector or guardian. To act as a guardian and is to supply the citizens with information they must have "to prevent the abuse of power",and to "warn citizens about those that are doing them harm". In order to conduct their role as a watchdog, journalists need to have a certain distance from the powers and challenge them, as opposed to "propagandist" journalists, who are loyal to the ruling powers and elites. Because of the power distance and its overseeing function, watchdog journalism often officiates as the fourth estate, or is used in the context of that term The array of topics for watchdog journalism is wide and includes "personal scandals, financial wrongdoing,political corruption, enrichment in public office, and other types of wrongdoing".In order to expose wrongdoings the watchdog aims at "finding hidden evidence".[15] The aforementioned aspects are necessary for the role of the watchdog journalist to help "maintain order" and "warn against disorder.

WATCHDOG ROLE of PRIVATE TV CHANNELS

The skilled and bold personality of anchor person raises people’s voice and clearly asks the real point of the crisis as in “live with talat” or “CAPITAL TALK”

They analyze government actions, either in favor or against the masses and develop the opinions of the experts.

Media is serving as true democratic notion of people’s participation. The general peoples’ criticism, analysis, and comments are added. which also act as a catharsis.

The ruling feel shame while speaking bluff in live shows before the millions of the citizens. As is usually observed in “awam kee adalat”

Media successfully informs the whole world against any injustice and shows world’criticism which compel the government to change its autocratic orders as in “news eye”

Role of PTV as a lapdog


Before the mushroom growth of private tv channels, there was only one tv channel, ptv. it was dominated by the government which always played manufactured news, record success in stock market,poor becoming millionaire through rozgar scheme, big power is extremely happy and corrupt politicians are being chased away.
Even today, in this age of information PTV officials try to keep the country’s people into darkness by presenting the one side of the picture or that news which are in favor of the US or against Taliban.
PTV authorities try to please their masters by giving the one-sided news, comments and analysis and even cannot tolerate the anti-US or pro-Taliban news and pictures. Specially,the PTV is State-controlled and people could not trust in its news and comments.

Ptv- a “watchdog”.

On the other hand, the government has lauded and paraised Ptv muoltitude times for playing an important role in “national integration” and “promoting liberal democratic image” of the country among the comity of nations.
Former Secretary Information and Broadcasting Mansoor Suhail on the 46th anniversary of Ptv stated that the PTV was promoting Pakistani culture all over the world. Presently over 60 private TV channels and 130 radio channels were operating in the country. Despite all this competition, the PTV was playing very important role, he added

Private Tv channels as a lapdog

Apart from PTV, some private tv channels have also adopted a similar pattern. According to International Herald Tribune:
“The media no longer dares to scrutinize judicial conduct for fear of “contempt” proceedings by a judiciary that has had the temerity to hold a hearing on whether parliament could amend the constitution. Journalists self-censor out of fear of military and intelligence agencies. But the media has remained free to propagate an Islamist, nationalist, and anti-Western line.”
While media has the responsibility to be a government watch dog, government is not the only social institution that must be checked. When President Zardari threatened to ban jokes against him, there was a media uproar. But when the judiciary threatens ‘contempt’ against those who question them, the media is silent. Is this not an equally or possibly even worse abuse of power?
When the Governor Punjab is assassinated by a man brainwashed by a jihadi mindset, the TV anchors do not condemn this act of violence. Rather, they ask the question, “Is he a hero?” This is not a new development, either. We saw the same self censorship when extremists burnt alive a group of Christians in Gojra. As it was written:
The media that has become the self proclaimed flag bearers of truth and honesty finds it very easy to attack politicians, abuse them and threaten them with a judicial or military coup. But it is scared when it has to talk about extremists and terrorists.

Conclusion:


It is the responsibility of the mass media to act as a “watchdog” and to keep the populace appraised of the recent events, policies and propaganda. Unfortuanately,while some tv channels have played a positive role inthis regard,there are certain others that have failed to come up to the expectations and remain a “lapdog”.

please everyone evaluate,analyze and give comments
I have read your answer of the given question . You have approached the question wrongly. For this , I have quoted question in red. You should attempt the question what you have in your mind instead of surfing . It will sharpen your skill to attempt unexpected question . Instead of commenting on your answer , I will like to explain the question . You may get the idea how much you are wrong in attempting it .


