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Old Wednesday, November 07, 2012
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Default Psychology Part II Notes.

Aspects Of Growth:
Define growth, development and maturation and explain the role of biological and sociological factors in the process of development.

Growth means just apparent changes one can see, like increase in height and weight etc...development refers to the changes in functional abilities of different bodily organs...development includes different phases in itself like

1.Prenatal development...further includes...stages of Embryo. Zygote and Foetus.

2. Postnatal development including Biological development, Intellectual development, Emotional development, Cognitive development, Motor development and etc...

Maturation includes development of mental processes that affects body functioning as a whole.

FACTORS
BIOLOGICAL FACTORS include
diet, heredity, illness, etc.

SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS include
environment, parenting style, peer influence, culture, etc.
you need to add further details for sure. welcome to criticism

Aspects Of Growth:
1. Physical Growth
2. Psychological Growth
3. Social Growth
4. Mental Growth

Physical Growth:

i. Motor Skills:
• The two most studied motor abilities are walking or locomotion
o and use of hands as tool or apprehension.

• Both walking and apprehension are largely maturational in origin.

ii. Sensory and Perceptual Growth:
• Visual abilities grow rapidly after birth.

• Perceptual abilities also increase rapidly:

o infants can distinguish colour and depth after just one month.


• Infants can distinguish sounds and discriminate tastes and smells.

Psychological Growth:
i. Freud:
• Freud says that personality consists of three components or structures:
o id, ego and superego.

The id,
o characterized as a reservoir of primitive instincts and drives,
o is present at birth;
o it is the force that presses for immediate gratification of bodily needs and wants.


The ego is practical, rational component of personality.

• The ego begins to emerge during the first year of life,

o in response to the fact that the infant cannot always have what it wants.


• An example of the emerging ego
o is the child’s learning other strategies for coaxing adults into action
o when crying does not produce immediate results.

• Between the third and fourth years of life
o the superego or “moral agent” of personality develops
o as the child identifies with its same-sexed parent
o and begins to incorporate adult standards of right and wrong.


• Freud also proposed
o that development occurs in universal stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital) that do not vary in sequence.
o These stages are largely determined by innate tendency
o to reduce tension and achieve a pleasurable experience.

• These are known as “psycho-sexual.”


• Each stage is associated with a particular conflict
o that must be resolved before the child can move psychologically to next stage.

ii. Erikson
• Erik Eriksson revised the psychoanalytical theory and stated that
o we can view the psychological characteristics of adolescence, middle age and old age in social terms.
• According to Erikson,
o there are eight stages of psychosocial development
o which encompasses people’s changing interactions
o and understanding of themselves and others.
o During childhood there are four stages.

Social Development:

i. Attachment:
• The positive emotional bond
o that develops between a child and a particular individual
o is one of the most important forms of social development
o that occurs during infancy.

• Attachment develops by the time the child is six to eight months of age,
o in a series of social-emotional accomplishments.


• At the same time,
o infants often show discomfort or fear of strangers.

ii. Parental Interaction:
• This is partly determined by sex:
o Fathers are playful,
o whereas mothers are more concerned with childcare.

• There is also some evidence
o that parents prefer to interact with their same sex children.

iii. Social Relationship With Peers:
• Pre-schoolers derive enjoyment from their peers,
o rush to school with them,
o and spend much time playing with them.

• In fact, such friendship is crucial to a child’s social development.

iv. Early Experience:
• Infants,
o who experience lack of stimulation, poor mothering and abusive mothering,
o put the child at adverse developmental risk.

Mental Growth:

i. Linguistic Growth:
• In one sense,
o language begins with the birth cry of the newborn
o and continues to develop with such sounds as “ma-ma” and “dada”
o which are sometimes proudly interpreted to mean “mama” and “daddy”.

• In the stricter sense,
o language begins when meaning becomes attached to words.


• In this sense the baby really doesn’t speak his first word
o until he is about a year of age, often older.

• At first a single word may carry a number of meanings.


• For example, “milk”, given with varying inflections and gestures, may mean, “I want milk”, “there is milk”, “I spilled my milk”, or “I want more milk”.

• After a time the baby passes from the single word to phrases, such as “All gone”.


• Finally language develops to the age at which idea are conveyed by the whole sentence.

a) Learning To Talk:
• Children learn language largely through imitation.

• Speaking clearly and correctly to the child aids in learning good speech.

b) Understanding:
• By the time a child is three years old;
o his sensory perceptions are well organized.

