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Old Saturday, September 21, 2013
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Post Let solve journalism past papers

Let learn and teach journalism.This thread is created to share journalism Knowledge.
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Post 2. Is communication a reciprocal process? Comment in detail.

CE-2013 - Q2. Is communication a reciprocal process? Comment in detail.

Communication

-Definition:
Communications is the exchange of ideas, knowledge, and information from one person to another. The word communication contains all procedures in which one mind can effect the another. This process not only contains the written and oral speeches but pictorial arts, facial expressions, gestures, postures and other behaviors which can effect the minds of human beings.

- Important Types of Communication:

1-Verbal communication
2-Non-verbal communication
3-inter-Personal communication
4-intra-personal communication
5-extra-personal communication
6- one way communication
7- two way communication

Nature of Communication:
Communication process can be one way process or the two way process.
In one way process of communication information can be transferred form one party to another . It does not contain the acknowledgement, feedback or response.

In two way communication process information are exchanged not only from sender to receiver but key information are exchanged from receiver to sender too in the form of acknowledgement, feedback and response.



Is communication is the reciprocal process?
reciprocal process :
yes communication is the reciprocal process . Reciprocal communication is the effective communication process. It is the two way process of communication in which both the parties sender and receiver exchange the key information to one another.
In reciprocal process of communication two or more people communicate in reciprocal way. It is in contrast to the way in which only one party is able to express itself such as T.V and Radio broadcast.
It is the great range of communication which allows verbal and non verbal communication.
Examples:

1-Face to face communication:
Best example of the reciprocal communication is the face to face communication. Face to face communication occurs when two are more people gather together within a space and talk to each others like delivering of lectures in schools, colleges, and universities etc is the reciprocal ,two way process of communication. Business meetings in which conversations are made for making business decisions, is the reciprocal process of communication. in our daily life we see the people who are engaged in day to day activities and communicate in reciprocal way.

2-Non-face to face communication:
on the telephone and cell phone two people talk to one and anther. similarly on internet online chat rooms people communicate .these all communication are the two and reciprocal process.
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  #3  
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Q 3. Describe in detail the educational and news functions of journalism? (2013)
OUTLINE:
definition
significance of journalism
functions of journalism
I)NEWS role
a) provides information
b) acts as watchdog
c) voice the voiceless
d) acts as a mediator between public and authorities
II) educational role
a) creates public awareness
b) mobilises opinion
c) interprets facts
conclusion

Quote:
Originally Posted by Qurban Ali Qureshi View Post
Let learn and teach journalism.This thread is created to share journalism Knowledge.
thanks a lot. atleast some one else too has shown interest in solving past papers.i am also trying to solve past papers of journalism.i will also upload outlines of other questions in coming days.inshaALLAH

Quote:
Originally Posted by qurban ali qureshi View Post
q2. Is communication a reciprocal process? Comment in detail.

communication

-definition:
communications is the exchange of ideas, knowledge, and information from one person to another. The word communication contains all procedures in which one mind can effect the another. This process not only contains the written and oral speeches but pictorial arts, facial expressions, gestures, postures and other behaviors which can effect the minds of human beings.

- important types of communication:

1-verbal communication
2-non-verbal communication
3-inter-personal communication
4-intra-personal communication
5-extra-personal communication
6- one way communication
7- two way communication

nature of communication:
communication process can be one way process or the two way process.
In one way process of communication information can be transferred form one party to another . It does not contain the acknowledgement, feedback or response.

in two way communication process information are exchanged not only from sender to receiver but key information are exchanged from receiver to sender too in the form of acknowledgement, feedback and response.



is communication is the reciprocal process?
Reciprocal process :
yes communication is the reciprocal process . Reciprocal communication is the effective communication process. It is the two way process of communication in which both the parties sender and receiver exchange the key information to one another.
in reciprocal process of communication two or more people communicate in reciprocal way. it is in contrast to the way in which only one party is able to express itself such as t.v and radio broadcast.
It is the great range of communication which allows verbal and non verbal communication.
examples:

1-face to face communication:
best example of the reciprocal communication is the face to face communication. Face to face communication occurs when two are more people gather together within a space and talk to each others like delivering of lectures in schools, colleges, and universities etc is the reciprocal ,two way process of communication. Business meetings in which conversations are made for making business decisions, is the reciprocal process of communication. In our daily life we see the people who are engaged in day to day activities and communicate in reciprocal way.

