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Journalism & Mass Communication Notes and Topics on Journalism

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Old Sunday, March 22, 2015
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Dr Quratulain's Gohar(PAS) book on Journalism is indeed helpful ... She has published her notes I think...
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Old Monday, March 23, 2015
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Default Public relations



•Aspect of communications that involves promoting a desirable image for a person or group seeking public attention.

•Public relations (PR) is the art of managing communication between an organization and its key publics to build, manage and sustain a positive image.

•“It is a planned & sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization & its publics.

•According to two American PR professionals Scott M. Cutlips and Allen H. Center, "PR is a planned effort to influence opinion through good character and responsible performance based upon mutual satisfactory two-way communication".

Difference between PR and Advertisement

Although advertising is closely related to public relations—as it too is concerned with promoting and gaining public acceptance for the company's products—

the goal of advertising is generating sales,
while the goal of public relations is generating good will.

The effect of good public relations is to lessen the gap between how an organization sees itself and how others outside the organization perceive it.

Two way communication

Public relations involve two-way communication between an organization and its public.
It requires listening to the constituencies on which an organization depends as well as analyzing and understanding the attitudes and behaviors of those audiences. Only then can an organization undertake an effective public relations campaign.

Role of Public relations PR:

The main goal of a public relations department is to enhance a company’s reputation.

Staff that work in public relations, or as it is commonly known, PR, are skilled publicists.

They are able to present a company or individual to the world in the best light.

The role of a public relations department can be seen as a reputation protector.

Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the flow of information between an organization and its publics.

Public relations often referred to as PR gains an organization or individual exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment.

Common activities include speaking at conferences, winning industry awards, working with the press, and employee communication.

PR can be used to build rapport with employees, customers, investors, voters, or the general public.

Almost any organization that has a stake in how it is portrayed in the public arena employs some level of public relations.

A number of specialties exist within the field of public relations, such as Media Relations.

PR tools:

• Publicity events, pseudo-events, photo ops or publicity stunts

• The talk show circuit. A PR spokesperson (or his/her client) "does the circuit" by being interviewed on television and radio talk shows with audiences that the client wishes to reach.

• Books and other writings

• After a PR practitioner has been working in the field for a while, he or she accumulates a list of contacts in the media and elsewhere in the public affairs sphere. This "Rolodex" becomes a prized asset, and job announcements sometimes even ask for candidates with an existing Rolodex, especially those in the media relations area of PR.

• Direct communication (carrying messages directly to constituents, rather than through the mass media) with, e.g., newsletters – in print and e-letters.

• Collateral literature, traditionally in print and now predominantly as web sites.

• Speeches to constituent groups and professional organizations; receptions; seminars, and other events; personal appearances.

• Interactive PR incorporate all forms of communication

PR officer:

Public relation officer have professional use of several tools. Major roles are Officer Find or create favorable news about the company and its products or people. Sometime news stories occur naturally, and some times its products or peoples relation person can suggest events or activities that would create news.

Public Relations or (PR) Officers use all forms of media to promote, build and maintain an organization’s image and reputation. Reputation and image are based on what an organization does, what an organization says and what others say about it. PR aims to manage reputation in order to gain understanding and support, and to influence opinion and behavior.

PR officers can work for voluntary organizations, public bodies and businesses any organization that has a reputation to manage. PR officers can work in an organization’s in-house public relations department or in a consultancy where they serve a number of clients. Public relations overlaps with other fields including corporate communications, public affairs, investor relations, or media relations so PR officers may be known by various other job titles depending on the employer.

Nature of the work:

• Program planning:
Analyzing problems and opportunities; defining goals; recommending and planning activities and measuring results; liaising with management and clients throughout.

• Writing and editing:
since public relations often involves trying to reach large groups of people, the method most often used is the printed word. PR officers work on shareholder reports, annual reports, press releases, articles and features, speeches, booklets, newsletters.

• Media relations:
Developing and maintaining a good working contact with the media. This involves applying knowledge of how local and national papers, magazines, radio and television work as well as the special interests of journalists.

• Corporate identity:
developing and maintaining an organization’s identity via corporate advertising, presenting the company's name and reputation rather than its products.

