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  #11  
Old Friday, August 10, 2012
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sulfonamide View Post
@Zaheer Qadri

kindly send psy notes on my id too..

id is in my profile..

thanx
Bro see my profile & send me ur id .. later i wl email the notes..
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  #12  
Old Monday, August 27, 2012
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Please find here my email address:
********@gmail.com
Regards,

Last edited by Shooting Star; Monday, August 27, 2012 at 09:12 PM. Reason: share contact info through your profile only.
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Old Thursday, November 01, 2012
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@ zaheer qadri... plz bro also email me notes...my email id is..************@gmail.com
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Old Thursday, November 01, 2012
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@ zaheer qadri..
i need guideline and notes of psychology. can you please send it via e-mail on my id?
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Old Saturday, November 03, 2012
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@zaheer qadri...plz send me psychology notes..my id is in my profile..thanks
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Old Friday, November 23, 2012
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send me psychology notes at my id *******@gmail.com

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  #17  
Old Friday, November 23, 2012
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Abnormal Behavior

Deviation from statistical norms
The word abnormal means 'away from the norm'. Many population facts are measured such as height, weight and intelligence. Most of the people fall within the middle range of intelligence, but a few are abnormally stupid. But according to this definition, a person who is extremely intelligent would be classified as abnormal. Thus in defining abnormal behavior we must consider more.
Maladaptiveness of behavior This third criterion is how the behavior affects the well-being of the individual and/or social group. Examples are a man who attempts suicide, an alcoholic who drinks so heavily that he or she cannot keep a job or a paranoid individual who tries to assasinate national leaders.
Personal distress The fourth criterion considers abnormality in terms of the individual's subjective feelings, personal distress, rather than his behavior. Most people diagnosed as 'mentally ill' feel miserable, anxious, depressed and may suffer from insomnia.
In the type of abnormality called neurosis, personal distress may be the only symptom, because the individual's behavior seems normal.
None of these definitions provides a complete description of abnormal behavior. The legal definition of abnormality declares a person insane when he is not able to judge between right and wrong, but this criterion is not used by psychologists.
Abnormality is when the persons symptoms do not go along with the standard accepted social behaviour and expectations.
People identify, understand and explain abnormality according to their past experience, common information, cultural tradition, societal attitude, and/or professional knowledge. Definitions of Abnormal Behavior
1. Statistical definition
People deviating from the norm are considered “abnormal”. But what if majority of people indulge into erratic behavior?
2. Abnormality as deviation from “Ideal”
Abnormality, according to this definition, is not striving toward the ideal. For example a student who is a very good painter and does not want to pursue conventional education.
3. A Sense of Personal Discomfort Seen As Abnormality
A person is seen as abnormal if his thoughts and behavior are a source of discomfort for him.
Discomfort can be in the form of anxiety, distress, or guilt.
4. Inability to function effectively
People, who cannot function and perform as effectively as they ought to, are seen as abnormal.
This definition includes adjusting, and adapting to the social requirements.

The Legal Definition of Abnormality
Laws in different countries define abnormality according to their legal standards.
It is primarily needed for differentiating sanity from insanity.
Abnormality may be viewed as not being able to foresee and understand the consequences of the criminal act.

Perspectives on Abnormality
Approaches to studying, describing, understanding, explaining, and predicting abnormality.
These approaches affect the way a mental patient will be treated.
1. Medical Perspective
Psychological problems are caused by physiological factors.
These can be the biological processes and systems, genetic factors, the nervous system and the neurotransmitters, hormonal changes, or external variables affecting the biology of a person.
2. Psychodynamic Perspective Childhood experiences are the root cause of mental disorders. Unconscious determinants are significant.
3. Behavioral Perspective
Abnormal behavior is learned. Abnormality is a learned response. It results from our interaction with the external world.
4. Cognitive Perspective
The factors causing mental disorders are a person’s cognitions, thoughts, and beliefs.
5. Humanistic Perspective People’s need to self-actualize, and their responsibility for their own actions, play a central role in abnormality behavior.
6. Sociocultural Perspective
The social milieu in which one lives, the family and the people around, the society, and the culture at large are of primary importance in the onset, and later treatment, of mental illness

