Friday, October 22, 2021
01:17 PM (GMT +5)

Go Back   CSS Forums > CSS Optional subjects > Group VII > Psychology

Reply Share Thread: Submit Thread to Facebook Facebook     Submit Thread to Twitter Twitter     Submit Thread to Google+ Google+    
 
LinkBack Thread Tools Search this Thread
  #41  
Old Friday, September 21, 2012
alihashmatkhoso's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: May 2012
Location: Karachi, now Lahore .
Posts: 773
Thanks: 431
Thanked 854 Times in 468 Posts
alihashmatkhoso has a spectacular aura aboutalihashmatkhoso has a spectacular aura aboutalihashmatkhoso has a spectacular aura about
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by shakeel ghori View Post
@Dear amir
Thanx for your kind suggestion. We too know that, within that span of time which will be available during solving paper, one will not be able to write the whole of his ideas. But here we are just trying to improve our concepts and written skills. So, considering time is unimportant for us. We just try to define what ever we can. The length of our topic certainly will not be so, in examination. In exams one needs to be specific and straightforward. What is to write and what not is the matter of one's justification; and of wisdom of course.
dear you right try to develop your ideas and evaluate topic with all possible aspects that is help you a lot in your attempt, don't go with only answer of the particular topic try to understand it.
dear i have read your posts, you are doing well and your ideas and presentation is mind blowing
really i am very happy to see this you and Saraa improved beyond my expectations. best of luck dear...
__________________
LOVE all, TRUST a few, do WRONG to none......
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to alihashmatkhoso For This Useful Post:
shakeel ghori (Saturday, September 22, 2012)
  #42  
Old Saturday, September 22, 2012
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Apr 2011
Location: Lahore,Islamabad
Posts: 341
Thanks: 19
Thanked 92 Times in 77 Posts
ravian786 will become famous soon enoughravian786 will become famous soon enough
Default

well I am quite satisfied about my preparation.But diagrammes are giving tough time...Is this very inportant to draw diagrammes.I can,t handle brain,ear and eye drawing
__________________
Fabi Aye Ala e Rabi kuma Tukezibaan :)
Reply With Quote
  #43  
Old Saturday, September 22, 2012
Banned
 
Join Date: Jul 2012
Location: Islamabad
Posts: 64
Thanks: 17
Thanked 33 Times in 27 Posts
shahreenaa is on a distinguished road
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by ravian786 View Post
well I am quite satisfied about my preparation.But diagrammes are giving tough time...Is this very inportant to draw diagrammes.I can,t handle brain,ear and eye drawing
You just need to cram them. Not more than that. It is very easy, try to understand the diagrams. Because, they are important.

ALLAH BLESS YOU.
Reply With Quote
  #44  
Old Saturday, September 22, 2012
Member
 
Join Date: Mar 2012
Location: Islamabad
Posts: 48
Thanks: 9
Thanked 25 Times in 21 Posts
tobabar is on a distinguished road
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by shakeel ghori View Post
Q:3-Write down the structure and function of CNS and PNS? (20 Marks)


1--Introduction..
Nervous system is consist of interconnected organ system that co-ordinates actions. It is responsible for controlling behaviour and adjusting organisms with their respective environments. Since humans at their most basic level are biological beings, many psychologists believe that the true knowledge of human behaviour cannot be had without having full understanding of nervous system. In view of this fact, the primary concern of almost every psychologist is same: to study the basis of brain and other parts of nervous system.

2--Structure and function of nervous system..

For the sake of better understanding the whole nervous system has been divided into three parts: neurons, central nervous system, and the peripheral nervous system. Although they are interconnected with each other--and perhaps different names of the same system-- for exclusively elaborating their functions and structure they are separately mentioned:

@Neurons.
Neurons are the fundamental elements of nervous system. They are the communicator of different messages in body. Basically, they are cells but the function which they play is essentially different from other cells. They have an ability of communicating with each other. As mentioned, they carry electrochemical messages within body; so in simple, we can say that they connect the all organs of body with brain. Each neuron is made up of axon, dendrite and cell body. The axon is a rod like structure through which electrical messages pass. The dendrites are the first site of receiving message from the neighbouring neuron which conveys it to the axon. the cell body is the part which plays essential role in keeping neurons alive: metabolism, protection from pathogenic invasion and so forth.
As soon as any change occurs in any part of the body, neurons carry signals to the brain which subsequently sends messages for appropriate response. However, one thing should be noted that they alone are not responsible for communication within body. Endocrine system which releases harmones has also the same function of carrying messages from body to brain and vice versa..