Quote:
critically analyze the watchdog and lapdog role of public and private T.V. channels in pakistan??
watch dog and lapdog vs public and private channel . Examiner has given his opinion already by defining public channels are responsible whereas private TV channels role is of lapdog.

Now you may draw comparison between the two captions : watchdog role of public tv channels VS lapdog role of private channel. Now give arguments or points which will reflect the statement .

Private channel is administered by single owner who dictates what to hide and show and highlight . Owner itself is dictated by corporates because channel is fed with their money .

Second , PTV has editorial policy at least whereas private channels refuted to formulate editorial policy and criticize PEMRA who induced them to do so .
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Originally Posted by comp Engr View Post
Introduction:

Freedom of the press - where to draw the line?

Ethics (the term comes from the Greek word ethos: custom or practice) is that branch of philosophy whose purpose is to describe moral sentiment, as well as to establish norms for good and fair behaviour. In the context of journalism, this is a question about what is good and what is right journalistically. In the search for answers to these questions, my assumption is that democracy, though afflicted with many weaknesses, is nevertheless the best form of government. A functioning democracy is founded on a communications sector that functions adequately and allows informed public opinion to develop freely.

This is why, in a democracy, journalists have a special political purpose and responsibility. Democracy is, above all, a culture of dialogue, in which the opinions of dissenters are respected. For example, the highest German court (the constitutional court, the "Bundesverfassungsgericht") holds that freedom of the press and freedom of speech are the essential elements of a democratic state, because only the continuous struggle between opinions and constant intellectual debate will safeguard democracy. It is not surprising that coups d'état which crushed democratic societies prioritised destruction of free media. So do totalitarian regimes, often using extreme brutality, do their utmost to prevent press freedom emerging.

Freedom of speech and the media is an achievement of the European enlightenment, which must be fought for over and over again and always be defended. Every society has experienced that the powerful in politics and business don't want their affairs critically observed by the media and so find themselves under public scrutiny. Corruption and abuse of power happen everywhere, all the time, and fighting them is a task central to democratic journalism.

I am working on the assumption that in a complex, pluralist, modern society there can be no one absolutely correct ethic. A single journalistic ethic always valid everywhere in the world is currently just as unthinkable. In different countries, a variety of elements form the focus of the ethical debate. Currently in the US (1997), the debate is above all about violence and decency; in the UK it is about tabloid journalism (e.g. reporting on the royal family); in Israel the secrecy of military intelligence is under discussion; and in Germany the impact of the commercialisation of TV (scramble for ratings, superficialisation of programming, sensationalism) is at the forefront of the ethical debate.

You can keep adding to these lists ad infinitum. In the following pages, however, the assumption will be made that there is indeed a fundamental and generally acceptable basis for a journalistic ethic - namely human rights. The argument put at international level that human rights are a typical Western invention that may not count in other cultural contexts is in my view intentionally deceptive. In arguing like this, regimes that hold human rights in contempt want to distract attention from their own disgraceful acts in any way they can.

I am nevertheless aware that my position throughout could have an ethnocentric bias and it is possible that I am under the spell of a logic denounced strikingly by Nigeria's Chinweizu, in his poem "Coloniser's logic":
"The natives are unintelligent - We can't understand their language."
In order to avoid this kind of ethnocentric perspective, authors from different regions were asked to take a position on the journalistic ethic. There were then two possibilities:

1. No terms of reference would be given for the writing of the articles, and for the aspects of ethics being dealt with. The possible advantage would be that a wide variety of points of view would be brought together, albeit at the cost of comparability. The result would ideally be a multi-faceted mosaic of the international ethical debate.

2. Different important aspects of the international ethical debate would be predetermined by myself. And it would be asked that these be dealt with in ways relevant to the respective regions. The disadvantage here is that my view of things, with all its limitations, would be predetermined or forced on the other authors as a structure, so to speak. The advantage comes in enabling an.

international comparison of the ethical debate.


I decided on a compromise. In an introductory essay, I make the points I deem worth discussing. It was asked that these be considered in writing the articles. Thus, throughout, there was a predetermined content structure. At the same time, however, the authors were asked to lay special emphasis on the aspect of the ethical debate which, in their opinion, is either not valued highly enough, not even considered, or ignored as irrelevant. Thus, a situation where unreasonable weight is given to my understanding of journalism or my understanding of the international debate on journalistic ethics should have been avoided.

