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  #31  
Old Thursday, September 20, 2012
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Q:3-Write down the structure and function of CNS and PNS? (20 Marks)
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  #32  
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aoa,
thanks shakeel.As you mentioned that the question going to be attempted in this thread will be related to past papers.so i just want to give a suggestion that whatever question you people attempt,please mention past paper year as 2000,2002 for our convenience.
thanks
@ sara
waiting for your notes when will you send me?
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  #33  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by shakeel ghori View Post
Q:2-Discuess the scope of Psychology and comment on the recent trends in Psychology?


1--Introduction
Psychology is the study of behaviour and metal processes. If we delve into the actual meaning of word 'behaviour', we will be in position to understand the real importance of psychology. The word behaviour does not only encompass what we do or speak, but it is also connotes our thoughts, emotions, reasoning, knowledge, volition and so forth. It is this definition of the term 'behaviour' which gives broad scope to psychology. In its struggle to understand human behaviour, psychology has given birth to a number of approaches, each of which has only one objective: to explore the hidden elements of human behaviour, and to ascertain the ways to cope with various human problems stem from abnormal behaviour. Keeping this and many other purposes in view, psychology is a rapidly growing science which has broad scope and importance in human life. An attempt to outline the present-day scope of psychology as a science of behaviour has been made below:

2--Treatment of behavioural disorders
The primary concern of psychology is to deal with everyday life problems and to find out solutions of those problems. Every sub-field of psychology has a peculiar function in this regard. It is to say that each of them has a specific method to solve the problems of human life. For defining this, it is but imperative to name few of those problems which are caused by abnormal behaviour. depression, poor social adjustment, mental retardation, personality problems, drug addiction, self-destructive thoughts, self-defeating thoughts, phobia, schizophrenia and likewise are the psychological problems which have adverse effects on individual life. Similarly, problems such as lingering habits of criminality, ethnic prejudice, terrorist mindset, family bickering, are the cases of social problems. Irrespective of its category, each of the psychological disorder has its root cause. Psychologists strive to eradicate these causes. How a psychologist treats any of these problems depend largely upon the perspective which he adheres to. For example, the behavioural psychologist will view the abnormality as an outcome of environment factors, so he will be more interested in changing the environmental causes which subsequently can cure the disorder. On the other side, a psychologist who specializes in cognitive school of thought will consider abnormality as a consequence of bad thoughts. So, he would try to alter the thinking pattern of patients. Whatsoever the method one applies, the psychologists have only one aim in their minds that is to treat various psychological disorders. Psychology has been very effective in solving many of those human problems which have no physical or medical causes, and which were formerly felt to have no treatment. In view of this fact this field is gaining a lot of popularity across the world.

3--Deal with health related problems
Besides treating the psychological disorders, psychology has also been effective to cure those diseases which are casued by abnormal behaviour. The health psychologists treat various diseases which are the result of depression and other ill-behaviours. Moreover, recent discovery reveals that many diseases have no more causes than ill-thoughts. Such as the heart attack is a result of depression. Likewise, fear and other negative emotions cause many mental and physical problems. The psychology has helped a lot in treating such diseases by changing the pattern of thinking. A finding shows that those patients who are at their last stages of cancer have got more chances of prolong survival who get psychological treatment rather than medical. The reason behind this is that when they are urged to think positively, their internal immune system is stimulated which lets them to cope with their disease. In the same way their is a wide scope of psychology in treating various health problems by adopting different methods.

4--Educational and professional counselling
Now a days pschologists are very helpful in assessing the abilities of individuals. Every educational department has a counselling psychologist who helps student in their study-related problems. Furthermore, he assesses the aptitude of students and advises them to select the field which is most appropriate to them in view of their leanings. He also helps them to cope with stress and other problems which they face during their studies. Likewise, industries and other working premises have the counseling psychologists who assess that which individual is best for a particular job. Moreover, he helps the workers in their work-related problems. Similarly, every governmental department has a personality psychologists who assesses the personality of individuals to predict whether they are suitable for a particular job. This is one of the great importance of psychology.