2-non-face to face communication:
on the telephone and cell phone two people talk to one and anther. Similarly on internet online chat rooms people communicate .these all communication are the two and reciprocal process.
what about intra personal communications-it is not between two people.it is the communication within oneself and reciever and sender are in the same person.
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Old Sunday, September 22, 2013
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sadafnoorelahi yes intra-personal communication is the communication of one by oneself.
intra-personal is not the reciprocal communication. Similarly mass communication may or may not be reciprocal communication.
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either communication is not reciprocal process

or
mass communication too is a reciprocal process
it has to be only one of the following.both can't go along
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Post Q3.Describe in detail the educational and news functions of journalism.

Describe in detail the educational and news functions of journalism. CE-2013
Journalism:
it is the profession of writing for newspapers and magazines and broadcasting of news through Mass Media.
it involves two steps:
1- collections of information
2- broadcasting and dissemination of information.
it is the mechanism of investigation,covering and reporting relevant issues, events and trends for the large audience of the broadcast ,print and online media like T.V ,radio and network; newspapers and magazines;and internet respectively.

Educational functions of journalism:
educational functions involves two types of the education.
1-Formal
2-Informal

1-Formal education
definition:

Formal education is the normal teachings and covering of syllabi in schools ,colleges,universities and other educational institutions Like Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, IT subjects etc.

Formal educational functions of journalism:

Formal education functions of journalism involves the teaching the audience through T.V channels Like the Virtual university ,which runs the T.V channels where students are being taught formal education. Similarly Some other T.V channels like Peace T.V contain the series of Speeches and Lectures by different Ulemah Specially Doctor Zakir Naik.

2-Informal Education:
Definition:
informal education is informing the large audience and creating awareness among them through mass media.

Informal Education functions of Journalism:
informal educations involves to create social, political and economical awareness among people through mass media.
Social awareness:
-Different Islamic T.V channels likes Q.T.V, Haq T.V, Madani T.V etc. are creating Islamic awareness among the people. They give the Islamic solutions of different social problems.They impart knowledge of Quran and Hadiths.
-Different T.V channels like national geographic channel are imparting the
knowledge of science, also new channels are informing us about the business, political and social problems.
- some Film and drama channels which highlight the daily life issues and their solutions like drama on terrorism in which molvies in madarsas wash out the minds of the their students and prepare them for suicides attacks on the people gathering places.
political awareness:
Different news channels that highlight the political problems. They negotiate and debate on political issues, government policies etc. The some shows on these channels in which political problems are discussed, their solutions are mentioned. incident of Skiander Hayyat in the Islamabad was clearly shown by these news channels and highlighted the weaknesses of the security policies of the current government. These channels highlighted the fake Degrees of MNA and MPA.

News Functions of the Journalism:
There are Three news functions of the Journalism.
1- To Inform
2- To Educate
3- To Entertain

1-To Inform:
To give the news of the social, political and economical issues, and whether conditions .Like giving the news of the murders, killings,suicides, attacks, injustices, floods, storms, currency rise and fall , stock exchange, political activities, government activities, whether conditions of different areas, brands, marketing, business etc.
For example . Nawaz Sharif became the prime minister of the Pakistan
target killer killed the five men in the Karachi. These news only contain the elements of information so these are the information for the audience.

2- To educate
News of discoveries, inventions, progress and advancement in the field of science and information Technology, educational advertisements etc fall in the category of the educational news.
for example. Admissions date for the Lahore university. Scholarship announced by the H.E.C, new discoveries in the human body, plants,Solar system and earth.

3-To Entertain.
These types of news contains the
1- Actors and actresses news
2-drama news
3- film news
like new film of shah Rukh khan will be released in end of this month ,in which he played the role of the 12 year child
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Old Sunday, September 22, 2013
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sadafnoorelahi what do you think about my approach of solving questions and materials?
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Qurban Ali Qureshi View Post
Describe in detail the educational and news functions of journalism.
Journalism:
it is the profession of writing for newspapers and magazines and broadcasting of news through Mass Media.
it involves two steps:
1- collections of information
2- broadcasting and dissemination of information.
it is the mechanism of investigation,covering and reporting relevant issues, events and trends for the large audience of the broadcast ,print and online media like T.V ,radio and network; newspapers and magazines;and internet respectively.

