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Old Wednesday, November 09, 2011
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Unhappy learning

plz help me out ... i couldnt be able to find verbal, probability learning..

plz help
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Old Friday, November 11, 2011
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Originally Posted by eshal View Post
plz help me out ... i couldnt be able to find verbal, probability learning..
verbal learning is the one .based on verbal grounds and the vest example can be ,while delivering a learning process is going on thereby.
probability learning is learning in which the its not confirmed that either the process of learning is taking place successfully or not .there is a probability based learning,for example when a teacher is not sure whether his students have got the whole thing ,he wants them to or not yet?
telling you by the way ,you dont need these to cram two types of learning in detail,just having an idea will be sufficient.

Last edited by Silent.Volcano; Saturday, May 12, 2012 at 04:19 AM.
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Old Saturday, April 21, 2012
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Default Theories of Learning

Can anyone tell what are the theories of Learning?
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Old Monday, July 02, 2012
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here are some theories of learning.
1.Pavlov's theory of learning...(here you have to write all about the experiment done by pavlov ...done on a dog...result he formulated after the experiments and principles of classical learning too)
2.Skinner's theory of learning(in the same manner as described above,,write about the experiment done by skinner and principles of operant conditioning.
3.Thorndike's theory of must have read the experiment of thorndike and laws presented by him.
4.Kohler's theory of insight learning..experiment on chimpanzees, and so on.
5,Hull's systematic behavior theory of learning.
In short,if the question comes in exam :you are supposed to write all the types of learning you know along with the name of psychologist who gave the idea of and any laws ,principles and other relevant material .there a are other types of learning also must put them too i.e..observational learning learning by insight and etc.
write again if any more ambiguity arises.
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Old Wednesday, July 11, 2012
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Default Confused about Theories of learning,

The theories you mentioned are sub categories of:
1. Classical learning
2. Cognitive learning
This is all you can find in most books, but if you go for on-line resources you can find many other kind of theories on learning like

Educational Neuroscience
Preparing for all these in detail, need a lot of time, so my question is,
Is it necessary to go through all these other theories in detail or I can just skim through them, as the syllabus just say "Theories of learning"?

Looking forward to your rpl
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Old Wednesday, August 08, 2012
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Default Learning

Learning Theory

Learning theory may be described as a body of principles advocated by psychologists and educators to explain how people acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Various branches of learning theory are used in formal training programs to improve and accelerate the learning process. Key concepts such as desired learning outcomes, objectives of the training, and depth of training also apply.
Over the years, many theories have attempted to explain how people learn. Even though psychologists and educators are not in complete agreement, most do agree that learning may be explained by a combination of two basic approaches: behaviorism and the cognitive theories.

Definition of Learning

The ability to learn is one of the most outstanding human characteristics. Learning occurs continuously throughout a person's lifetime. To define learning, it is necessary to analyze what happens to the individual. For example, an individual's way of perceiving, thinking, feeling, and doing may change as a result of a learning experience. Thus, learning can be defined as a change in behavior as a result of experience. This can be physical and overt, or it may involve complex intellectual or attitudinal changes which affect behavior in more subtle ways. In spite of numerous theories and contrasting views,psychologists generally agree on many common characteristics of learning.

Characteristics of Learning

Learning is purposeful
Learning is a result of experience
Learning is multifaceted
Learning is an active process

Principles of Learning

Over the years, educational psychologists have identitied several principles which seem generally applicable to the learning process. They provide additional insight into what makes people learn most effectively.


Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn, and they do not learn well if they see no reason for learning. If students have a strong purpose, a clear objective, and a definite reason for learning something, they make more progress than if they lack motivation. Readiness implies a degree of single mindedness and eagerness. When students are ready to learn, they meet the instructor at least halfway, and this simplifies the instructor's job.


The principle of effect is based on the emotional reaction of the student. It states that learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling, and that learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling. Experiences that produce feelings of defeat, frustration, anger, confusion, or futility are unpleasant for the student.


Primacy, the state of being first, often creates a strong, almost unshakable, impression. For the instructor, this means that what is taught must be right the first time. For the student, it means that learning must be right. Unteaching is more difficult than teaching. If, for example, a maintenance student learns a faulty riveting technique, the instructor will have a difficult task correcting bad habits and reteaching correct ones. Every student should be started right. The first experience should be positive, functional, and lay the foundation for all that is to follow.