Nervous system has been divided into two parts: central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.

@Central nervous system.
Central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord. We shall disucss them separately.

Brain.
Brain is the command centre of entire body. As far as its basic structure and functions are concerned, it would not be wrong to say that nothing may be more miraculous in this world than brain. It consists of billions of neurons. Although, it has happened very recently that the scientists are able to understand the basic structure and chemistry of brain through modern equipments, the functions brain plays in our life are in our knowledge for a long time. It helps the body to respond to the information it receives from senses and other parts of body. On the basis of its functions brain is divided into several parts each of which plays a specific role. For example, hypothalamus regulates hunger and thirst. At the same time, it also helps body to maintain its temperature within suitable limits. Limbic system, another part of brain, is responsible for various emotional responses and consolidation of memory. In short, every specific area of brain has a particular function in regulating our behaviour. For elaborating more the role of brain in our life we can take an example. When a light of specific colour strikes with our eye, we cannot see it. Thereafter it reaches to our retina, we still cannot see it. Light passes through nerve cells, and even at that stage we don't see the light. It is only when it reaches to the brain which interprets it and gives us concious signal, that we are able to see it. Our every move, action, emotion, thought, sensation, perception depends on the co-ordination of brain.

Spinal cord.
Second part of central nervous system is spinal cord. It is a bundle of neurons that stems (leaves) from brain and runs down the length of the back. The primary function of spinal cord is that it serves as a channel between brain and the rest of the body. It connects all the body parts with brain except the parts above the neck. Messages from various organs first reach to the spinal cord which then transport those messages to the brain. The brain decides a particular response and then sends that signal to the concerned part of the body through spinal cord. The proof of this fact can be ascertained when in certain accidents spinal cord gets injured which results in the inactivity of lower part of the body to function (to move). It happens simply because owing to injury spinal cord becomes unable to serve as a connector between brain and specific body part.
However, the spinal cord is not just a communication channel. It also controls some simple behaviours on its own, without any help from the brain. In such cases, an immediate response is required so it does act on its own without taking any help from brain. For example, when we unintentionally touch a hot object, the sudden act of pulling back the hand is govern by spinal cord. Such responses are known reflex actions. While concluding the discussion about spinal cord, it is appropriate to keep in mind that after brain it is most important part of nervous system.

@Peripheral nervous system.
The peripheral nervous system consists of all the parts of nervous system other than brain and spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system connects the sense organs, muscles, glands and other organs with central nervous system (i.e with brain and spinal cord). The major role in peripheral system is of neurons which communicates signals to the spinal cord, or in few instances directly to the brain. These neurons are of two kinds. Those which sends messages from body to brain are sensory neurons(also called afferent). Those neurons which carry commands of brain to specific body parts are motor neurons (efferent). The peripheral nervous system is divided into somatic and autonomic divisions. somatic division involves in the control of voluntary movements such as muscle contraction, eye movements, and so forth. The autonomic division controls the organs which function involuntary without our awareness and are responsible to keep us alive such as heart, lungs, kidneys, blood vessels, glands and other likewise organs. The autonmic system is furthr divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic.
For making a distinguish between the two, it is adequate if we see that how the autonomic division of peripheral nervous system works in emergencies. When we encounter any threat or emergency situation, the very first response is of sympthetic division of autonomic nervous system. Its activation increases the heart beat, expands vessels, accelerates blood flow, enlarges the size of pupil (thus makes us more watchful) etc. These are the changes whcih are brought about by the activation of sympathetic division. These changes help us a lot to deal with emergency situations. When the negative situation passes away, the parasympthetic division starts its function. It sends signals to the excited body organs to come into their original state. From the last statement we can conclude that the parasympathetic division of autonomic division remains in play when the situations are ordinary. It overseas the various body fucntions which comes under its purview. Only in the emergencies the sympathetic division comes into play to enable us to deal with the emergency situation.