5--Recent developments.
With the recent technological development, the pschologists are becoming more able to understand mind. The brain scanning enables them to undersand the physiological causes of various typical behaviours. They are making progress in developing more sophisticated methods thereby the control over and understanding of behaviour is becoming more easy. A research shows that the psychologists have started to find the ways by which the traumatic memories can be discarded. If they succeed, it will incredibly help those who undergo different catastrophe incidents, by removing the memories of their bitter past. But this all is just a beginning. A lot is still remaining to uncover the mysteries related to man's mind and behaviour. We are hoping that with the development of psychology much progress will come into effect for human prosperity.


All respected members especially sara, fassi, shahreena, saba, tobabar, and others are requested to evaluate my attempt..

Spot on, it is a nice attempt.

Suggestions

1-You missed a lot of things not only old psyho trends but also new trends which had to be sketched. I meant attempt your answer on the verge.

2-At your part you have done every thing you could. In Next answer you need to hit the nail on the head.

3-Your efforts are definitely remarkable. You are like an orator. I like your style. And your way of presentation is amazing! Keep it up and Good Luck for your next attempt.

You have attained 16/20


ALLAH BLESS YOU.


Quote:
Originally Posted by sabaparvezz View Post
Q:2-Discuess the scope of Psychology and comment on the recent trends in Psychology?

Scope of Psychology
Psychology is a subject which has a very vast scope in accordance with prevailing scenario. This subject gives information us about the human mind and its function. Some time a people get tense, some time people get hurt and some time become crazy and disorder. These are the conditions of people in different periods. Some of them are natural and some of them are heredity problems. Long before the advent of science Psychology was becoming an important education. But its name was not Psychology. It was called Philosophy. Aristotle, Plato and other eminent philosopherers were using their own tactics for treatment. During the time of Sparta in Greece Philosophers was having their own strategies of psycho therapy. Whenever a people got tired because of certain disease. Then the patient was considered to be an evil. According to them a person become in suffer that means his/her god/goddes is not happy with him/her. Soon later, after the 16th century Psychology got good scope. Now Psychology has many sub departments. All subjects have their own specialization. Such as Psychoanalysis, Social Psychology, Industrial Psychology and many others.

Psychology Resent Trends

Presently, Psychology has been updated with the advancement of science. Science has given many methods in different subjects. In Psychology, now people can be scanned, they can be analysis by modern tactics. Modern tactics and therapies elaborate the people about his/her disordering. For example some people become tense, dippers, dimotivate, discouraged, emotional, disorder. These problems take place because of human thinking over some prevailing problems. Psychiatrists treat people from their behavior and their attitude that why a people become disorder. These causes can be justified with the help of psychology. Currently psychology has been advanced. Chromosome can be justified by psychologists. Harmonies and other disease are the part of psychology. And they can be seen and examine with Psychology. Because Psychologists and Pychotrists are very cloers to each other. Their working is different but am is same. Because when a people come under an immense disease. Then he/she becomes dishurt and surrenders his life in front of death. In such conditions, Psychology plays a vigorous role. Psychotists encourage the immune people so that they can live further days of their life happily.

Psychology in Future
Psychology will be a great subject in future. It will get good importance. Because of the prevailing consigns of the globe. Most of the people are becoming psychological patient. In Pakistan there are lots of Psycho patience because of preventing condition. But unfortunate there are very little number of psychologists. It can be said that in the future Psychology will be a compulsory in the School as a subject. So that students can decide about their future. It is true that so many students can not get their right path.Recently Psychology has found many tree branches. Each branch has own study plan.


This is my first attempt. Members please check my attempt and give me marks. So that I can understand that how much I am able to deal a question. And Point out my errors as well. I am thankful to the @ssara, @shakeelgori, @shahreenaa who give me good support for attempting.

Thanks.
Well done job but dear you have missed a lot things. Read the answers of Shakeel and ssara. Then you will get to know. But overall to read your attempt I appreciate your great efforts.

You have attained 12/20

ALLAH BLESS YOU.


Quote:
Originally Posted by ssara View Post
Q:2-Discuess the scope of Psychology and comment on the recent trends in Psychology?

