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  #141  
Old Monday, November 25, 2013
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sadafnoorelahi View Post
@ green boy. kindly evaluate my abnormality question as well. additional viewpoints will be much appreciated
Hey Sadaf - yes please specify important topics for paper A and paper B? Looking forward
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  #142  
Old Monday, November 25, 2013
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Quote:
Originally Posted by greenboy View Post
popualr view or social view of abnormality

social norms ( distinguishing between right andwrong )

violation of social norms is the un written rule that are not acceptable to the social group . In this practice behavioral is incomprehensive and threaten to the social groip

for example in the eatern europe people stands close to the stranger , pitch , voice , and talks while in uk , this is abnormal .
According to definiation , the degree to which norm is violated and thea ssociation of the particular norms to the societuy.

Limitation ,this cocept is relative and change with the time ,as it i prctice currentlya cceptable to the peopel but later it may not be acceptable due to its change
example
in two century ago in europen society peole beat the chikd due to noise , violate of code , but now it is child abuse , so take into consider this concept

statistical frequency

in this teh trait , think ,behavior that is rare and unsual statistical . One thing that is regarded a intelligence . The personal that is mental retarded above and below teh optimized and average level of intelligence ,
in contratry , thsi is not true the person with the aveage iiq is regarded as intelligence in teh society ,
surely , thsi has limitatin and eth concept of desirability and undersablityis understand

example te left handed children is regarded as te abnormal , it is oposite to teh siciety and also rare ,but in truely , no body clasify it abnormal , so the comcept of abnormality is deviant and exception exsist.

Failure to function adequately

under thsi concept the persoanl is frequently unable to cope with the day to dya demand , thsi lead to eth failure of every day routines ,
sagleman classify following failure to function frequently

maaadptiveness (self danger)

un predictable , vividness

discofort to observer

violation of social norm and standard
thsi stil ahs limitation , teh behavioal is help ful as it is describe that the iobseesive compulsive individual with eth continue hand washing gives comfort

secondly , the individual with teh malaadtiveness ahs eth good practice
smolking
alcohloic activity
deviation from the set mental health

in society theset characteristices are part of the personality and psychology , but in few cases violation may occur

these are

recogzing about self

grwoth and development

about environment

reality of peception

independence and autonomy
but if the mastery of evnvironment is unable to acomplish , still individual set inthe environment nad adjust .
So it has also limitaion
dear it's psychological abnormality and focus will be only on the behaviours that need clinical intervention.so i think, intelligence and talking loudly may not be a part of it.(kindly someone else clarify this thing)

Quote:
Originally Posted by greenboy View Post
@ sadaf , as you observe fpsc has gone against the mill , the result and the paper of css-2013 is eye opening , therefore , i request from you , kindly , tell the topics specially with reference to psychology paper (incumbent ) .according to my view , paper and marking criteria wil tough , without mercy . Kindly , post teh questin te most predictable in exam.thanks.
Quote:
Originally Posted by anamalvi View Post
Hey Sadaf - yes please specify important topics for paper A and paper B? Looking forward
i would love to make a guess paper, but honestly i am very bad with guesses.i know naveed bhutto sir made good and intelligent guidelines of C.A,U.S HISTORY,journalism.

wish he could do it with psychology, but i don't know if it was ever his optional. i am just fcusing on last five years papers.but if someone gives you a guess of the papers.please share it.
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  #143  
Old Monday, November 25, 2013
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[QUOTE=sadafnoorelahi;674003][B]dear it's psychological abnormality and focus will be only on the behaviours that need clinical intervention.so i think, intelligence and talking loudly may not be a part of it.(kindly someone else clarify this thing)

dewar , from due repect , i and inclusive all diverge from your point of view , psychological abnormalit does not need clinical interview , conversely , it is psychological disoredr that requires intervention , consult the book of neil , psychology by passer , psychology by morgan , in these books no treatment mention regarding abnormality , also , rememberabnor,ality is restricted while disorder is broad concept.
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thx green boy for helping me differentiate between psychological abnormlity and psychological disorder. thanks again.
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  #145  
Old Wednesday, November 27, 2013
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sadafnoorelahi View Post
Q7 describe the role of biological and sociological factors in development of maladujustment and criminal behaviour and explain the treatment strategies.

“Violation of standard legal codes is known as criminal behaviour”

Introduction:

Every society has some legal codes, when individuals exhibit a behaviour which violates the legal standards of a society, it is called as a criminal behaviour. There are many biological and sociological factors associated with such a negative tendency.

Biological factors
a) Genetic factors: there is significant evidence to show that there is an association between genetic factors and criminal behaviour. Relevance of genetic factors with criminal offending and property theft was verified but there was no accepted evidence on relevance of the genetic factors with violent behaviour such as murder etc.

Experiments were conducted to show relevance of zygosity with criminal disposition. Experiment was carried out on 216 monozygotes and 214 dizygotes. It showed that 70% dizygotes exhibited such a negative tendency, whereas 33% of monozygotes showed miscreant attitude. In addition, it is also believed that individuals with chromosomal abnormality XYY are more likely to show negative behaviour.

b) Neurotransmitters: studies have been conducted to observe the effect of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrin and dopamine on criminal behaviour. Studies showed that there was a strong relevance of low serotonin with violent behaviour, moderate linkage of norepinephrin, and virtually no linkage of dopamine with the criminal approach.