Incidentally, I am quite aware that my reference to the UN's Universal Declaration on Human Rights from 1948 is by no means unproblematic. After all, the Charter of the United Nations also contains the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other states. Moreover, many countries reject the position that human rights are universal. I would merely mention one case (of many), in the declaration adopted in Bangkok in 1993 where it was emphasised that human rights must be looked at in various historical, cultural and religious contexts. In interpreting human rights, special traditions and Asian values (Confucianism, Hinduism, Buddhism) must be taken into account. Instead of an individualistic Western understanding of human rights, collective values must become the point of reference, such as the right to a life without hunger, or the right to work. In other words, quite in keeping with the spirit of the 1986 declaration of the UN General Assembly, where a right to development was proclaimed, for states and people.

In this context it is important to refer to the fact that the United Nations stated the following in its "Declaration on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations": "...we reaffirm that democracy, development and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms...are interdependent and mutually reinforcing." This tenet is emphasised again in the same document: "While the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical, cultural and religious backgrounds must be borne in mind, it is the duty of all States, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms, the universal nature of which is beyond question. It is also important for all States to ensure the universality, objectivity and non-selectivity of the consideration of human rights issues." The provocative question is this: Can human rights (in the Western sense) only be achieved in countries that are already developed, and does this also mean that completely different journalistic ethics are the inevitable consequence of this? Moreover, the right to freedom of speech also comprises, in many Western countries, the rights to distribute pornography - an unacceptable interpretation of the concept of freedom of speech for many cultures or countries. The question is: where to draw the boundaries of freedom of speech? This book also tries to answer this question - at least this was the intention. How far this has been achieved is up to the reader to judge. I would like to make clear my normative position on the task of the journalist, with another poem by a Nigerian author, Naiwu Osahon, entitled "The Impotent Observer":

"Don't just sit there gaping at me like an impotent observer because life is a serious matter, suffering is real, and the man writhing in pain is not dancing for amusement."

In other words, I hold the view that a journalist must never be an "Impotent Observer". Journalists can be very "potent" and have proved this many times in the exposure of corruption or of human rights abuses among other things. The power of independent journalism manifests also in the case of the opposition movement in Myanmar, where Nobel Peace Prize laureate, Aung San Suu Kyi, would have been silenced long ago but for international press coverage.

For the assistance I have received in the composition of this introductory essay, in the development of the matrix of questions and in the preparation of the book, I thank, in alphabetical order, Dr. Dieter Bauer, Reinhard Keune and Gunther Lehrke of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation in Bonn.
Brother ,actually what you are doing here ,is against the ethics of online journalism .

Copy Right and Plagiarism are some of the issues , as mentioned by Qurban Ali . So , you copy pasted pasted from this site : http://www.fes.de/fulltext/iez/00710a.htm

It is not allowed here . Regards .
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Brother ,actually what you are doing here ,is against the ethics of online journalism .

Copy Right and Plagiarism are some of the issues , as mentioned by Qurban Ali . So , you copy pasted pasted from this site : http://www.fes.de/fulltext/iez/00710a.htm

It is not allowed here . Regards .
Brother problem of ethics in online journalism is a topic to prepare also.We cant predict any question regarding CSS exam,CSS exam is not a prediction.Its not a matter of copy paste.I did it to help my aspirints.Because after reading this topic,I suggested it best and share with CSS aspirints.


Brother sometimes.Whenever we provide a link to other people for sharing information of any topic,they get sometimes error.So i did a best way to share all this information directly on board that could help css aspirints.
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Brother problem of ethics in online journalism is a topic to prepare also.We cant predict any question regarding CSS exam,CSS exam is not a prediction.Its not a matter of copy paste.I did it to help my aspirints.Because after reading this topic,I suggested it best and share with CSS aspirints.