• Some children can give good descriptions of what they perceive feel and understand.

c) Thinking:
• The thinking of children is not unlike the problem-solving process of the adult.
• It is natural that
o children should confuse the real with the imaginative
o and should fail to see certain cause-and-effect relationship in the manner of the adult.

ii. Cognitive Development: (see shehr Bano book)
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  #2  
Old Friday, November 09, 2012
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Roshan wadhwani View Post
Aspects Of Growth:
Define growth, development and maturation and explain the role of biological and sociological factors in the process of development.

Growth means just apparent changes one can see, like increase in height and weight etc...development refers to the changes in functional abilities of different bodily organs...development includes different phases in itself like

1.Prenatal development...further includes...stages of Embryo. Zygote and Foetus.

2. Postnatal development including Biological development, Intellectual development, Emotional development, Cognitive development, Motor development and etc...

Maturation includes development of mental processes that affects body functioning as a whole.

FACTORS
BIOLOGICAL FACTORS include
diet, heredity, illness, etc.

SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS include
environment, parenting style, peer influence, culture, etc.
you need to add further details for sure. welcome to criticism

Aspects Of Growth:
1. Physical Growth
2. Psychological Growth
3. Social Growth
4. Mental Growth

Physical Growth:

i. Motor Skills:
• The two most studied motor abilities are walking or locomotion
o and use of hands as tool or apprehension.

• Both walking and apprehension are largely maturational in origin.

ii. Sensory and Perceptual Growth:
• Visual abilities grow rapidly after birth.

• Perceptual abilities also increase rapidly:

o infants can distinguish colour and depth after just one month.


• Infants can distinguish sounds and discriminate tastes and smells.

Psychological Growth:
i. Freud:
• Freud says that personality consists of three components or structures:
o id, ego and superego.

The id,
o characterized as a reservoir of primitive instincts and drives,
o is present at birth;
o it is the force that presses for immediate gratification of bodily needs and wants.


The ego is practical, rational component of personality.

• The ego begins to emerge during the first year of life,

o in response to the fact that the infant cannot always have what it wants.


• An example of the emerging ego
o is the child’s learning other strategies for coaxing adults into action
o when crying does not produce immediate results.

• Between the third and fourth years of life
o the superego or “moral agent” of personality develops
o as the child identifies with its same-sexed parent
o and begins to incorporate adult standards of right and wrong.


• Freud also proposed
o that development occurs in universal stages (oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital) that do not vary in sequence.
o These stages are largely determined by innate tendency
o to reduce tension and achieve a pleasurable experience.

• These are known as “psycho-sexual.”


• Each stage is associated with a particular conflict
o that must be resolved before the child can move psychologically to next stage.

ii. Erikson
• Erik Eriksson revised the psychoanalytical theory and stated that
o we can view the psychological characteristics of adolescence, middle age and old age in social terms.
• According to Erikson,
o there are eight stages of psychosocial development
o which encompasses people’s changing interactions
o and understanding of themselves and others.
o During childhood there are four stages.

Social Development:

i. Attachment:
• The positive emotional bond
o that develops between a child and a particular individual
o is one of the most important forms of social development
o that occurs during infancy.

• Attachment develops by the time the child is six to eight months of age,
o in a series of social-emotional accomplishments.


• At the same time,
o infants often show discomfort or fear of strangers.

ii. Parental Interaction:
• This is partly determined by sex:
o Fathers are playful,
o whereas mothers are more concerned with childcare.

• There is also some evidence
o that parents prefer to interact with their same sex children.

iii. Social Relationship With Peers:
• Pre-schoolers derive enjoyment from their peers,
o rush to school with them,
o and spend much time playing with them.

• In fact, such friendship is crucial to a child’s social development.

iv. Early Experience:
• Infants,
o who experience lack of stimulation, poor mothering and abusive mothering,
o put the child at adverse developmental risk.

Mental Growth:

i. Linguistic Growth:
• In one sense,
o language begins with the birth cry of the newborn
o and continues to develop with such sounds as “ma-ma” and “dada”
o which are sometimes proudly interpreted to mean “mama” and “daddy”.

• In the stricter sense,
o language begins when meaning becomes attached to words.


• In this sense the baby really doesn’t speak his first word
o until he is about a year of age, often older.

• At first a single word may carry a number of meanings.


• For example, “milk”, given with varying inflections and gestures, may mean, “I want milk”, “there is milk”, “I spilled my milk”, or “I want more milk”.

• After a time the baby passes from the single word to phrases, such as “All gone”.