Introduction
Psychology has an outstanding significance because it touch the all perspective of the current world and elaborate that why people commit crime and why people become happy and unhappy. However, in the advancement of science and technology Psychology has astonished scope. The scope of Psychology is going to the remarkable apex. It touches almost all sphere of human life. Both normal and abnormal in all perspective. Exclusively, it elaborates the human soul and behavior. It would not be false to say that where there is human, there would certainly be Psychology. However, there are diverse areas of Psychology which are given bellow:-

Clinical Psychology
It is the study of diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. It has an outstanding importance. It works regarding the serious problems such as schizophrenia. Moreover, it works on the common problems such as anxieties associated with every day life activities. It is considered a broad discipline in the world. Moreover, it is also true that it works likewise psychiatrists.

Counseling Psychology
As a matter of fact, in our current days there is no system of consultation and assistance like the European countries. An instance can be taken from our current scenario. Whenever a student get passed his/her matriculation or intermediate. And then he/she begin to think and keep think that where to go, shall he go further with Arts or Engineering sides. Besides, Counseling Psychology deals with the higher education, vocational and social adjustment and their concerned problems. Furthermore, it also helps the prisoner who becomes release from jail. And this discipline teaches them that how to start a new life with a great hope and peace.

Psychometric Psychology
In our military and civil service commission some Psychologists are vacant. The work to understand the candidates and prevailing problems in the concerned departments. Moreover, they make strategies to device testes for the candidates in order to judge their abilities and their aptitude for hiring them in the concerned departments. For instance, after getting passed a civil service exam. Candidate has to take a psychological test and it is the test of his/her abilities for judging the concerned thinking and behavior.

Social Psychology
This discipline deals with the social activities. For instance in the prevailing scenario, we have a different culture, people speak different languages, their influence on society and society’s influence on them. And the result which come in to existence. And that result’s study is the study of social psychology.

Educational Psychology
As far as Educational Psychology is concerned, it is mainly concerned with the educational departments and their activities. For instance, It deals and tackles a lot of problems. Some times, some students are suppose to be analyzed in order to give them more time than other students. They work for improvement, teaching techniques, learning, motivation and so on. Therefore, this discipline has an astonishing importance in the educational institutions.

Industrial Psychology
It is mainly concerned with the organizations, limited companies and other business places. Moreover, it teaches the labor and officials that how to do potential activities. An instance can be taken, nearly in each factory, people get incentives owing to their potential jobs. Means effective job - effective results and undoubtedly effective salary and bonus.

However, Cross-Culture Psycholgy,Forensic Pscyology, Art Psychology and so on have astonishing importance. Moreover, with the advancement of science and technology. Psychology has been explored because it is based on theories and theories have been changing and upgrading by the different occasion with the help of research. Therefore, in the current scenario, Psychology’s trend has been changed and it is going on to the apex in order to make this world happier and prosper. Some of the contemporary trends of Psychology are given bellow:-

Contemporary Trends in Psychology

Psychology of Cyberspace
It is based on network. It is a modern technology which has enfluece the human being. These discipline deals with the cyber activities, such as cyber crimes. Moreover, it has given the strategies of a lot of solutions in order to make the human peaceful. Undoubtedly, Nuclear and other arms have been launched such as satellites which can be operated with the help of cyberspace. Furthermore, It is the elaboration of human beings in relation to control mechanism and their associated communication system, specifically those which involve feedback of a piece of information to the mechanism its activities. Moreover, it deals the study of Internet romance, identify management in cyberspace.

Electric Psychology
Comparatively, it is based on new approach. It is a new disciple of psychology in the contemporary world. It deals with the electric strategies. Simply, it can be said that it is the combination of diverse techniques such as cognitive, humanistic psyhchogoy, gestalt psychology etc. Although this is the new disciple, It is not considered as an effective so far. Its theories are still in process to the apex exclusively.

Energy Psychology
It is the exclusive disciple of psychology which deals with the study of the body of human. Such as it deals body’s energy system an its reaction with emotions, soul, behaviour and psychology health and so on. Moreover, it is beneficial for education, health and in business places for getting potential results.

Besides, there are some other major disciplines of psychology i.e. Scientology, Critical Psychology and Kinseiology. These are the disciplines which have got an astonishing significance in due course. To the conclude it can be said that Psychology has an outstanding importance and its scope is broader in the global village in the contemporary world. It deals and tackles each an every thing about the human behaviour. This is the major key of prosperity in this global village.

All members and other seniors are highly requested to point out my mistakes.

Thanks.....

Regards.....

Amazing! Sara, today you have made me very happy.