Brother sometimes.Whenever we provide a link to other people for sharing information of any topic,they get sometimes error.So i did a best way to share all this information directly on board that could help css aspirints.
If you are copying material from other sites then share it with complete references. Other wise there is no need to share such type of notes. Everyone can easily search it on google.
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q discuss the importance of people's participation in the process of development and subsequent role of mass media CE-2012

mass media: diversified media technologies which are used to reach a large audience by mass communication.
development of mass media
.
The oldest mass medium is print media. Human history gives us a clue that posters, banners and pictures were first used to convey the messages.
• In the 10th century handmade press was first established. Book printing was started in 15th & 16th century in Europe.
• Mass Media at first faced a lot of restrictions because when mass media emerged at that time imperialism was in rule. The rulers were using Church in Europe as an authority over people to convey any message. Because Church was the only platform that was
influential and was in reach of people and government. So most of the times Church was considered the first platform of Mass Medium• The emergence of Print Media created doubts in the minds of the rulers and they took it as a threat against their rule. The rulers presumed that people would become aware of their rights and they will challenge the authority. So most of the rulers in Europe took it as a revolt and declared capital punishment for the persons involved in Mass Media. In 1663, the last capital punishment was given to a publisher because he published a book of an anonymous writer. This book contained the idea that rulers are accountable for their deeds and decisions to the masses and if any ruler does not feel himself accountable then masses have the right to overthrow his rule. This was the last capital punishment that was awarded in the history of England.
• Print media could not get its full growth till the 18th century as illiteracy was the major problem in all the societies and most of the newspapers were read by the elite class because state was not responsible for the education of the masses and elites had a privilege to get private education from the arranged tutors.

Elements of mass media

Books,

Newspapers:
World’s first news agency was formed around 1820s in New York City under the name of Association of Morning Newspapers. It was formed to gather upcoming reports from Europe. The first international news agencies formed in Europe were: Agence Havas of Paris (1835); the Reuter Telegram Company of London (1851), known simply as Reuters; and the Continental Telegraphen Compagnie of Berlin (1849), known as the Wolff Agency. They started their work as a financial data service to bankers and businessmen but then extended their service to world news. Reuters is also considered as the oldest news agency of the world. Initially news agencies used to send news through telegraphy services now it has been replaced by internet.

Magazines,: in 1731 in the title of “Gentleman’s Magazine” which was founded in London, however, magazine in its very early form was available to general public since 1646. In 1691 The Compleat Library appeared on the scene which is taken as the first magazine that broke away from book information .The first essay-type periodical was Tattler and the first magazine published from USA was Andrew Branford’s American Magazine.

Radio,
First World War, newspapers were a major medium of communication and information. After communist revolution in Russia, Russian Radio started using radio as a medium to propagate their communist ideology to other parts of the world. Radio being a medium of no physical boundary and wisely used as well, helped Russians in spreading their new ideology of communism to the rest of the world. As a result European and American leaders showed their anger towards newly formed communist government and protested against it internationally, taking its actions and broadcast as an effort to provoke their people to revolt against their governments. This is how the world realized the power of electronic media, which if used tactically, can cross any border to achieve its goals.
At that time in Europe some individuals were broadcasting different radio channels on their own.

Film,:
During the decade following the advent of projected motion pictures, films were shown as part of vaudeville or variety programs, at carnivals and fairgrounds, in lecture halls and churches, and gradually in spaces converted for the exclusive exhibition of movies. Most films ran no longer than 10 to 12 minutes, which reflected the amount of film that could be wound on a standard reel for projection (hence the term one-reelers).

Television,
Television is a common telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance.

Internet :it connects the computers present all over the world. internet is used to exchange news,data and information of all kind .it is decentralized in design.

.Role of mass media today
Surveillance of the environment. This is the collection and distribution of information within and outside a particular environment. The information flow is necessary for unity and coherence if we live in the society of collectivity;

2. Correlation of parts of the society. This includes the interpretation of the information, the prescription of conduct and, the comment on social value;

3. Transmission of social heritage. By communicating information through the mass media we are transmitting social and cultural values, which aim at sustaining the society;

4. Educating the masses. Education on the policies of governments and on the rights and responsibilities could be carried out through the mass media.

5. Entertainment function. The mass media also entertain the public by providing emotional relaxation, intrinsic and cultural enjoyment (i.e. provision of momentary escape from problems) and killing boredom; and

6. Mobilization function. This function of the mass media is very important to developing communities everywhere. It seeks to bring the people together and helps to advance national development.

conclusion

It could be seen from the foregoing functions that the mass media provide information and education, personal identity, entertainment and most importantly integration and social interaction by giving insight into the circumstances of others as well as by helping with the development of social empathy.
this is from various sites and virtual university notes.kindly sadia and others evaluate it and tell me how to improve it
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