A vivid, dramatic, or exciting learning experience teaches more than a routine or boring experience. The principle of intensity implies that a student will learn more from the real thing than from a substitute.


The principle of recency states that things most recently learned are best remembered. Conversely, the further a student is removed time-wise from a new fact or understanding, the more difficult it is to remember.

Rhetorical Methodologies

We encode and decode messages everyday. As we take in messages, we use a number of criteria to evaluate them. We may ask, “Was the message good, bad, or both?” “Was it effective or ineffective?” “Did it achieve its intended outcome?” “How should I respond to the message?” Think about the last movie you watched. Did you have a conversation about the movie with others? Did that conversation include commentary on various parts of the film such as the set design, dialogue, plot, and character development? If so, you already have a taste of the variety of elements that go into rhetorical research. Simply stated, rhetorical methods of research are sophisticated and refined ways to evaluate messages. Foss (2004) explains that we use rhetorical approaches as a way “of systematically investigating and explaining symbolic acts and artifacts for the purpose of understanding rhetorical processes”
What do rhetorical methods actually look like? How are they done? While each rhetorical methodology acts as a unique lens for understanding messages, no one is more correct over another. Instead, each allows us a different way for understanding messages and their effects. Let’s examine a few of the more common rhetorical methodologies including, 1) Neo-Aristotelian, 2) Fantasy-Theme, 3) Narrative, 4) Pentadic, 5) Feminist, and 6) Ideological.


The neo-Aristotelian method uses Aristotle’s ideas to evaluate rhetorical acts. First, a researcher recreates the context for others by describing the historical period of the message being studied. Messages are typically speeches or other forms of oral rhetoric as this was the primary focus of rhetoric during the Classical Period. Second, the researcher evaluates the message using the canons of rhetoric. For example, the researcher may examine what types of logic are offered in a speech or how its delivery enhances or detracts from the ethos of the speaker. Finally, the researcher assesses the effectiveness of the message given its context and its use of the canons.

Fantasy Theme.

Fantasy Theme analysis is a more contemporary rhetorical method credited to Ernest G. Bormann (1972; 1985; 1990). The focus of this methodology is on groups rather than individuals, and is particularly well-suited for analyzing group messages that come from social movements, political campaigns, or organizational communication. Essentially, a fantasy is a playful way of interpreting an experience (Foss, 2004). Fantasy theme research looks for words or phrases that characterize the shared vision of a group in order to explain how the group characterizes or understands events around them. Fantasy theme analysis offers names and meaning to a group’s experience and presents outsiders with a frame for interpreting the group’s rhetorical response.


Much of what you learned as a child was probably conveyed to you through stories (bedtime stories, fables, and fairy tales) that taught you about gender roles, social roles, ethics, etc. For example, fairy tales teach us that women are valued for their youth and beauty and that men are valued when they are strong, handsome, smart, and riding a white horse! Other stories you remember may be more personal, as in the telling of your family’s immigration to the United States and the values learned from that experience. Whatever the case, narrative rhetorical research contends that people learn through the sharing of stories. A researcher using this method examines narratives and their component parts—the plot, characters, and settings—to better understand the people (culture, groups, etc.) telling these stories. This research approach also focuses on the effects of repeating narratives.


Kenneth Burke (1966; 1969; 1974) developed the idea of the pentad using the metaphor of drama. As in a dramatic play, the pentad contains five elements—the act, agent, agency, scene, and purpose. The act tells what happened, the agent is who performed the act, agency includes the tools/means the agent used to perform the act, the scene provides the context for the act, and the purpose explains why the act occurred. By using the elements of the pentad to answer questions of who, what, when, where, and why, a rhetorical researcher may uncover a communicator’s motives for her or his rhetorical actions.


Most feminist perspectives share the basic assumptions that women are routinely oppressed by patriarchy, women’s experiences are different then men’s, and women’s perspectives are not equally incorporated into our culture (Foss, 1996). We can use feminist rhetorical research to help us determine the degree to which women’s perspectives are both absent and/or discredited in rhetorical acts. Thus, feminist rhetorical research, “is the analysis of rhetoric to discover how the rhetorical construction of gender is used as a means for oppression and how that process can be challenged and resisted” (Foss, p. 168). Although many think of “women” in reference to feminism, it is important to note that many men consider themselves feminists and that feminism is concerned with oppression of all forms—race, class, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, and gender.
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