Keep it up, you are going well. Day by Day your expressions are going impressive.

You have attained 18/20

ALLAH BLESS YOU.
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  #34  
Old Thursday, September 20, 2012
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After reading your attempts. Even My concepts have been cleared.

Keep doing this practice. You people are going outstandingly.

Here we go for marking:

shakeel gori 17/20

ssara 19/20

sabaparvezz 10/20


Best of luck for your coming attempt.
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  #35  
Old Thursday, September 20, 2012
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Quote:
Originally Posted by shakeel ghori View Post
Q:2-Discuess the scope of Psychology and comment on the recent trends in Psychology?


1--Introduction
Psychology is the study of behaviour and metal processes. If we delve into the actual meaning of word 'behaviour', we will be in position to understand the real importance of psychology. The word behaviour does not only encompass what we do or speak, but it is also connotes our thoughts, emotions, reasoning, knowledge, volition and so forth. It is this definition of the term 'behaviour' which gives broad scope to psychology. In its struggle to understand human behaviour, psychology has given birth to a number of approaches, each of which has only one objective: to explore the hidden elements of human behaviour, and to ascertain the ways to cope with various human problems stem from abnormal behaviour. Keeping this and many other purposes in view, psychology is a rapidly growing science which has broad scope and importance in human life. An attempt to outline the present-day scope of psychology as a science of behaviour has been made below:

2--Treatment of behavioural disorders
The primary concern of psychology is to deal with everyday life problems and to find out solutions of those problems. Every sub-field of psychology has a peculiar function in this regard. It is to say that each of them has a specific method to solve the problems of human life. For defining this, it is but imperative to name few of those problems which are caused by abnormal behaviour. depression, poor social adjustment, mental retardation, personality problems, drug addiction, self-destructive thoughts, self-defeating thoughts, phobia, schizophrenia and likewise are the psychological problems which have adverse effects on individual life. Similarly, problems such as lingering habits of criminality, ethnic prejudice, terrorist mindset, family bickering, are the cases of social problems. Irrespective of its category, each of the psychological disorder has its root cause. Psychologists strive to eradicate these causes. How a psychologist treats any of these problems depend largely upon the perspective which he adheres to. For example, the behavioural psychologist will view the abnormality as an outcome of environment factors, so he will be more interested in changing the environmental causes which subsequently can cure the disorder. On the other side, a psychologist who specializes in cognitive school of thought will consider abnormality as a consequence of bad thoughts. So, he would try to alter the thinking pattern of patients. Whatsoever the method one applies, the psychologists have only one aim in their minds that is to treat various psychological disorders. Psychology has been very effective in solving many of those human problems which have no physical or medical causes, and which were formerly felt to have no treatment. In view of this fact this field is gaining a lot of popularity across the world.

3--Deal with health related problems
Besides treating the psychological disorders, psychology has also been effective to cure those diseases which are casued by abnormal behaviour. The health psychologists treat various diseases which are the result of depression and other ill-behaviours. Moreover, recent discovery reveals that many diseases have no more causes than ill-thoughts. Such as the heart attack is a result of depression. Likewise, fear and other negative emotions cause many mental and physical problems. The psychology has helped a lot in treating such diseases by changing the pattern of thinking. A finding shows that those patients who are at their last stages of cancer have got more chances of prolong survival who get psychological treatment rather than medical. The reason behind this is that when they are urged to think positively, their internal immune system is stimulated which lets them to cope with their disease. In the same way their is a wide scope of psychology in treating various health problems by adopting different methods.

4--Educational and professional counselling
Now a days pschologists are very helpful in assessing the abilities of individuals. Every educational department has a counselling psychologist who helps student in their study-related problems. Furthermore, he assesses the aptitude of students and advises them to select the field which is most appropriate to them in view of their leanings. He also helps them to cope with stress and other problems which they face during their studies. Likewise, industries and other working premises have the counseling psychologists who assess that which individual is best for a particular job. Moreover, he helps the workers in their work-related problems. Similarly, every governmental department has a personality psychologists who assesses the personality of individuals to predict whether they are suitable for a particular job. This is one of the great importance of psychology.