• Finally language develops to the age at which idea are conveyed by the whole sentence.

a) Learning To Talk:
• Children learn language largely through imitation.

• Speaking clearly and correctly to the child aids in learning good speech.

b) Understanding:
• By the time a child is three years old;
o his sensory perceptions are well organized.

• Some children can give good descriptions of what they perceive feel and understand.

c) Thinking:
• The thinking of children is not unlike the problem-solving process of the adult.
• It is natural that
o children should confuse the real with the imaginative
o and should fail to see certain cause-and-effect relationship in the manner of the adult.

ii. Cognitive Development: (see shehr Bano book)
can u plz answer me the following qs of past paper?
Q: COMPARE N CONTARST DIFFERENT VIEWS ABOUT REINFORCEMENT. IN YOUR OPINION WHICH ONE IS SIGNIFICANT? GIVE REASONS?
Q: DISCUSS THE PRINCIPLE OF REINFORCEMENT AS RELATED TO BOTH CLASSICAL N OPERANT CONDITIONING?
eagerly waiting for the ans....
regards
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  #3  
Old Friday, April 05, 2013
Roshan wadhwani's Avatar
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mahdia View Post
can u plz answer me the following qs of past paper?
Q: COMPARE N CONTARST DIFFERENT VIEWS ABOUT REINFORCEMENT. IN YOUR OPINION WHICH ONE IS SIGNIFICANT? GIVE REASONS?
Q: DISCUSS THE PRINCIPLE OF REINFORCEMENT AS RELATED TO BOTH CLASSICAL N OPERANT CONDITIONING?
eagerly waiting for the ans....
regards
Will post answers of these ques shortly...Regards
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  #4  
Old Thursday, April 18, 2013
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Growth, Development and Maturation

Define growth, development and maturation and explain the role of biological and sociological factors in the process of development.


Growth means just apparent changes one can see, like increase in height and weight etc...

Development refers to the changes in functional abilities of different bodily organs. Development includes different phases in itself like

1. Prenatal development...further includes...stages of Embryo, Zygote and Foetus.

2. Postnatal development includes
i. Biological development,
ii. Intellectual development,
iii. Emotional development,
iv. Cognitive development,
v. Motor development and etc...

Maturation includes development of mental processes that affects body functioning as a whole.

FACTORS

i. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS include:
o Diet, heredity, illness, etc.

ii. SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS include:
o Environment, parenting style, peer influence, culture, etc.


What is difference between Developmental irregularities and chromosomal abnormality? Please mention Developmental
irregularities


1. DEVELOPMENTAL IRREGULARITIES:

• As the name suggests, an irregular pattern of development is to be discussed here. They may be caused by

1. Heredity factor
2.Environmental factor

• under the heading of heredity factor, genetic and chromosomal abnormalities will be considered, like

A. Gene mutation
B. Defects caused by dominant inheritance
C. Problems due to recessive pattern of inheritance
D. Sex related chromosomal abnormalities ;Down's syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, Turner’s syndrome.

• Let’s have a look at environmental causes for developmental irregularities,

o they may be traced out in the insufficient food supply,
o differences in parenting style,
o peer influence,
o toilet training,
o lack of physical activity,
o absence of suitable environment according to one's aptitude and etc.

DEVELOPMENTAL IRREGULARITIES include all the abnormalities seen in developmental process. Commonly observed ones are

i. Obesity
ii. Delayed speech
iii. Excessive shyness
iv. Frequently shuffling temperaments
v. Aggression
vi. Poor cognition
vii. Infertility.
viii. Under development of some organs like brain.
ix. Lack of sociability


What are characteristics of Growth, development and Maturation?

CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWTH:

• Development includes both the growth and maturity.
• With respect to growth, you can write different stages of human development like. Dividing into:
i. Infancy birth to 4 years of life

ii. childhood 4 to 10 years

iii. preadolescence 10 to 14 years

iv. adolescence 14 to 19 years

• now add some changes, by keeping in mind physical aspects of growth.
• Like infants' dependence to mother for all the needs, affiliation and all
• similarly certain changes are experienced in childhood stage and so on.
• do write them too.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPMENT:

• try to cover the psychological aspects of development i this section as, the physical one is discussed above.