Educational functions of journalism:
educational functions involves two types of the education.
1-Formal
2-Informal

1-Formal education
definition:

Formal education is the normal teachings and covering of syllabi in schools ,colleges,universities and other educational institutions Like Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, IT subjects etc.

Formal educational functions of journalism:

Formal education functions of journalism involves the teaching the audience through T.V channels Like the Virtual university ,which runs the T.V channels where students are being taught formal education. Similarly Some other T.V channels like Peace T.V contain the series of Speeches and Lectures by different Ulemah Specially Doctor Zakir Naik.

2-Informal Education:
Definition:
informal education is informing the large audience and creating awareness among them through mass media.

Informal Education functions of Journalism:
informal educations involves to create social, political and economical awareness among people through mass media.
Social awareness:
-Different Islamic T.V channels likes Q.T.V, Haq T.V, Madani T.V etc. are creating Islamic awareness among the people. They give the Islamic solutions of different social problems.They impart knowledge of Quran and Hadiths.
-Different T.V channels like national geographic channel are imparting the
knowledge of science, also new channels are informing us about the business, political and social problems.
- some Film and drama channels which highlight the daily life issues and their solutions like drama on terrorism in which molvies in madarsas wash out the minds of the their students and prepare them for suicides attacks on the people gathering places.
political awareness:
Different news channels that highlight the political problems. They negotiate and debate on political issues, government policies etc. The some shows on these channels in which political problems are discussed, their solutions are mentioned. incident of Skiander Hayyat in the Islamabad was clearly shown by these news channels and highlighted the weaknesses of the security policies of the current government. These channels highlighted the fake Degrees of MNA and MPA.

News Functions of the Journalism:
There are Three news functions of the Journalism.
1- To Inform
2- To Educate
3- To Entertain

1-To Inform:
To give the news of the social, political and economical issues, and whether conditions .Like giving the news of the murders, killings,suicides, attacks, injustices, floods, storms, currency rise and fall , stock exchange, political activities, government activities, whether conditions of different areas, brands, marketing, business etc.
For example . Nawaz Sharif became the prime minister of the Pakistan
target killer killed the five men in the Karachi. These news only contain the elements of information so these are the information for the audience.

2- To educate
News of discoveries, inventions, progress and advancement in the field of science and information Technology, educational advertisements etc fall in the category of the educational news.
for example. Admissions date for the Lahore university. Scholarship announced by the H.E.C, new discoveries in the human body, plants,Solar system and earth.

3-To Entertain.
These types of news contains the
1- Actors and actresses news
2-drama news
3- film news
like new film of shah Rukh khan will be released in end of this month ,in which he played the role of the 12 year child
awesome.you have an impressive way of answering and i am bound to acknowledge it.
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q.4 Have newspapers lost their importance after the fast growth of cable television and social media in Pakistan? Comment. CE-2013
Newspaper readership in Pakistan
A private market research company, MEMRB, estimates that, in 2007, approximately 14.6 million Pakistanis read a newspaper at least once a week. The % indicates those from the estimated 14.6 million reading the newspaper at least once in the past month.press in Pakistan is dominated by jang news.the most popular English daily is dawn news, founded by quaid-e azam mohammad ali Jinnah himself.

year 1997 2005 2006
language
sindhi 44 80 35
punjabi 0 (increased to 18 by 1998) 5
balochi 2 8
pushto 20 34

popularity of newspaper in pakistan
According to the latest edition of the trivia book Top 10 of Everything 2011 by Russell Ash, Pakistan has the 10th highest newspaper circulation in the world!
We may not think of ourselves as newspaper reading people, but seems like newspapers do sell!
the general perception is that newspaper circulation has been pathetic in Pakistan but the numbers quoted in this book and taken from surveys of UNESCO put Pakistan at number 10 in the world in terms of the highest circulation of newspapers
The role of newspapers in a new media world
All Pakistan Newspapers Society (APNS) decided to hold the South Asia Media Summit (SAMS) to celebrate 60 years of existence
The role of social media as a news outlet populated by multiple citizen journalists combined with competition among TV news networks to break the latest story, means that newspapers are no longer a primary news source.Newspaper circulation appears to be declining as a result of increasing competition from TV, radio and news websites on the internet. Reliable circulation figures for newspapers in Pakistan are hard to come by.
statistics of F.B.S
According to the Federal Bureau of Statistics in Islamabad, the average daily sale for all Pakistani daily newspapers fell to 6.1 million in 2008, from a peak of 9.9 million in 2007.
In the context of TV, Hameed Haroon, CEO, the Dawn Media Group pointed out “many people feel that the electronic media’s presentation of news is more exciting so they don’t buy a newspaper,”
CONCLUSION:
ALTHOUGH THERE IS A DECLINE IN THE READERSHIP AND SALE OF NEWSPAPER TODAY,BUT STILL THERE IS SUFFICIENT APPETITE FOR NEWSPAPER IN PAKISTAN
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Post Q.7:Describe the socail and economic aspects of advertising