5--Recent developments.
With the recent technological development, the pschologists are becoming more able to understand mind. The brain scanning enables them to undersand the physiological causes of various typical behaviours. They are making progress in developing more sophisticated methods thereby the control over and understanding of behaviour is becoming more easy. A research shows that the psychologists have started to find the ways by which the traumatic memories can be discarded. If they succeed, it will incredibly help those who undergo different catastrophe incidents, by removing the memories of their bitter past. But this all is just a beginning. A lot is still remaining to uncover the mysteries related to man's mind and behaviour. We are hoping that with the development of psychology much progress will come into effect for human prosperity.


All respected members especially sara, fassi, shahreena, saba, tobabar, and others are requested to evaluate my attempt..

Shakeel this is an astonishing attempt. There are some things like current trends and some old trends which you have not mentioned. I have attempted the question please look at that and compare it with your answer. Moreover, your this attempt is very good. And one thing more that is, try to make your own examples regarding the topics. So that examiner can understand clearly. I wish you best of luck for your upcoming attempt.

I give you 16/20

Thanks.....

Regards.....
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  #36  
Old Thursday, September 20, 2012
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sabaparvezz View Post
Q:2-Discuess the scope of Psychology and comment on the recent trends in Psychology?

Scope of Psychology
Psychology is a subject which has a very vast scope in accordance with prevailing scenario. This subject gives information us about the human mind and its function. Some time a people get tense, some time people get hurt and some time become crazy and disorder. These are the conditions of people in different periods. Some of them are natural and some of them are heredity problems. Long before the advent of science Psychology was becoming an important education. But its name was not Psychology. It was called Philosophy. Aristotle, Plato and other eminent philosopherers were using their own tactics for treatment. During the time of Sparta in Greece Philosophers was having their own strategies of psycho therapy. Whenever a people got tired because of certain disease. Then the patient was considered to be an evil. According to them a person become in suffer that means his/her god/goddes is not happy with him/her. Soon later, after the 16th century Psychology got good scope. Now Psychology has many sub departments. All subjects have their own specialization. Such as Psychoanalysis, Social Psychology, Industrial Psychology and many others.

Psychology Resent Trends

Presently, Psychology has been updated with the advancement of science. Science has given many methods in different subjects. In Psychology, now people can be scanned, they can be analysis by modern tactics. Modern tactics and therapies elaborate the people about his/her disordering. For example some people become tense, dippers, dimotivate, discouraged, emotional, disorder. These problems take place because of human thinking over some prevailing problems. Psychiatrists treat people from their behavior and their attitude that why a people become disorder. These causes can be justified with the help of psychology. Currently psychology has been advanced. Chromosome can be justified by psychologists. Harmonies and other disease are the part of psychology. And they can be seen and examine with Psychology. Because Psychologists and Pychotrists are very cloers to each other. Their working is different but am is same. Because when a people come under an immense disease. Then he/she becomes dishurt and surrenders his life in front of death. In such conditions, Psychology plays a vigorous role. Psychotists encourage the immune people so that they can live further days of their life happily.

Psychology in Future
Psychology will be a great subject in future. It will get good importance. Because of the prevailing consigns of the globe. Most of the people are becoming psychological patient. In Pakistan there are lots of Psycho patience because of preventing condition. But unfortunate there are very little number of psychologists. It can be said that in the future Psychology will be a compulsory in the School as a subject. So that students can decide about their future. It is true that so many students can not get their right path.Recently Psychology has found many tree branches. Each branch has own study plan.


This is my first attempt. Members please check my attempt and give me marks. So that I can understand that how much I am able to deal a question. And Point out my errors as well. I am thankful to the @ssara, @shakeelgori, @shahreenaa who give me good support for attempting.

Thanks.

Dear sabaparvezz first of all you are welcomed here for discussing and attempting the answers. your this answer is not bad. Dear first study your topic and then attempt it. Moreover, your effort is good.

I give you 10/20 Marks.

Regards......
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  #37  
Old Thursday, September 20, 2012
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@dear sara and Shahreena..
Thanx for evaluating my attempt. I will try my best to utilize those suggestions in my next attempt which you people have given me. I acknowledge that my this attempt was missing many essential points. Actually, I had a lot of other work to do which made me less apt to pay focus on preparing that topic. Besides, due to lack of time, I wrote the whole topic very quickly which consequently made me unable to write as effectively as I should have. I am thankful to you people for pointing out my mistakes and making me realize about what was lacking in my attempt..