• Few important ones are

i. Individuality 19 to 23 years

ii. alliance 23 to 30 years

iii. practice 30 to 35 years

iv. evaluation 35 to 40 years

• so add some relevant details here too.
• You can add some more like self-confidence, emotional stability and etc.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MATURITY;

i. Self-awareness 40 to 43 years

ii. readjustment 43 to 45 years

iii. mastery 50 to 55 years

iv. re-evaluation 55 to 60 years

• add the details here too.
• tried to present the answer in an easier way.


Differences between growth and development?

• Growth and development is one of the important studies for the teachers and parents.

• Growth is different from development.

• But both are correlated and one is dependent on other.

• We can say that growth is a part of development, which is limited in physical changes.

• Growth is physical changes whereas development is overall development of the organism.

The main differences between both are-
(1) Growth is change of physical aspects of the organism. Development is overall changes and progressive changes of the organism.

(2) Growth is cellular but development is organizational.


(3) Growth is the change in shape, form, structure, size of the body. Development is structural change and functional progress of the body.

(4) Growth stops at maturation but development continues till death of the organism.

(5) Development also includes growth. Growth is a part of development.

(6) Growth and development go side by side.

(7) Growth and development is the joint product of heredity and environment.

(8) Growth is quantitative and development is qualitative in nature.

(9) Growth can be measured accurately but development is subjective interpretation of one’s change.

• Both growth and development are interrelated aspects of psychology.

• There are some basic differences as per their structure but it is difficult to separate them.

• They have some basic similarities also.

• In study of educational psychology study of their differences and similarities have equal importance for a teacher.

What is the difference between Growth and Development?

• Growth and development are similar words but different from each other though it is not possible to separate them totally.

• It is a whole process which includes growth of the body as well as growth of various aspects of child's personality, e.g., the physical, emotional, social and cognitive development.

• Development is a progressive change the child undergoes which increases the physical, social, mental and emotional capacities of the child.

• In the early stages of life these changes are constructive and after middle age there are destructive changes in the body which lead to old age.

Growth
1. Growth is quantitative.
2. Growth comprises of height, weight, size and shape of body organs like brain, etc.
3. It is due to cell division.
4. Growth is for limited period.
5. Growth can be measured.
6. Growth tells about one aspect of personality but in limited scope.

Development
1. Development is quantitative as well as qualitative.
2. In this with the physical changes cognitive social and emotional change are also included.
3. It happen due to motor and adjust mental processes and their interplay.
4. Development takes place till death.
5. It can be observed by matured behaviour.
6. Development deals with all the aspect of personality and has a vast scope.
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Old Thursday, May 02, 2013
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Cognitive Development in infancy

What is Piaget’s theory of infant development?

• Cognitive Processes—Piaget thought that children actively construct mental structures to help them adapt to the world.

• Piaget proposed that children accomplish adaptation through processes such as

o schemes,
o assimilation,
o accommodation,
o organization,
o equilibrium, and
o equilibration.

• Adaptation involves adjusting to new environmental demands

1. We build mental structures to help us adapt
2. Children actively construct their own cognitive worlds

• Schemes are actions or mental representations that the developing brain creates to organize knowledge.

• Assimilation occurs when children incorporate new information or experiences into existing schemes.

• Accommodation occurs when children adjust existing schemes to take new information and experiences into account.

• Organization is the grouping of isolated behaviours and thoughts into a higher order system.

• Equilibration and stages of development—According to Piaget,
o children constantly assimilate and accommodate as they seek cognitive equilibrium;

o equilibration is the term Piaget used to describe the mechanism by which children shift from one stage of thought to the next.

o Equilibrium – mechanism for shifting from one level of thought to another

o Disequilibrium – result of cognitive conflict

o Cognition: qualitatively different in each stage of development


What are some early environmental influences on intelligence?

Nutrition

Although excellent nourishment offers ideal bodily development, additionally , it may impact cognition. Scientific reports associated with malnourished children find lower ratings on the Bayley test. Some various different scientific reports having children provided necessary health proteins dietary health products show greater cognitive development..

Poverty

Children delivered in to poverty tend to be more susceptible to ailments that may adversely impact intellectual development. Treatment applications that teach parents in enriching studying methods and increasing total well being have got important results in intellectual development.

• Best intervention programs are
o Long lasting
o Time-intensive
o Providing direct educational benefits Often in educational context Does not rely solely on parental training
o Comprehensive and multidimensional
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Old Thursday, May 02, 2013
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Development

What is development? Describe different phases of development Briefly.

Ans:
Synopsis:
Development
• Phases of Development

o Prenatal Phase
o Infancy
o Childhood
o Adolescence
o Adulthood
o Old Age

Definitions:

“Development refers to systematic continuities and changes in the individual that occur between conception (when father’s sperm penetrates the mother’s ovum, creating a new organism) and death.”