Q.7: Describe the social and economic aspects of advertising. CE-2013

Advertisement:
It is the non-verbal form of communication for marketing, used to persuade,encourage or manipulate the audience (readers, viewers, listeners),usually paid by sponsors to promote specific products, services or ideas through mass media.

Social and Economic aspects of Advertisement

Economic Aspects:

1- Effect on value of the products or services:
Why do some people usually prefer coca- cola over other cola? similarly why do people prefer iPod over some other brands? do they functionally better than that of other brands? no, not necessarily. Advertisement has given an added value to the products. Advertisement adds the values to the products and services by creating positive and good image in the minds of the consumers which helps in persuading and convincing the consumers to buy these product preferably .
Advertisement educates the consumers the uses of the products and services. It familiarizes the new features and traits of the product. For example the mobile phones were considered the necessity but advertisement highlighted the new trends and features of cell phones which in turn encouraged the consumers to by these phones .

2-Effect on prices
As advertisement adds the values to the products and services. It means it also adds the cost to the products and services,true? and if the expanses of the advertisement are stopped then cost will be lower,true? not necessarily. Advertised products may adds the cost to the products but vice-versa is also true. Advertisement encourages the competition in the marketing which result in lowering the prices. Due to advertisement mass productions occurs and mass product in turn make down the aggregate cost of the products.

3-Effect on consumer demands and choices:
Due to advertisement consumers prefer other products and services over the others. When consumers find new featured products then they use the products ,and other old products are demoted. It changes the trends of the market. For example if they were using the Nokia cell phone and they found new feature on other brands of another company then they use these new branded phones .

4-Effect on business cycle:
Due to advertisement sellers get the massive revenues from the products which in turn helps in employing large number of people. it increases the pay rolls system. sellers use these revenues in the betterment of the products and services.

Social aspects of the advertisement:

A-Negative social aspects:

1- Deception in advertisement:
Criticism occurs due to deception in the advertisement by the sellers.
Sellers should show the real and actual image of the products. if the sellers show the deceptive, false or exaggerated image of the products then healthy and pleasant relations can not be maintained between the sellers and the buyers . As buyers will not be satisfied with the products what they saw in the advertisement and what they got after buying them.
This problem can be overcome if sellers create clear and right image.

2- The subliminal advertising:
Ads used for advertisement capture and manipulate the consumers' minds in such a way that they even can not realize that their minds are washed and manipulated by the ads, and in turn they buy the products which they do not need. The advertisement agencies use tactics and procedures that persuade and control the mind of the consumers ,likes sexual messages. Consumers buy these products for greater status , social acceptance and sexual appeals.

3- Effect on over values system:
advertisement uses puffing tactics ,endorsement from celebrities which affects on their emotions. consumer get ready to buy these costly products
which they can not afford because these products are endorsed by their favorite actors and actresses. consumer picks the harmful habits like smoking and drinking which ultimately affect their moral values.

4- Offensiveness:
Advertisement may result into offensiveness because ads uses the sexual material like partially nude pictures which affect the children and other family members. consumer get offended due to these bad tactics used in advertisement and they habitat to buy these products. For Example ads of denin jeans in which a girl is wearing a short clothes and making sexual appeals.

B-Positive social aspects of the advertisement:
1- development of the society and growth of technologies.
2-emplyement
3-Gives choices to buy self interested products.
4-improve the standard of living.
5-Give information on social, economical and health issues.

Last edited by Arain007; Wednesday, September 25, 2013 at 07:48 AM. Reason: avoid use of red font
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