Researchers also tried to determine the effect of cortisol and testosterone on the criminal activities of individuals. Criminologists observed that there was a relatively high level of testosterone found in prison inmates than the general public.

c) Injury: effect of injury on criminal behaviour has also been highlighted. It has been observed that if there is neurological disturbance, then it causes frustration which is often finds an outlet in the form of violent outbursts. Particularly, in this regard injury to prefrontal lobe due to accident, trauma, anoxia at childbirth, disease or toxin effect is significant. Prefrontal lobe is known to control negative feelings such as aggression, frustration, anger etc. with damage to the critical part, such inhibitions are unrestrained.


Sociological factors
The inability to act according to the established standard legal codes shows the deficiency in internalization process. Therefore, it is imperative to study the agents of socialization and other numerous factors leading to criminal offences

Agents of socialization
a) Family: perhaps, the most important factor which leads to the criminal tendency is the family system. often, loss of a parent, parental separation, negligence of parents leads to indulgence to criminal activities. apart from this, it is observed that if fathers perform illegal activities, they serve as criminal models for their children to follow their footsteps.

b) School : many psychologists observed that criminals are often lowly educated. They conducted studies on prisoners in jail and noticed that a majority had not attended school beyond secondary level. They performed such activities as burglaries, automobile lifting etc.


c) Peers: peers are an important agent of behaviour, particularly criminal behaviour. It is more often observed, that children leave their school mates for criminal fellows. They feel such an association would increase their “prestige” as they become members of gangs.


environmental factors
a) Macro factors

i) Socio-economic status
Often, people belonging to low socioeconomic status indulge in criminal activities. The inability to make both ends meet leads to criminal activities.

ii) Socio-economic stratum: this refers to the social standing, social respect, repute of the family in the neighbourhood and overall in the society.

iii) Upbringing environment: it may be interpreted as the family system but it actually refers to the environment in which one grows up. It may be family or orphanages or adopted parentage system. if a child grows up in a violent environment, he perceives it to be the only way to achieve his goals.


iv) Unemployment: studies conducted in recent times have shown a directly propotional relationship of criminal behaviour with unemployment.

v) Injustice: more criminal activities are observed in a society where timely, impartial and fair justice is absent.

vi) Transitional locality: criminologists observed that people living in localities that are a transition between urban and rural areas show more criminal and violent tendencies.


b) Microfactors

i) Drug and alcohol abuse: it is observed that the use of drugs and alcohol by the individuals often leads to criminal and violent activities such as sexual assault, murders etc

ii) Specific environmental factors: in addition to above mentioned factors other characteristics which are specific for the individual may also lead to illegal activities.

Treatment strategies

a) Medication: there has been much controversy over the use of medication for the treatment of criminals. Studies have not supported any positive impact of medicine on criminal activities. Still, there are psychologists who believe that conduct disorder, antisocial behaviour can be treated using medication. Criminal psychiatrists attempt to make new breakthroughs in this regard.

b) Psychological treatment: perhaps the most important part in the treatment of criminal behaviour is psychological treatment, psychologists hold the view that criminal activities to a large extent are a result of faulty psychological behaviour. Therefore, they attempt to rectify the behaviour through different psychological approaches.

Different paradigms have offered different treatment strategies, conceivably the most important being offered by cognitive and behavioural psychologists. Behaviourists believe that wrong learning leads to criminal behaviour. they stress upon the use of aversive techniques and conditioning to rectify the behaviour.

c) Miscellaneous treatments: in addition to above mentioned strategies, focus has been laid on a number of other techniques as well. In1907, probation was introduced in England. This technique stresses on “advice and befriend “ policy. In this technique the individual who has been placed under the supervision of the therapist is treated in a friendly manner instead of punitive ways. The purpose is to help the individual in amending his ways and contributing to the society in a positive way.

Critical analysis: criminal behaviour or maladaptive behaviour is a result of number of biological factors such as injury, disease, trauma, genetic factors and imabalance of neurotransmitters. Apart from this, sociological factors namely agents of socialization and macro and micro environmental factors also contribute to the maladjustment. Scientific research does not give much regard to the use of medication in this behaviour. Focus is instead laid on psychological treatment and probation.
well explicit and mentioned minute detail .

another tends to bring criminal is bodymorph

broadly , classifying body in to three morph

endo morp soft and fat

meso morph muscular and hard

ecto morph thin and fragile

characteristics

endo morph , affectionate , loving , well tempered , well being with others , tension free , happy and gourmand ,

meso morph . aggressive , risk taking , adventure , callous , indifference to pain and comfort , ruthless relationship with others

ecto morph , feared , reserved , with tension in some affairs , self conscious

among three , meso morph bow and inclined , indulge in criminal activity .
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  #146  
Old Saturday, December 14, 2013
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Why did American Psychiatric Association adopt multi-axial system of diagnosis in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)?

1) The DSM-IV-TR uses a five level diagnostic system to classify illnesses and disorders.
2). When considered together, these 5 levels give the treatment provider a complete diagnosis that includes factors influencing your psychiatric condition.
3)This is important for effective treatment planning.
4) an individual is evaluated in terms of several different domains of information that are assumed to be of high clinical value, was introduced in the United States in the mid-1970s.

is this the answer of this question? or something else also has to be mentioned. (apart from defining each axis )


What are the advantages of DSM classfication system of disorder.

Utility of DSM
• Clinical treatment
• Communication and research
• Ease in classification
• Educational tool

kindly, evaluate, criticise and suggest particularly green boy.
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