@dear tobabar
Thanx for checking our attempts and giving us marks. We shall be happy if your also send your attempt.

@Saba..
Your attempt is good. It is your first attempt therefore, the mistakes you did make a little difference. What you really need is to keep up sending your attempts with same enthusiasm. We shall try our best to co-operate with you. sara and shareena have given you worthy suggestions. Moreover, I am also going to recommend you few things: be clear in your approach, read as much as you can from different sources before attempting the topic, be careful about your grammar, and make outline of the topic before attempting it so that you can easily write down all essential points. I am giving you 11/20..
Notwithstanding the mistakes you did, it is highly commedable that you have done hardwork to attempt this topic. I assure you that if you remain in touch with us and constantly send your attempts, you will astonishingly improve your skills. DO NEVER FEEL ANY HESITATION IN DISPATCHING YOUR WRITTEN WORK HERE. Keep it in mind that we all are learners. I and other members have learnt many things from you. So, we shall surely be happy in helping you to our utmost.

@Sara
You are doing as usual: outstanding. Your topic made me to realize many shortcomings in mine. There was an organisation in you effort. Almost every thought was clear and understandable. You are imporving yourself rapidly. I hope that if you keep up edeavouring in the same way, you will be able to achieve you target. I will just urge you to never abandon your work. Your efforts are the source of encouragement for others. However, I would just tell you that somewhere in your writing I found some grammar mistakes. It can be presumed that these might be due to typing. Whatsoever, your expressions are gradually becoming eloquent with every new attempt. Just keep it up. I am giving you 18/20..
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The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to shakeel ghori For This Useful Post:
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  #38  
Old Friday, September 21, 2012
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Q:3-Write down the structure and function of CNS and PNS? (20 Marks)


1--Introduction..
Nervous system is consist of interconnected organ system that co-ordinates actions. It is responsible for controlling behaviour and adjusting organisms with their respective environments. Since humans at their most basic level are biological beings, many psychologists believe that the true knowledge of human behaviour cannot be had without having full understanding of nervous system. In view of this fact, the primary concern of almost every psychologist is same: to study the basis of brain and other parts of nervous system.

2--Structure and function of nervous system..

For the sake of better understanding the whole nervous system has been divided into three parts: neurons, central nervous system, and the peripheral nervous system. Although they are interconnected with each other--and perhaps different names of the same system-- for exclusively elaborating their functions and structure they are separately mentioned:

@Neurons.
Neurons are the fundamental elements of nervous system. They are the communicator of different messages in body. Basically, they are cells but the function which they play is essentially different from other cells. They have an ability of communicating with each other. As mentioned, they carry electrochemical messages within body; so in simple, we can say that they connect the all organs of body with brain. Each neuron is made up of axon, dendrite and cell body. The axon is a rod like structure through which electrical messages pass. The dendrites are the first site of receiving message from the neighbouring neuron which conveys it to the axon. the cell body is the part which plays essential role in keeping neurons alive: metabolism, protection from pathogenic invasion and so forth.
As soon as any change occurs in any part of the body, neurons carry signals to the brain which subsequently sends messages for appropriate response. However, one thing should be noted that they alone are not responsible for communication within body. Endocrine system which releases harmones has also the same function of carrying messages from body to brain and vice versa..

Nervous system has been divided into two parts: central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.

@Central nervous system.
Central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord. We shall disucss them separately.

Brain.
Brain is the command centre of entire body. As far as its basic structure and functions are concerned, it would not be wrong to say that nothing may be more miraculous in this world than brain. It consists of billions of neurons. Although, it has happened very recently that the scientists are able to understand the basic structure and chemistry of brain through modern equipments, the functions brain plays in our life are in our knowledge for a long time. It helps the body to respond to the information it receives from senses and other parts of body. On the basis of its functions brain is divided into several parts each of which plays a specific role. For example, hypothalamus regulates hunger and thirst. At the same time, it also helps body to maintain its temperature within suitable limits. Limbic system, another part of brain, is responsible for various emotional responses and consolidation of memory. In short, every specific area of brain has a particular function in regulating our behaviour. For elaborating more the role of brain in our life we can take an example. When a light of specific colour strikes with our eye, we cannot see it. Thereafter it reaches to our retina, we still cannot see it. Light passes through nerve cells, and even at that stage we don't see the light. It is only when it reaches to the brain which interprets it and gives us concious signal, that we are able to see it. Our every move, action, emotion, thought, sensation, perception depends on the co-ordination of brain.

