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Old Wednesday, May 08, 2013
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Cool Psychology Course

As Salam O Alakum,
I am going to start a Psychology Course on CSS-Forum. In fact this is a part of my personal preparation. but I want to share my study material to all aspirants of CSS-Forum.
I hope it will be a good step, which will be helpful not only for other aspirant but also for me....
Wish you the best.
Regards.
Mehtab Hussain Araeen
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Arrow What is psychology

WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY

DEFINITION.

 Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior.
 Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and metal processes:

• Behavior - Outward or overt actions and reactions.
• Mental processes- Internal, covert activity of our minds.

ETYMOLOGY:

The word psychology literally means, "study of the soul" (psukhē, meaning "breath", "spirit", or "soul"; and logos, translated as "study of" or "research"). The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century.

Modern, scientific psychology began in 1879 when the German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt established the first laboratory specifically devoted to experimental psychology. The first experimental psychology laboratory in the United States opened at Johns Hopkins University in 1883.

DEFINING MODERN PSYCHOLOGY:

Originally, the focus was on the mind, including thoughts, feelings, sensations, all things inside
• psychology is the study of the mind, or cognitive content (structures) and processes (functions)
• people like Wundt, Titchener, and James searched for the ways to understand how the mind works
In the 1920s the behavioral revolution swept the field: Pavlov, Watson, and later Skinner argued that psychology is the study of behavior
Today, both these elements are combined, yielding the current definition: Psychology is the study of mind (cognitive processes) and behavior.

DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGY INDIFFERENT TIMES:

According to earlier psychologists, the function of psychology was to study the nature, origin and destiny of the human soul. But soul is something metaphysical. It cannot be seen, observed and touched and we cannot make scientific experiments on soul.
In the 18th century, psychology was understood as the ‘Science of Mind’. William James (1892) defined psychology as the science of mental processes. But the word ‘mind ‘ is also quite ambiguous as there was confusion regarding the nature and functions of mind.
Modern psychologists defined psychology as the “Science of Consciousness”. James Sully (1884) defined psychology as the “Science of the Inner World”. Wilhelm Wundt (1892) defined psychology as the science which studies the “internal experiences’. But there are three levels of consciousness – conscious, subconscious and the unconscious and so this definition also was not accepted by some. (Thus psychology first lost its soul, then its mind and then its consciousness).
At present only its behaviour exists. William McDugall (1905) defined psychology as the “Science of Behaviour”, W.B. Pillsbury (1911) and J.B. Watson (1912) also defined psychology as the science of behavior.
Behaviour generally means overt activities which can observed and measured scientifically. But one’s behaviour is always influenced by his experiences. So when we study one’s behaviour we must also study his experiences.
Psychology should, therefore, be defined as a “science of behaviour and experiences on human beings” (B.F. Skinner)
According to Crow and Crow, “Psychology is the study of human behaviour and human relationship’”.
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Arrow Branches of psychology

Branches of psychology


Research psychology

• Abnormal psychology
• Biological psychology
• Cognitive psychology
• Comparative psychology
• Developmental psychology
• Experimental psychology
• Personality psychology
• Social psychology

Applied psychology

• Clinical psychology
• Counseling psychology
• Educational psychology
• Forensic psychology
• Health psychology
• Human factors psychology
• Industrial and organizational psychology
• School psychology

Psychological schools

• Analytical psychology
• Behaviorism (see also Radical behaviourism)
• Behavioural genetics
• Biological psychology
• Cognitivism
• Depth psychology
• Descriptive psychology
• Ego psychology
• Environmental psychology
• Evolutionary psychology
• Existential psychology
• Functionalism
• Gestalt psychology
• Humanistic psychology
• Individual psychology
• Phenomenological psychology
• Psychoanalytic school, or psychoanalysis
• Self (psychology)
• Social psychology
• Structuralism
• Transactional analysis
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Last edited by MehtabHussain; Wednesday, May 08, 2013 at 09:16 PM. Reason: Formating
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Arrow Scope of psychology

SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGY

Psychology is the scientific study of mental process, experiences and behavior. Scope of Psychology may be determined as:-

• The mental process or activities are studied in Psychology
• physical activities and emotional activities are studied in Psychology
• animal behavior is studied in Psychology
• physical structure and its activities are studied in Psychology
• various stages of individuals are studied in Psychology
• various level of consciousness are studied in Psychology
• individual differences are studied in Psychology
• heredity and environment are studied in Psychology
• external stimuli or object are studied in Psychology
• inborn and acquired motives are studied in Psychology
• abnormal behavior is studied in Psychology
• various type of literature are studied in Psychology
• learning and memorizing process are studied in Psychology
• folk behavior collective mind and social behavior are studied in Psychology
• individual origin and development of personality are studied in Psychology
• supernatural or super human behavior is studied in Psychology
• psychological principle of various aspects of applied life are studied in Psychology
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Last edited by MehtabHussain; Thursday, May 09, 2013 at 12:23 AM. Reason: Formating
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