3--Conclusion.
From the above discussion, the role of nervous system in regulating our various body functions is almost clear. It does not only control those body functions which keep us alive, but also responsible for our emotions, thoughts, actions, hopes and aspirations. The branch of science which studies the basic elements of nervous system and their connection with human behaviour is known as neuroscience. With the help of modern equipment, the psychologist are now more able to understand the basic structure of nervous system and thus have produced many drugs to cure various psychological disorders having biological causes. The neuroscientists are making rapid progress in understandig human brain. But we know that much is still remaining to uncover, for the human brain is most complex and astonishing object of the world.

All respected members are requested to assess my attempt.
Shakeel great job yaar. You deserve 17/20 Score.
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to tobabar For This Useful Post:
shakeel ghori (Saturday, September 22, 2012)
  #45  
Old Saturday, September 22, 2012
Banned
 
Join Date: Mar 2012
Location: Karachi
Posts: 442
Thanks: 206
Thanked 170 Times in 114 Posts
ssara will become famous soon enough
Default

Q:4-Describe endocrine gland system and discuses its role in behavior? (20 Marks)

Dear active members, sorry to late posting this question as my net was out of order. And I am going to attempt the previous question too. Moreover, All new members and active members are highly requested to take part in this discussion and attempt the questions. So that we can discuss the concerned questions exclusively. As a matter of fact, it is very beneficial and vital for our upcoming attempt. (CSS-2013),,,,


I Wish you Best of Luck.

Thanks.....


Regards......
Reply With Quote
  #46  
Old Saturday, September 22, 2012
alihashmatkhoso's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: May 2012
Location: Karachi, now Lahore .
Posts: 773
Thanks: 431
Thanked 854 Times in 468 Posts
alihashmatkhoso has a spectacular aura aboutalihashmatkhoso has a spectacular aura aboutalihashmatkhoso has a spectacular aura about
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by shahreenaa View Post
You just need to cram them. Not more than that. It is very easy, try to understand the diagrams. Because, they are important.

ALLAH BLESS YOU.
no shareena never craming isn't solution of his problem i suppose that he is already trying this practice thats why he couldn't.

Quote:
well I am quite satisfied about my preparation.But diagrammes are giving tough time...Is this very inportant to draw diagrammes.I can,t handle brain,ear and eye drawing
[COLOR="rgb(75, 0, 130)"]try to understand the digram make it once and check it try it again and again with the passage of time you will make it in better way... further your diagram is a symbol one cannot make it as it, just try to make it clear for the checker that what you want to show here... best of luck.... [/COLOR]
__________________
LOVE all, TRUST a few, do WRONG to none......
Reply With Quote
  #47  
Old Saturday, September 22, 2012
Banned
 
Join Date: Mar 2012
Location: Karachi
Posts: 442
Thanks: 206
Thanked 170 Times in 114 Posts
ssara will become famous soon enough
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by ssara View Post
Q:2-Discuess the scope of Psychology and comment on the recent trends in Psychology?

Introduction
Psychology has an outstanding significance because it touch the all perspective of the current world and elaborate that why people commit crime and why people become happy and unhappy. However, in the advancement of science and technology Psychology has astonished scope. The scope of Psychology is going to the remarkable apex. It touches almost all sphere of human life. Both normal and abnormal in all perspective. Exclusively, it elaborates the human soul and behavior. It would not be false to say that where there is human, there would certainly be Psychology. However, there are diverse areas of Psychology which are given bellow:-

Clinical Psychology
It is the study of diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. It has an outstanding importance. It works regarding the serious problems such as schizophrenia. Moreover, it works on the common problems such as anxieties associated with every day life activities. It is considered a broad discipline in the world. Moreover, it is also true that it works likewise psychiatrists.

Counseling Psychology
As a matter of fact, in our current days there is no system of consultation and assistance like the European countries. An instance can be taken from our current scenario. Whenever a student get passed his/her matriculation or intermediate. And then he/she begin to think and keep think that where to go, shall he go further with Arts or Engineering sides. Besides, Counseling Psychology deals with the higher education, vocational and social adjustment and their concerned problems. Furthermore, it also helps the prisoner who becomes release from jail. And this discipline teaches them that how to start a new life with a great hope and peace.