OR

“Development is the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues throughout the life span. It involves growth as well as decay.”

OR

“Development is the sequence of changes over the full life span of an organism.”

OR

“Development is the process of orderly accumulative, directional and age-related behavioural reorganisations and qualitative changes in a person.”

Phases Of Development:

1. Prenatal Phase:


The prenatal phase is the time coming via pregnancy in order to be able for you to help birth. It's a time regarding huge growth-from a single cell to an affected person having a brain and also behavioural features, manufactured in roughly the nine months period. This particular period regarding development is often put into three key levels.

•The 1st stage, known as the germinal time period of time, begins from conception via implantation, once the developing cell gets securely coupled to the walls with the uterus. The germinal period normally continues about a fortnight.

•The 2nd phase of prenatal advancement, the time with the embryo, endures right from the start with the third few days through the end with the 8th week. This is the time any time practically all the main parts tend to be produced as well as the heart starts to beat.

•The next stage, the period of the foetus, continues from the 9th 7 days of childbearing before the kid is born. During this phase, all the major organs start to function and developing organism grows rapidly.

2. Infancy:

•Begins at birth and finishes at concerning Eighteen in order to be able for you to help 24 months (A couple of years). Moment of severe dependence on adults. Very much important innovate growth and progression of someone characterised by equally bodily in addition to psychological improvement. In this stage, child's hearing is pretty normal. Risk turning their own heads toward seems. Newborns are near-sighted and can't concentrate points definately not them.

•There are also signs of impressive generator development coming via delivery to finish with the beginnings period. This stage shows virtually not any clear signs and symptoms of social and psychological development. Yet is recognized as extremely important in later on growth and progression of emotional as well as social life of an person.


•Gradually infants display distinct forms of psychological expressions. Attachment with caretaker exhibits sociable development of baby with this phase of advancement.

3. Childhood:

•Divided in to early, middle as well as overdue the child years. Early childhood is the developmental period that stretches from your end regarding beginnings in order to be able for you to help regarding 5 to 6 years old; sometimes this era can also be known as the pre-school years. During this time, young kids learn how to become more self-sufficient also to look after themselves, create university readiness skills and devote much time live and with colleagues.

•Middle and late years as a child periods prolong from concerning half a dozen to 14 years old, roughly matching towards the grade school many decades. Youngsters master the primary skills of reading, composing as well as math, and they are officially confronted with the bigger globe and its particular lifestyle.

•Achievement becomes an even more main style from the child’s planet as well as self-control increase. Numerous determinists think about this stage regarding advancement the main in lots of ways since Freud tensions in the child years activities because so many essential phase so that you can form your personality.

4. Adolescence:

• It is the developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood, begins at approximately ten to twelve years of age and ends at eighteen to twenty years of age. Adolescence begins with rapid physical changes, dramatic gains in height and weight; changes in body contour and the development of sexual characteristics such as enlargement of the breasts, development of pubic and facial hair and deepening of the voice.


• At this point in development, the pursuit of independence and an identity are prominent. Thought becomes more logical, abstract and idealistic. More and more time is spent outside the family during this period.

• Sigmund Freud saw it as the genital phase of human psychosexual development, where the child recaptures the sexual awareness of infancy.


• Jean Pigeat focused on cognitive development, seeing adolescence as the ‘formal operative stage’ where the young person develops the ability to think abstractly and draw conclusions from the information available.

• Erickson, in his basic idea of psychosocial development, views adolescence important as individual in this phase struggles between identity and role confusion.

5. Adulthood:

• Divided into early, middle and late adulthood. Early adulthood is characterised by healthiest and peak performance, physically.


• In early adulthood essential brain growth takes place and individuals now apply and use their knowledge and analytical capabilities. In early adulthood, an individual is concerned with developing the ability to share intimacy, seeking to form relationships and find intimate love.


• Young adults are also confronted with career decisions. In middle adulthood, an important challenge is to develop a genuine concern for the welfare of future generations and to contribute to the world through family and work. Erickson refers to the problem posed at this stage as generatively vs. self-absorption.

• In late adulthood, the aging process accelerates and people experience a variety of physical deteriorations. Erickson suggests that, at this time, it is important to find meaning and satisfaction in life rather to become bitter and disillusioned, that is, to resolve conflict of integrity vs. despair.