• Speaking:
communicating effectively with individuals and groups at events ranging from small meetings to presentations, speeches, trade fairs, and other special events.

• Production:
brochures, reports, film and multi-media programs are important means of communication. PR officers also coordinate studio or location photography.

• Special events:
news conferences, exhibitions, facility celebrations, open days, competitions and award programs are all used to gain the attention of specific groups. PR officers are often called on to plan and execute large events for their companies or clients.

• Research and evaluation:
the first activity undertaken by a public relations practitioner is usually analysis and fact gathering. A PR programs should be evaluated as a continuing process and measurement is used to decide future strategy


An organization’s reputation, profitability, and even its continued existence can depend on the degree to which its targeted “publics” support its goals and policies.

Public relations specialists also referred to as communications specialists and media specialists, among other titles serve as advocates for businesses, nonprofit associations, universities, hospitals, and other organizations, and build and maintain positive relationships with the public.

As managers recognize the importance of good public relations to the success of their organizations, they increasingly rely on public relations specialists for advice on the strategy and policy of such programs.

Public relations specialists handle organizational functions such as media, community, consumer, industry, and governmental relations; political campaigns; interest-group representation; conflict mediation; and employee and investor relations. They do more than “tell the organization’s story.”

They must understand the attitudes and concerns of community, consumer, employee, and public interest groups and establish and maintain cooperative relationships with them and with representatives from print and broadcast journalism.

Public relations specialists draft press releases and contact people in the media who might print or broadcast their material.

Many radio or television special reports, newspaper stories, and magazine articles start at the desks of public relations specialists.

Sometimes the subject is an organization and its policies toward its employees or its role in the community. Often the subject is a public issue, such as health, energy, or the environment, and what an organization does to advance that issue.

Public relations specialists also arrange and conduct programs to keep up contact between organization representatives and the public. For example, they set up speaking engagements and often prepare speeches for company officials.

These media specialists represent employers at community projects; make film, slide, or other visual presentations at meetings and school assemblies; and plan conventions.

In addition, they are responsible for preparing annual reports and writing proposals for various projects.In government, public relations specialists who may be called press secretaries, information officers, public affairs specialists, or communication specialists keep the public informed about the activities of agencies and officials.

In large organizations, the key public relations executive, who often is a vice president, may develop overall plans and policies with other executives.

In addition, public relations departments employ public relations specialists to write, research, prepare materials, maintain contacts, and respond to inquiries.

People who handle publicity for an individual or who direct public relations for a small organization may deal with all aspects of the job.

They contact people, plan and research, and prepare materials for distribution.
They also may handle advertising or sales promotion work to support marketing efforts.
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Old Tuesday, March 24, 2015
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Freedom of Information Ordinance 2002

President Pervez Musharraf promulgated the Freedom of Information Ordinance 2002 in October 2002.

The law allows any citizen access to public records held by a public body of the federal government including ministries, departments, boards, councils, courts and tribunals.

It does not apply to government owned corporations or provincial governments.

The bodies must respond within 21 days.

Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (2002)

Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) was promoted by the government as an open media policy reform and was fortified with strong regulatory rights.

The PEMRA laws were utilized by the Musharraf regime in his attempts to tame the media.

Some stations were shut down and some were under se-vere harassments using these laws.

“Regulation of the TV and Radio should be through the participation and representation of the stake holders.

What must happen is the restructuring of the Board of PEMRA with independent eminent people.

The Code of Conduct made by PEMRA has been subjected to criticism by the industry players, and is now being reviewed by the government.

In today’s world scenario the role of media as a ‘gate-keeper’ has assumed great importance as nations around the world do willingly accept the theory of social responsibility of media.

Out of the four leading theories of press/media viz., authoritarian, libertarian, social responsibility, and Soviet media, most of the countries in the preceding as well as present century subscribe to the social responsibility theory.
‘Without the media realizing its first and last responsibility lies to the society, it defeats the purpose of its very creation.’ The irony is that few people in the business would care to ascertain as to ‘where does the buck stop?’
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Old Tuesday, September 05, 2017
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Good share. Helpful.
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Old Saturday, October 14, 2017
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