Psychometric Psychology
In our military and civil service commission some Psychologists are vacant. The work to understand the candidates and prevailing problems in the concerned departments. Moreover, they make strategies to device testes for the candidates in order to judge their abilities and their aptitude for hiring them in the concerned departments. For instance, after getting passed a civil service exam. Candidate has to take a psychological test and it is the test of his/her abilities for judging the concerned thinking and behavior.

Social Psychology
This discipline deals with the social activities. For instance in the prevailing scenario, we have a different culture, people speak different languages, their influence on society and society’s influence on them. And the result which come in to existence. And that result’s study is the study of social psychology.

Educational Psychology
As far as Educational Psychology is concerned, it is mainly concerned with the educational departments and their activities. For instance, It deals and tackles a lot of problems. Some times, some students are suppose to be analyzed in order to give them more time than other students. They work for improvement, teaching techniques, learning, motivation and so on. Therefore, this discipline has an astonishing importance in the educational institutions.

Industrial Psychology
It is mainly concerned with the organizations, limited companies and other business places. Moreover, it teaches the labor and officials that how to do potential activities. An instance can be taken, nearly in each factory, people get incentives owing to their potential jobs. Means effective job - effective results and undoubtedly effective salary and bonus.

However, Cross-Culture Psycholgy,Forensic Pscyology, Art Psychology and so on have astonishing importance. Moreover, with the advancement of science and technology. Psychology has been explored because it is based on theories and theories have been changing and upgrading by the different occasion with the help of research. Therefore, in the current scenario, Psychology’s trend has been changed and it is going on to the apex in order to make this world happier and prosper. Some of the contemporary trends of Psychology are given bellow:-

Contemporary Trends in Psychology

Psychology of Cyberspace
It is based on network. It is a modern technology which has enfluece the human being. These discipline deals with the cyber activities, such as cyber crimes. Moreover, it has given the strategies of a lot of solutions in order to make the human peaceful. Undoubtedly, Nuclear and other arms have been launched such as satellites which can be operated with the help of cyberspace. Furthermore, It is the elaboration of human beings in relation to control mechanism and their associated communication system, specifically those which involve feedback of a piece of information to the mechanism its activities. Moreover, it deals the study of Internet romance, identify management in cyberspace.

Electric Psychology
Comparatively, it is based on new approach. It is a new disciple of psychology in the contemporary world. It deals with the electric strategies. Simply, it can be said that it is the combination of diverse techniques such as cognitive, humanistic psyhchogoy, gestalt psychology etc. Although this is the new disciple, It is not considered as an effective so far. Its theories are still in process to the apex exclusively.

Energy Psychology
It is the exclusive disciple of psychology which deals with the study of the body of human. Such as it deals body’s energy system an its reaction with emotions, soul, behaviour and psychology health and so on. Moreover, it is beneficial for education, health and in business places for getting potential results.

Besides, there are some other major disciplines of psychology i.e. Scientology, Critical Psychology and Kinseiology. These are the disciplines which have got an astonishing significance in due course. To the conclude it can be said that Psychology has an outstanding importance and its scope is broader in the global village in the contemporary world. It deals and tackles each an every thing about the human behaviour. This is the major key of prosperity in this global village.

All members and other seniors are highly requested to point out my mistakes.

Thanks.....

Regards.....
Shakeel this is mind blowing attempt. It is nice presentation. You are going amazing day by day. You have covered the question very tactically. Now I will attempt this question and you must will have to see the difference.

Overall this is good attempt. I give you 16/20

I wish you best of luck for your upcoming attempt.

Thanks....

Regards.......
Reply With Quote
  #48  
Old Saturday, September 22, 2012
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jun 2011
Location: Digri, Mirpurkhas
Posts: 273
Thanks: 65
Thanked 184 Times in 114 Posts
shakeel ghori is on a distinguished road
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by ssara View Post
Shakeel this is mind blowing attempt. It is nice presentation. You are going amazing day by day. You have covered the question very tactically. Now I will attempt this question and you must will have to see the difference.

Overall this is good attempt. I give you 16/20

I wish you best of luck for your upcoming attempt.

Thanks....