6. Old Age:

Divided in to young-old as well as old-old. Nonetheless, later years contains age range approaching the typical expected life of individual and therefore the end with the human being organic phenomenon.


•Many actual modifications happen in this stage as serious outcomes on physical visual appeal, feeling and also motor skills. Facial lines seem and the skin becomes less elastic as well as slender. The actual senses start to uninteresting and warning signs of illness damage on general bodily operating can be observed.

•These physical alterations in later years can be described in two ways 1st, there's a built-in-time reduce to the imitation of human tissues as well as the 2nd is wear-and-tear concept. Together with physical changes, there are many additional modifications in senior years as cognitive damage. Drop within side overall cognitive functioning throughout old age occurs. Loss of memory is one of the many occurring degeneration in senior years.
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Chromosomal Abnormalities:

Give a comprehensive account of chromosomal abnormalities during prenatal stage of development.

Ans:

Synopsis:


Chromosomal abnormalities
o Phenylketonuria (PKU)
o Downs syndrome
o Sickle cell anaemia
o Klinefelter’s syndrome
o Turner’s syndrome
o XYZ syndrome

Causes Of Chromosomal Abnormalities

• Tests To determine chromosomal abnormalities

o Ultrasound sonography
o Amniocentesis
o Chorionic Villus test
o Maternal blood test

Introduction:

When the reproductive cell divides in the course of meiosis, the actual distribution of its Fouthy-six chromosomes into sperm and ovum may also be uneven. In other words, one of the resulting reproductive cell may have a lot of bodies even though the others have got handful of. Most these types of chromosomal abnormalities caused by uneven distribution regarding chromosomes are lethal. However, some chromosomal abnormalities are not lethal as one child in two-fifty is born with chromosomal abnormality..

Chromosomal Abnormalities:

1. Phenylketonuria (PKU):


• It is a genetic disorder in which the individual cannot properly metabolise an amino acid. It involves a recessive gene and takes place about once in every 10,000 to 20,000 live births. Phenylketonuria is currently very quickly detected but when not treated, retardation and also hyperactivity may possibly outcome. Whenever recognized, the problem is actually taken care of by diet plan to stop a great excessive accumulation associated with phenylalanine, an protein. PKU accounts for about one per cent of institutionalised mentally retarded individuals and occurs primarily in whites.

2. Down Syndrome:

• It is a common genetically transmitted form of mental retardation, caused by the presence of an extra (47th) chromosome. An individual with Down syndrome has
o a round face,
o a flattened skull,
o an extra fold of skin over the eyelids,
o protruding tongue,
o short limbs and
o retardation of motor and mental abilities.


• It is not known why the extra chromosome is present, but the health of the male sperm or female ovum may be involved. Women between the ages of eighteen and thirty eight are less likely to give birth to a Down syndrome affected child than younger or older women. Down syndrome appears approximately once in every hundred live births.

3. Sickle-cell Anaemia:

• Sickle-cell anemia is a genetic abnormality affecting the red blood cells. Any red blood cell is generally disk shaped, but in sickle-cell anaemia there is a change in its shape to a hook-shaped “Sickle”. These cells die rapidly, leading to anemia and early death of the individuals because of their failure to carry oxygen to the body’s cells.

4. Klinefelter’s Syndrome:

• Klinefelter’s syndrome is really a genetic disorder where males have an extra chromosome, making them XXY as opposed to XY. Males with thiscondition possess undeveloped testes and they normally have enlarged breasts and grow to be taller. Klinefelter’s syndrome occurs approximately one in every 80 live male births.

5. Turner’s Syndrome:

• Turner’s Syndrome is genetic disorder in which females are missing an X chromosome, making them XO instead of XX. These females are short in stature and have a webbed neck. They may be mentally retarded and sexually undeveloped. Turner’s syndrome occurs approximately one in every 3000 live female births.

6. XYY Syndrome:

• XYY syndrome is a genetic disorder in which the male has an extra Y chromosome. Early interest in this syndrome involved the belief that the Y chromosome, found in males, contributed to male aggression and violence. It was then reasoned that if a male had an extra Y chromosome, he would likely to be extremely aggressive and possibly develop a violent personality. However, subsequent researchers found that XYY males were no more likely to commit crimes than were XY males.
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Old Tuesday, May 21, 2013
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Dear Roshan,

Please post the remaining questions of Paper II. Me waiting for your remaining posts regarding Psychology.
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Old Wednesday, May 22, 2013
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Roshan
Great job.which book you suggest for devolpmental psychology?
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