Spinal cord.
Second part of central nervous system is spinal cord. It is a bundle of neurons that stems (leaves) from brain and runs down the length of the back. The primary function of spinal cord is that it serves as a channel between brain and the rest of the body. It connects all the body parts with brain except the parts above the neck. Messages from various organs first reach to the spinal cord which then transport those messages to the brain. The brain decides a particular response and then sends that signal to the concerned part of the body through spinal cord. The proof of this fact can be ascertained when in certain accidents spinal cord gets injured which results in the inactivity of lower part of the body to function (to move). It happens simply because owing to injury spinal cord becomes unable to serve as a connector between brain and specific body part.
However, the spinal cord is not just a communication channel. It also controls some simple behaviours on its own, without any help from the brain. In such cases, an immediate response is required so it does act on its own without taking any help from brain. For example, when we unintentionally touch a hot object, the sudden act of pulling back the hand is govern by spinal cord. Such responses are known reflex actions. While concluding the discussion about spinal cord, it is appropriate to keep in mind that after brain it is most important part of nervous system.

@Peripheral nervous system.
The peripheral nervous system consists of all the parts of nervous system other than brain and spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system connects the sense organs, muscles, glands and other organs with central nervous system (i.e with brain and spinal cord). The major role in peripheral system is of neurons which communicates signals to the spinal cord, or in few instances directly to the brain. These neurons are of two kinds. Those which sends messages from body to brain are sensory neurons(also called afferent). Those neurons which carry commands of brain to specific body parts are motor neurons (efferent). The peripheral nervous system is divided into somatic and autonomic divisions. somatic division involves in the control of voluntary movements such as muscle contraction, eye movements, and so forth. The autonomic division controls the organs which function involuntary without our awareness and are responsible to keep us alive such as heart, lungs, kidneys, blood vessels, glands and other likewise organs. The autonmic system is furthr divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic.
For making a distinguish between the two, it is adequate if we see that how the autonomic division of peripheral nervous system works in emergencies. When we encounter any threat or emergency situation, the very first response is of sympthetic division of autonomic nervous system. Its activation increases the heart beat, expands vessels, accelerates blood flow, enlarges the size of pupil (thus makes us more watchful) etc. These are the changes whcih are brought about by the activation of sympathetic division. These changes help us a lot to deal with emergency situations. When the negative situation passes away, the parasympthetic division starts its function. It sends signals to the excited body organs to come into their original state. From the last statement we can conclude that the parasympathetic division of autonomic division remains in play when the situations are ordinary. It overseas the various body fucntions which comes under its purview. Only in the emergencies the sympathetic division comes into play to enable us to deal with the emergency situation.

3--Conclusion.
From the above discussion, the role of nervous system in regulating our various body functions is almost clear. It does not only control those body functions which keep us alive, but also responsible for our emotions, thoughts, actions, hopes and aspirations. The branch of science which studies the basic elements of nervous system and their connection with human behaviour is known as neuroscience. With the help of modern equipment, the psychologist are now more able to understand the basic structure of nervous system and thus have produced many drugs to cure various psychological disorders having biological causes. The neuroscientists are making rapid progress in understandig human brain. But we know that much is still remaining to uncover, for the human brain is most complex and astonishing object of the world.

All respected members are requested to assess my attempt.
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i have appeared for css 2012 and had opted psychology as my optional. My psychology papers went well. Just a friendly advise to people who are active on this thread. In paper you would be pressed for time as 35 min per question is not a lot of time. Therefore, try to curtail the length of your answer. Your attempt is good but you will not be able to write all that detail in 35 mins.

Regards,
Aamir
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@Dear amir
Thanx for your kind suggestion. We too know that, within that span of time which will be available during solving paper, one will not be able to write the whole of his ideas. But here we are just trying to improve our concepts and written skills. So, considering time is unimportant for us. We just try to define what ever we can. The length of our topic certainly will not be so, in examination. In exams one needs to be specific and straightforward. What is to write and what not is the matter of one's justification; and of wisdom of course.
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