Regards.......
Did you really check my attempt? Please check it again. It is your own...
Reply With Quote
  #49  
Old Sunday, September 23, 2012
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jun 2012
Posts: 233
Thanks: 38
Thanked 52 Times in 36 Posts
Pearl013 is on a distinguished road
Default

all respected participants of this thread, internet of sara is out of order.so she might not able to participate in this thread for some time. but u people should carry on this activity.(a message from ssara)
Reply With Quote
  #50  
Old Monday, September 24, 2012
Banned
 
Join Date: Mar 2012
Location: Karachi
Posts: 442
Thanks: 206
Thanked 170 Times in 114 Posts
ssara will become famous soon enough
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by shakeel ghori View Post
Q:3-Write down the structure and function of CNS and PNS? (20 Marks)


1--Introduction..
Nervous system is consist of interconnected organ system that co-ordinates actions. It is responsible for controlling behaviour and adjusting organisms with their respective environments. Since humans at their most basic level are biological beings, many psychologists believe that the true knowledge of human behaviour cannot be had without having full understanding of nervous system. In view of this fact, the primary concern of almost every psychologist is same: to study the basis of brain and other parts of nervous system.

2--Structure and function of nervous system..

For the sake of better understanding the whole nervous system has been divided into three parts: neurons, central nervous system, and the peripheral nervous system. Although they are interconnected with each other--and perhaps different names of the same system-- for exclusively elaborating their functions and structure they are separately mentioned:

@Neurons.
Neurons are the fundamental elements of nervous system. They are the communicator of different messages in body. Basically, they are cells but the function which they play is essentially different from other cells. They have an ability of communicating with each other. As mentioned, they carry electrochemical messages within body; so in simple, we can say that they connect the all organs of body with brain. Each neuron is made up of axon, dendrite and cell body. The axon is a rod like structure through which electrical messages pass. The dendrites are the first site of receiving message from the neighbouring neuron which conveys it to the axon. the cell body is the part which plays essential role in keeping neurons alive: metabolism, protection from pathogenic invasion and so forth.
As soon as any change occurs in any part of the body, neurons carry signals to the brain which subsequently sends messages for appropriate response. However, one thing should be noted that they alone are not responsible for communication within body. Endocrine system which releases harmones has also the same function of carrying messages from body to brain and vice versa..

Nervous system has been divided into two parts: central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.

@Central nervous system.
Central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord. We shall disucss them separately.

Brain.
Brain is the command centre of entire body. As far as its basic structure and functions are concerned, it would not be wrong to say that nothing may be more miraculous in this world than brain. It consists of billions of neurons. Although, it has happened very recently that the scientists are able to understand the basic structure and chemistry of brain through modern equipments, the functions brain plays in our life are in our knowledge for a long time. It helps the body to respond to the information it receives from senses and other parts of body. On the basis of its functions brain is divided into several parts each of which plays a specific role. For example, hypothalamus regulates hunger and thirst. At the same time, it also helps body to maintain its temperature within suitable limits. Limbic system, another part of brain, is responsible for various emotional responses and consolidation of memory. In short, every specific area of brain has a particular function in regulating our behaviour. For elaborating more the role of brain in our life we can take an example. When a light of specific colour strikes with our eye, we cannot see it. Thereafter it reaches to our retina, we still cannot see it. Light passes through nerve cells, and even at that stage we don't see the light. It is only when it reaches to the brain which interprets it and gives us concious signal, that we are able to see it. Our every move, action, emotion, thought, sensation, perception depends on the co-ordination of brain.

Spinal cord.
Second part of central nervous system is spinal cord. It is a bundle of neurons that stems (leaves) from brain and runs down the length of the back. The primary function of spinal cord is that it serves as a channel between brain and the rest of the body. It connects all the body parts with brain except the parts above the neck. Messages from various organs first reach to the spinal cord which then transport those messages to the brain. The brain decides a particular response and then sends that signal to the concerned part of the body through spinal cord. The proof of this fact can be ascertained when in certain accidents spinal cord gets injured which results in the inactivity of lower part of the body to function (to move). It happens simply because owing to injury spinal cord becomes unable to serve as a connector between brain and specific body part.
However, the spinal cord is not just a communication channel. It also controls some simple behaviours on its own, without any help from the brain. In such cases, an immediate response is required so it does act on its own without taking any help from brain. For example, when we unintentionally touch a hot object, the sudden act of pulling back the hand is govern by spinal cord. Such responses are known reflex actions. While concluding the discussion about spinal cord, it is appropriate to keep in mind that after brain it is most important part of nervous system.