Several conventional criteria
One criterion for "abnormality" that may appear to apply in the case of abnormal behavior is statistical infrequency. This has an obvious flaw — the extremely intelligent, are just as abnormal as their opposites. Therefore, individual abnormal behaviors are considered to be statistically unusual as well as undesirable. The presence of some form of abnormal behavior is not unusual. About one quarter of people in the United States, for example, are believed to meet criteria for a mental disorder in any given year 1. Mental disorders, by definition, involve unusual or statistically abnormal behaviors.
A more discerning criterion is distress. A person who is displaying a great deal of depression, anxiety, unhappiness, etc. would be thought of as exhibiting abnormal behavior because their own behavior distresses them. Unfortunately, many people are not aware of their own mental state, and while they may benefit from help, they feel no compulsion to receive it.
Another criterion is morality. This presents many difficulties, because it would be impossible to agree on a single set of morals for the purposes of diagnosis.
One criterion commonly referenced is maladaptivity. If a person is behaving in ways counter-productive to their own well-being, it is considered maladaptive. Although more tenable than the above criteria, it does have some shortcomings. For example, moral behavior including dissent and abstinence may be considered maladaptive to some.
Another criterion that has been suggested is that abnormal behavior violates the standards of society. When people do not follow the conventional social and moral rules of their society, the behavior is considered abnormal. However, the magnitude of the violation and how commonly it is violated by others must be taken into consideration.
Another element of abnormality is that abnormal behavior will cause social discomfort to those who witness such behavior.
The standard criteria in psychology and psychiatry are that of mental illness or mental disorder. Determination of abnormality is based upon medical diagnosis. This is often criticized for removing control from the 'patient', and being easily manipulated by political or social goals.
Statistical Infrequency
In this definition of abnormality behaviors which are seen as statistically rare are said to be abnormal. For instance, one may say that an individual of above or below average IQ is abnormal. This definition, however, fails to recognize the desirability of the particular incidence. This definition also implies that the presence of abnormal behavior in people should be rare or statistically unusual, which is not the case. Instead, any specific abnormal behavior may be unusual, but it is not unusual for people to exhibit some form of prolonged abnormal behavior at some point in their lives.
Deviation from Social Norms:
It defines the departure or deviation of an individual, from society's unwritten rules (norms). For example if one was to witness a man jumping around, nude, on the streets, the man would be perceived as abnormal, as he has broken society's norms about wearing clothing, not to mention one's self dignity. There are also a number of criteria for one to examine before reaching a judgment as to whether someone has deviated from society's norms. The first of these criterion being culture; what may be seen as normal in one culture, may be seen as abnormal in another. The second criterion being the situation & context one is placed in; for example, going to the toilet is a normal human act, but going in the middle of a supermarket would be seen as highly abnormal, i.e., defecating or urinating in public is illegal as a misdemeanor act of indecent public conduct. The third criterion is age; a child at the age of three could get away with taking off its clothing in public, but not a man at the age of twenty. The fourth criterion is gender: a male responding with behavior normally reacted to as female, and vice versa, is retaliated against, not just corrected. The fifth criterion is historical context; standards of normal behavior change in some societies, sometimes very rapidly.

FF: The Failure to Function Adequately
The Definition of abnormality defines whether or not a behavior is abnormal if it is counter-productive to the individual. The main problem with this definition however is that psychologists cannot agree on the boundaries that define what is 'functioning' and what is 'adequately', as some behaviors that can cause 'failure to function' are not seen as bad i.e. firemen risking their lives to save people in a blazing fire.

DIM: Deviation from Ideal Mental health
It defines abnormality by determining if the behavior the individual is displaying is affecting their mental well-being. As with the Failure to Function definition, the boundaries that stipulate what 'ideal mental health' is are not properly defined, and the bigger problem with the definition is that all individuals will at some point in their life deviate from ideal mental health, but it does not mean they are abnormal; i.e., someone who has lost a relative will be distressed, but would not be defined as abnormal for showing that particular behaviour. On the contrary, there are some indications that some people require assistance to grieve properly

Multi-Criteria approach
A common approach to defining abnormality is a Multi-Criteria approach, where all definitions of abnormality are used to determine whether an individual’s behavior is abnormal. For example, if an individual is engaging in a particular behavior that is preventing them from ‘functioning’ breaks a social norm and is statistically infrequent, then psychologists would be prepared to define this individual's behavior as abnormal. A good example of an abnormal behavior assessed by a multi-criteria approach is depression: it is commonly seen as a deviation from ideal mental stability, it often stops the individual from 'functioning' a normal life, and, although it is a relatively common mental disorder, it is still statistically infrequent; most people will not experience significant major depressive disorder in their lifetime

NOTE: This Part is from special notes of css psychology
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  #18  
Old Thursday, December 06, 2012
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@zaheer qadri, please send me notes too, my ID is in my profile, thanks.
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  #19  
Old Tuesday, December 11, 2012
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Default psycho notes.

Can you also send my psychology notes at ********@hotmail.com

Last edited by Shooting Star; Thursday, December 13, 2012 at 05:48 PM. Reason: share contact info. through your profile only.
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  #20  
Old Wednesday, December 12, 2012
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can you pls mail the above mentioned notes to me as well.
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