@Peripheral nervous system.
The peripheral nervous system consists of all the parts of nervous system other than brain and spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system connects the sense organs, muscles, glands and other organs with central nervous system (i.e with brain and spinal cord). The major role in peripheral system is of neurons which communicates signals to the spinal cord, or in few instances directly to the brain. These neurons are of two kinds. Those which sends messages from body to brain are sensory neurons(also called afferent). Those neurons which carry commands of brain to specific body parts are motor neurons (efferent). The peripheral nervous system is divided into somatic and autonomic divisions. somatic division involves in the control of voluntary movements such as muscle contraction, eye movements, and so forth. The autonomic division controls the organs which function involuntary without our awareness and are responsible to keep us alive such as heart, lungs, kidneys, blood vessels, glands and other likewise organs. The autonmic system is furthr divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic.
For making a distinguish between the two, it is adequate if we see that how the autonomic division of peripheral nervous system works in emergencies. When we encounter any threat or emergency situation, the very first response is of sympthetic division of autonomic nervous system. Its activation increases the heart beat, expands vessels, accelerates blood flow, enlarges the size of pupil (thus makes us more watchful) etc. These are the changes whcih are brought about by the activation of sympathetic division. These changes help us a lot to deal with emergency situations. When the negative situation passes away, the parasympthetic division starts its function. It sends signals to the excited body organs to come into their original state. From the last statement we can conclude that the parasympathetic division of autonomic division remains in play when the situations are ordinary. It overseas the various body fucntions which comes under its purview. Only in the emergencies the sympathetic division comes into play to enable us to deal with the emergency situation.

3--Conclusion.
From the above discussion, the role of nervous system in regulating our various body functions is almost clear. It does not only control those body functions which keep us alive, but also responsible for our emotions, thoughts, actions, hopes and aspirations. The branch of science which studies the basic elements of nervous system and their connection with human behaviour is known as neuroscience. With the help of modern equipment, the psychologist are now more able to understand the basic structure of nervous system and thus have produced many drugs to cure various psychological disorders having biological causes. The neuroscientists are making rapid progress in understandig human brain. But we know that much is still remaining to uncover, for the human brain is most complex and astonishing object of the world.

All respected members are requested to assess my attempt.

Quote:
Originally Posted by ssara View Post
Shakeel this is mind blowing attempt. It is nice presentation. You are going amazing day by day. You have covered the question very tactically. Now I will attempt this question and you must will have to see the difference.

Overall this is good attempt. I give you 16/20

I wish you best of luck for your upcoming attempt.

Thanks....

Regards.......
And sorry to post it on not right place. As my net is out of order. Am online from an other connection which is too slow. That's why it posted in the above thread. I have made a complaint. Hope my net will be ok very soon.

Thanks.......

Dear Shakeel, contact with me on my mail address. And send your email address. We are going to make our outstanding essays for CSS-2013. And there are some essays, which I have to give you. Come down to yahoo messenger. We are waiting for you. Because you are our most active member. Otherwise we have to start our essays. Further, I will let you know each an every thing after giving you some complete essays for CSS-2013. So that you will be understood how to tackle this paper. And at the moment leave Psychology. We will continue it another time.

we (regular members) are waiting for you.

Thanks......

Sara Abass.....

Reply With Quote
Reply

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On



CSS Forum on Facebook Follow CSS Forum on Twitter

Disclaimer: All messages made available as part of this discussion group (including any bulletin boards and chat rooms) and any opinions, advice, statements or other information contained in any messages posted or transmitted by any third party are the responsibility of the author of that message and not of CSSForum.com.pk (unless CSSForum.com.pk is specifically identified as the author of the message). The fact that a particular message is posted on or transmitted using this web site does not mean that CSSForum has endorsed that message in any way or verified the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any message. We encourage visitors to the forum to report any objectionable message in site feedback. This forum is not monitored 24/7.

Sponsors: ArgusVision   vBulletin, Copyright ©2000 - 2021, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.